Skip to main content

Full text of "The high school German grammar [microform] : with appendices, exercises in composition and vocabularies"

See other formats




£/ ;^4^^ 


C <' 


fc ^^ 





i !r IS 



1.25 1.4 


-• 6" - 







> N>* 

"^ J^' 





WEBSTER. N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 






Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 



Technical and Bibliographic Notas/Notas tachniquas at bibliographiquas 

Tha Instituta has atiamptad to obtain tha baat 
original copy avaiiabia for filming. Faaturaa of this 
copy which may ba bibliographicaliy uniqua, 
which may altar any of tha imagaa in tha 
raprodiiction, or which may significantly ehcnga 
tha usual mathod of filming, ara chaokad batow. 


Colourad covars/ 
Couvartura da coulaur 

r~1 Covars damagad/ 


Couvartura andommagia 

Covars rastorad and/or laminatad/ 
Couvartura rastaurte at/ou palliculte 

I — I Covar titia missing/ 



La titra da couvartura manqua 

Colourad maps/ 

Cartes gAographiques fi couleur 

Coloured ink (i.e. other than blue or black)/ 
Encre de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) 

r~~1 Colourad plates and/or illustrations/ 


Planches et/ou illustrationa en couleur 

Bound with other material/ 
Reii* avec d'autras documents 

Tight binding may cause shadows or dictortion 
along interior margin/ 

La re liure serrie peut causer de I'ombre ou de la 
distorsion l« long da la marge intirieure 

Blank leaves added during restoration may 
appear within tha text. Whenever possible, these 
have been omitted from filming/ 
II se peut que certainaa pagea blanehea ajoutiaa 
lore d'une restauration apparaissent dans la texte, 
mais, iorsque cela Atait possibie, cea pages n'ont 
pas iti filmias. 

Additional comments:/ 
Commentairas supplAmantaires; 

L'Institut a rr.icrofiim* la meilleur axamplaire 
qu'il lui a iti possible de se procurer. Lss ditaits 
de cet exemplaire qui sont uniques du 
point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier 
une image reproduite, ou qui peuvent exiger una 
modification dans la mithode normaia de filmage 
sont indiqute ci-deskous. 

The I 
to th 

r~n Coloured peges/ 


Pagee de couleur 

Pagea damaged/ 
Pagea endommagtes 

Pages restored and/oi 

Pages restauries «t/ou pelliculies 

Pages discoloured, stained or foxe< 
Pages dicolories, tacheties ou piquAes 

Pages detached/ 
Pages ditachies 


Quality of prir 

QualitA Inigale de I'impression 

Includes supplementary matarii 
Comprend du ma'iiriti suppl^mentaire 

Only edition available/ 
Seule Edition disponible 

r — I Pagea damaged/ 

I I Pages restored and/or laminated/ 

rri Pages discoloured, stained or foxed/ 

I I Pages detached/ 

r~7] Showthrough/ 

I j Quality of print varies/ 

r~~| Includes supplementary material/ 

r~| Only edition available/ 

of til 

the I 
or ill 



Pages wholly or partially obscured by et-rata 
slips, tissues, etc., have been ref limed to 
ensure the best poiisibie image/ 
Les pages totalemant ou partieilement 
obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, 
etc., ont it^ fiimies A nouveau de fa^on d 
obtenir la meilieure image possible. 

This item i« filmed at the reduction ratio checked belovi^/ 

Ce document est filmA au tat.x de reduction indiqui ci-dessous. 

10X 14X 18X 7r*X 











The copy filmed here has been reproduced thanks 
to the generosity of: 

National Library of Canada 

L'aocemplaire filiTi6 fut reproduit grAce A la 
g6n6rosit6 de: 

Biblloth^que nationale du Canada 

The images appearing here are the best quality 
possible considering the condition and legib'Mty 
of the original copy and in keeping with the 
filming contract specifications. 

Les images suivantes ont 6t6 reproduites av^c le 
plus grand soin, compte tenu de la condition et 
de ta netteti de •'exempiaire filmi, et en 
conformity avec les conditions du contrat de 

Original copies in printed paper covers are filmed 
beginning with the front cover and ending on 
the last page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion, or the back cover when appropriate. All 
other original copies are filmed beginning on the 
first page w>ch a printed or illustra;:ed impres- 
sion, and ending on the last page with a printed 
or illustrated impression. 

Les exemplaires originaux dont la couverture en 
papier est imprimAe sont film^s en commenpant 
par le premier plat et en terminant soit par la 
dernidre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration, soit par \<3 second 
plat, selon le cas. Tous les autres exemplaires 
originaux sont fllm^s en commenqant par ia 
premidre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'impression ou d'illustration et en terminant par 
la dernidre page qui comporte une telle 

The last recorded frame on each microfiche 
shall contain the symbol -'^> (meaning "CON- 
TINUED "), or the symbol V (meaning "END"), 
whichever applies. 

Un des symboles suivants apparaftra sur ia 
dernidre image de cheque microfiche, selon ie 
cas: ie symbole — ► signifie "A SUIVRE", ie 
symbole V signifie 'FIN". 

Maps, plates, charts, etc., may be filmed at 
different reduction ratios. Those too large to be 
entirely included in one exposure are filmed 
beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to 
right and top to bottom, as many frames as 
required. The following diagrr^Yis illustrate the 

Les cartes, planches, tableaux, etc., peuvent dtre 
film^s d des taux de reduction diff^rents. 
Lorsque le document est trap grand pour fitre 
reprjduit en un seui cliche, 11 est film6 d partir 
de Tangle supirieur gauche, de gauche d droite, 
et de haut en bas, en prenant le nombre 
d'images n^cessaire. Les diagrammes suivants 
illustrent la mSthode. 

1 2 3 









National Library Bibliotheque nationale 
of Canada du Canada 



German Grammar 




Lecturer on German, Universitv College. Toronto. 


- W. H. ERASER, B. A. 

Lecturer on It.u.n .n. Sp.n.h. UN.vERsn-v Colleoe. Toronto; l.te French 
AND German Master, Upper Canada College. 

Authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. 




Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousar.d ei^ht 
hunted and eighty-eight, by Thk Copp, Company. Lmitkd. 1„ the fflce o 
the Minister of Agriculture. 

printtsd bt 
Thb Copp, Clark Compaw, Lt». 





In presenting this Grammar to the Public fh. . ,.k 

be overburdened n'^H ^ .! '^'"""' "'^>' "<" « 'he outset 

toodffiturr^lTufe Ct^^^^^^^ 
as for instance the declension „f '"P^"''"" '""'J^"' 

before bein. dis mlsed T "'''''"■"'™^' '^ '""7 '^^ated 

tmtion of e^ch ruTe "°" '^"^"'"^^ "« ^^^ '" "'"- 

I" the Exercises, especial care has been taken th^f n„ 

pt: Tot t!;r t r™"^^ T'^' '" -'^^- - -^^^ 

Iess;ns ' " -'-espondm. lesson, but also of pa.t 

' shor s-s ::tp"; :l\~' '^ ^^-^^^ - -" 

|es..^_ These or. exerc-s^Ct::— ruVt 

sons should ],e omitted by the el -m^L ,' '^'■ 

-ot in an, case be taken 4 ^^^::Zi!^'' '"' ^'°"" 

duditrpriv^Jv'oiiT'tr'"'"' '"^ '"'^•^"'^^' ">= -^^ (-- 
oositioL,rsd piiSt :lt:"7''' ''^''™'='p^'p^^^^^ 

-h the fundaJenta. pri::i;ts'": X^ X' ^ th" of Lesson XXII, the pupi, ^^b/ 4"'e,Ti ^^ 




for reading easy German texts. The Modal Auxiliaries, how- 
ever, could not be introduced in their proper connection until 
the strong verbs had been disposed o(, and where they occur 
in reading texts must be treated as anomalous forms until Lesson 
XXXIII is reached. 

Special care has been taken to call attention to and explain 
those points in which German differs from English usage, 
particularly with regard to the prepositions and their puzzling 
idioms, the use of participles and the construction of participial 
clauses, the order of words and construction of sentences. 
The Historical Sketch in Lesson LI I does not claim to be 
more than rudimentary, and such terms only are employed in 
explaining phonetic laws, as are likely to be familiar to junior 

In the Vocabulary, only such meanings of words are given 
as occur in the exercises ; for the principal parts of strong and 
irregular verbs the pupil is referred to the proper section of the 
Grammar. Similar references are given under the prepositions 
and pronouns. 

The Index has been made as full as possible, and it is hoped 
that it will be of no little assistance to both teacher and pupil. 

In writing this Grammar, the authors have freely consulted, 
among others, the grammars of Heyse, Whitney and Brandt, 
Vernaleken's "Deutsche Syntax," and the various works of 
Sanders, especially his great " Dictionary," his " Sprachbriefe," 
and his "Satzbau und Wortfolge der deutschen Sprache." 
For some of the examples in Lesson XLIX, as well as the sen- 
tences in Exercise G, the authors are indebted to Buchheim's 
''German Prose Composition." 
University College, 
Toronto, May, 1888. 



Preface ...... 

Introduction. — Alphabet ..'**' 

Examples of Pronunciation 

General Remarks on Pronunciation . 

Quantity of Vowels .... 



German Script 













Present Indicative of ^o6cn, to have . 
Use of Cases. — Definite Article 
liefer Model. — Imperf. Indie, of (joaf It, to 

mm Model. - Indef. Article. - Present and 
Imperf. Indie, of ffin, to be ... 

Declension of Substantives : — gWalCt Model, 
or -I, -m, 11, -r Stems • . . '. 

Present and Imperfect of tBertfll, to become. 

— Construction of Principal Sentences 
Declension of Substantives: — i3oI)l| Model. 

— Question Order 

Conjugation of rjoBftf, to have. — Place of 

Participle and Infinitive .... 

Weak Conjugation : IfllJeil. - Dependent Sen- 
tences—Prepositions with Accusative only 

Weak Verbs (continued). — Declension of 
Substantives : - ^otf Model, or Plural in -ft 



















19, 20 

21 23 




























Personal Pronouns .... 
, Possessive Adjectives. Use of Artici»is .. 
Construction of Sentences : — Place of Ob- 
jects, Adverbs, etc. - Prepositions with Da- 
tive only 

Additional Remarks on Pe'-sonai I'ronouns 

and Prepositions 

Conjugation of ff|n, to be. Declension of 
Substantives : Weak or n Stems: j^nabf 


Mixed Declension. - Double Plurals. - Pre 

positions governing Dative or Accusative 
Anomalies of Declension 
Declension of Substantives: Recapitulation 
— Proper Names. — Prepositions with Gen 


Proper Names. - J'oreign Substantives . 
Gender of Substantives. — Interrogative Pro 
nouns and Adjectives. — Indirect State 
nients and Questions .... 

Gender of Substantives (concluded). - - Gen 

eral Rei'iarks. - Double Gender 
Relative Pronouns. — Irregular Weak Verbs 
Declension of Attributive Adjectives; Strong 

Form. - Conjugation of Strong Verbs 
Passive Voice ... ... 

Declension of Adjectives : Weak and Mixed 

— Strong Verbs : bcifteu Model . 
Possessive Pronouns.-- Strong Verbs: Hciften 


Declension of Adjectives (concluded) : Table, 
General Remarks. — Strong Verbs: fdjtC^Cn 

and fccdtfll Models 

Comparison of Adjectives. — Strong Verbs : 

friercn Model 

Demonstrative Pronouns. — Strong Verbs : 
finflCJi Model 

Indefinite Pronouns. — Strong Verbs: fpin= 
nctl and ^clfcn Models .... 

On Certain Adjectives and Pronouns . 


52. 38-42 

5«- 43. 44 

64. 45, 46 

70. 47 St 

72. 52-59 



60 65 
66 69 















119. 120 






132 144 



160 162 

















Numerals : — Cardinals and Ordinals, — 
Strong Verbs: f)irfll|ftl Model 

Indefinite Numerals.— Strong Verbs: effrii 
Model . . . 

Derivative 1,'umerals. — Time, Measure, 
Date. - Strong Verbs : f|f)lagf 11 Model . 

Adverbs. -Strong Verbs: faacn Model 

Adverbs (continued): Formation and Com- 
parison. — Table of Strong Verbs and 
General Remarks on the same 

Adverbs (continued) : Idioms. Irregular 



Strong Verbs 
Modal Auxiliaries 

Modal Auxiliaries (continued): Idiom 
Compound Verbs 
On Certain Prefixes 
Reflexive and Impersonal Verbs . 
Prepositions governing the Genitive 
Prepositions (continued) : -- Idioms 
Conjunctions. — Interjections 
Conjunctions. —Additional Remarks 













Syncax of the Cases. - Nominative and 

Syntax of the Cases. Dative and Accusa- 

Indicative Mood : Syntax of its Tenses 

Sul)junctive and Conditional Moods 

Imperative and Infinitive Moods. 

Infinitive Mood (continued) 

The Participles . . . . ,, 

Concord and Apposition 

Apposition (continued): Appositive Ad 

jectives. —Syntax of the Preposition 
Word-Order . 

4 • • , 

Complex Sentences ^-Clause-Order . 

i8o. 163-16 

1S9. 168-18 

iy6. i82-i8< 

204. 1S7, I St 

210. 1S9-19/ 

217. 195, i9( 

225. !97-j9<; 

233. 20O-2Or 

-39- 203-208 

246. 209-21'? 

249- 214 22c 

257. 221-23^ 

264. -25-23^ 

-73- 235-24C 

282. 241 



. 291. 


• -99- 


• 304- 


• 311- 




• 3'-S- 


■ 334- 



• 341. 

290, 291 

. 34S. 


• 3^- 



CON 1 EM'S. 



""•^'' PAGE §S 

LI. Word-Formation : Derivation and Composition 364. 307-321 
UI. Historical Sketch of the Language, Grimm's Law, 

374 322-326 



A. Substantives of 2/hlcr Model with Umlaut 

B. Masculine Monosyllables of .'piinb Model 

C. Feminines of (2ol)n Model . 
Z>. Irregular Foreign Substantives . 
£. Neuter Monosyllables vof Jpimb Model 
/^. Weak Masculines not ending in -e 
G. Substantives of Mixed t)eclension 
G* Double Plurals with Different Meaning 
/^. Plurals of Abstract Substantives . 
/. Exceptions to the Rules on Gender 
/. Double Genders .... 
at: Monosyllabic Adjectives without Umlaut in 

parison . . 

L. Strong Verbs net given in the Lists 


Exercises in Composition 


j Germ an- English 
( English- 

381. I^ 

381. 22 

382. 22 
382. 22 
382. 2X , 

3^3- 5; 

383- 6i 

384. 64 

384. 66 

385. 80,89,90 











(FoK Rbfbrrnck ohlv.) 













91 a 

3) b 

« c 

5 f 
@ 9 










like a in G/ther; neier as in 
L</11, hat, c./re. 

as in En^r., except at end of 
vyord or syll., when pron. 

before n, e, i, and l;, like ts ; 
otherwise like /'/ in words 
from French, before e and i 
like ss. ' 

as in Eng., except at end of word 
or s>ll., when pron. like /. 

long, like a in g^-me; .short, 
like e in p^-n; when final or 
in unaccented prehxes, like 
short a m Louisa. 

as in English. 

always hard, before all vowels 
and before 1, m, n, v, like^- 
in ^ive; at end of words and 
sylls., or before otner con- 
sonants, like Germ, d- m 
words from French, before c 
and i, like s in pleasure. 

Observe the dif . 
ference between 

% and U. 

53 and %'^ 
h, h, \) and 

6 and (S; 
c and e. 

D and 0. 

G and 6; 
e and c. 

f and f. 
& and i^ 


laracters. i Name. 



3 i 

3 i 




f k 


8 J ell 
?i{ m ^w 
51 It .^/z 

^ |1 I Mr 


tR r I ^7v 

<S f $ ! i^.rr 

always aspirated befo- 3 voweis, 
as in //at; sHent before con- 
sonants, after t, betA^een 
vowels, and when final. 

long, like e in he; short, like / 
in sk/n. 

like y in ^et ; In words from . 
French, like s in pleanire. 

Observe the dif- 
ference between 

h, I), i) and 

as in English. 

9i and m. 

m and n?. 
9? and ?fi. 

like Eng. rwith strong guttural 
roll ; formed by making the 
tongue convex^ and check- 
ing the breath by gently 
pressing the middle of the 
tongue against the roof of 
the mouth. 

before vowels, like 2 in .^one, 
or s in daiJ-y ; before conson- 
ants, and when final, like s in 
ye-f/ but see fc^, ft, fp, below. 
y IS used at the end of words, 
otherwise f. 

?)i and ^: 
r and j. 

f and f. 




Z i 
U u 

8 a 








as in Eng. ; t^ also like /,• ti in 
foreign words, preceding an- 
other vowel, like ise, 

long, like ^^in hooV, short, like 
00 in ioo\.. 

like Eng./in Germ, words; in 
foreign words, like Eng. v. 

like Eng. v, except after fc^ and 
%, when pron. like Eng. w. 

like ks, even when initial. 

like the Germ, vowel i • or 
like tt. * 

like t$. 

Observe the dit- 
ference between 

U and ST. 

% and ^; 
»/ b/ i ^. 

J and r. 



6 (Oc) ii 

U(Uc) ii 


like the (^,erm. vowel e. (The forms 9(e etc 
graph;i)""'' '^ '^'^^ ^^"' ^" '"°^-" -'^-- 

'^bu[ itth hJ" '"""'f'f ' """^^y ^^'^^ French .,., 
but with hps rounded and nearly closed. 

nearly like French u; there is no corresponding, 
sound m Eng. Pronounced with lips ounded 
^nd pointed, as for whistling. '^ounaed 







like long a (a in f^rm). 



" " e (a " c^re). 



" " (never like Eng. oo). 



m at 

m ri 

?(u au 

*tt(«cu) au 
Oftt cu 


like / in f/re. 
like ou in h(7«r. 

like oy in j^rj/. 

like /V in b'Ad (not found at the beginning of 
words); in the unaccented syls. of foreign 
words, i and e are pronounced separately. 





after a, o, u, au, like cA in Scotch locA ,- 
softer after d, e, i, ij, u, au, eu ; it does 
not occur at the beginning, except in for- 
eign words, where it is pronounced like /^ 
before a, o, u, and like final d) before e, i. 
In B>ench words it has the sound of sA, 
as m French; c^.§' when in one syll. =- x. 







like Eng. r/C-,- when divided between two 
lines, IS written f-f ; not found at begin- 
ning. * 

pronounce both p and f distinctly. 

as in Eng. ; in foreign words only. 

like s/i in Eng. ; but when the g is in a 
distinct syll., pron. separately. 

like soft s/i/> in Eng. at the beginning; other- 
wise like sp. 

like soft s/i^ in Eng. at the beginning; other- 
wise like sf. 

like ss- f5 replaces [f after long vowels in the 
middle of a word, and always when final 
Hence ^Juf^ (long u), gen. guje^; hut^clnh 
(short u), gen. ^-(uffeg; and bei^en, bi§, ae. 
mifen. Diphthongs are always followed by 
^. Not found at the beginning. 

like fs. It stands for 33. Not found at the 



Simple Vowels. 
« long., ear, 6.U„,„; short ..f„U,W„„„,S„„„ 

in formative svlls foil h^r ^ ^ 

of „cr,a,„c„, „„■„,.,, «,,„,4 £;,;;,; ;;«-^y". 

O ong.. Ja„ r„o,„ ^„(,„. ^^^^^^ ^^___^ 

«ong:^„,b„,«„u,; short: 3:«,,tte, bum., „;«• 
?) long: ^^„am% %.^'r, short: 3)it,rte, ®,jfte'm 

Double Vowels (all long). 

««:§.«, «„(,etaat. I gc:mcc,I«r,S,et. 

On : Soot, 2Koo«, Sm. 

MoDiFrED Vowels (Umlauts). 
«|ong: aiir,f«,„c,^rS„cn; short: ^iitte, fi3m,„e, fja, 
O ong: 0(,J.„e,etrlime; short: (iinnte, ®iit,e iffnen 
U^ong:PtU«r,ftM; short: §iitte,faac„,4„ 


^i : 2«ot, i)oln, d)hin. 
®i : mcin, ^citcr, hkihin. 

-*« • v«*«*v, AOuMuit^ tauten. 

Diphthongs (all long). 

^n: ^cute, ncM, ?eutc. 
3c : bre, ^icr, ticf (in somr 
foreign words, pron 


wiMHHwiMaMiiMn,. . „ 


Simple Consonants. 

^^^^H"/') ah,&xah,oh. 

c soft (== /j) g^^^j^ (Teremonie, aicero. 

^^^''^n^o diah,m,m. 

<. (« ^// m French words) . (SJeuie, ©age, ^age. 
6 mute 1 ^^^t' ^'*'' ^^"^^'^ ^"^^^^"' 

( diatiil mum, 

( (= ^// in French words) . . ^aroufie, ^ournat. 

r ' • 1^*^^^/ murrcn, ^aar, etern, 

. . ^ ®rbe, ^rebiger. 

f initial and medial (== s in 

^ ,. '^.''''^^ '^^"'^e. i-iefer, Sattel, -pdufer. 

g f nal (= . in ye.) .... ^,,g^ ^.^^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

i m foreign words before i 

^'"'^^ nationaf, ^Patient. 

j,,inGerm.words(=/). . t,on, «ater, ^Better. 

in^foreign words(= z.) . . 9?ouem6er, biuibieren, 3rbt.o!at. 

( (after fc^ and 3 = Eng. ...) . @cblt.efter, fc^n^er, atnei, ^luerf. 

Ximtial(=^.) i-eryc^, ^eno^^on. 

'''■)••. 3ierbe, ju, atran^ig, gorn. 

r^n^ltr .tw :!/r-f ^- ^- th^r equivalents 



Consonantal Digraphs and Trigraphs 
initial (= ^) „,, 

(-4' guttural) . . gj^i,,.,g^ gjj^^.^,^ 
* j "medial and final (guttural) | ^'^t Sor^ee, ^ot^, Su^ 33re,^ 
I in French worH. , - ... ./^!*'^' ''^\ ^''^''' '^^^^'' 


in French words {=. s/i) . 
(in same syll. = x) 

W (= sh) 

p initial (= s/ii softened) . 
f^ initial (= s/ip softened) . 
ff (preceding vowel short) . 

G^arlatan, (f^icane. 
2)a(^^, Dr^g, £at^g, STi^fe. 
^ferb, ♦pfennig, p^feix. 
®(^af, Sr^nee, (gj^iff; but 

pron. g separately when 

it belongs to a different 

syll.,as:i)auo--d)en, ©an^= 

SKinb, fic^en, Sfengel, (5tu6e. 
I>uren, (i^ruc^e, (S|iorn. 
maffcn, fiiffcn, raffen, 2J?effe. 


final (preced,„g vowe, ,o„g) 5«„ij, g„^, j^„^ fe^. fVuge.). 

final (preceding vowel short) -J S'"'' fe^"- Saffes), Mog (gen 

< 3Joffe.S),3Iu§(gen.3^Iuf[j8). 


.he'vl!:, "r;;::":" f .^ '=°""' ^"^ ""-^ pronunciation of 
especiallv .h't f „ ""P°"'"' P°'"* '" •>« attended to- 


from the teacher. ^ "' "'""'' """^t ''^ '«^™e«> 


I fen. 

^tff; but 
jJy when 

Ltion of 
led to J 

i shade 

k after 


<f^>r, or 


3. The only difficult consonant-sounds are: 
r, with strong guttural roll. 
fc initial, and medial before vowels, which is like s in 

daijy, or z in ^one. 
S final = ss in English. 

1^ (and g final), which must be learned from the 

^.tJ^^ P'-<'"""ciation of the following consonants, though 
-^t difficult, dwfers from the English pronunciation : 
b final =J>. 

c before d, e, t = fs. 
h final = t. 

g never like ^ in ^«-esture. 
g final see above. 

I = 7 m j-et. 

^ ==/in Germ, words. 

in == z', except after f d; and *. 

3 = /«f. 


5. There are no silent letters in German, except h before 
onsonants after t (see below), and between vowels" thus e 

m (Snake, Jtnabc must be heard. 

Long: Double vowels and diphthongs are always Ion? 
Simple vowels are long before a single consonant, b fore^" 

r "bXrndt^rV ' "^" ""' """" '' ' ~- ' 

the vowel short before a single consonant. ^ '' '""'^ 

nofeThli ?""t '°"°"''^ ''^ " """■'^'^ ^o"^""^"' (b«t see 

svl !ll° ' '", ""'"''• ^"' »"''™='tive and terminal 
be t f^ ' "''^ -""^^ ™*^'^ "'^f-^ "*' -nd all vowels 



•mooo -J „rtf,, -beside.'; Cm-I "rui,-- °V. ^'"f''!^''^! ^""X. 
'I'aufi, 'pone'- (Bf„h .1, i .' "' ""' ' ^•'"■"' 'Easter'; 

.-Ho.i.,4 j^;-^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

vowe>. accolding . Ije '^a^ll'^f;!'; rl"""'' "'"'»"'' =" "'* '-« 


3- The vowel „ is always ulg bX" " "" "™"^' ^'"'"• 

Exercise in- Quantitv of Vowels. 

(Accent on (l„t ,yll. „( di„y;i,., 

Stalt, @taat «,„ «crt raiif ' <f . " 5 -'« ' ';""""' ®"""' ®«'t^' 
««mme, «„«! " ' ^"^'' ^'"^'^ 'l^""- !>'»', fl«, ^eer, 


The principal accent is on the ra^Ua/syU. i„ simole Germ 
words, wliether primitive or derived '^ 

.erf- :Z.™" '■ ■'*^'-'"- ■" -" "-e .he principal accent „„ the 

# ■. 



nt on the 

3ut one: 

of form 
it, when 
I -ie are 

a. se|>a 

u.!^r- '"'' '''-' '-'- ^-^^^^--' ^-"-^- sy„s.are always 
2. In compound substantives, adjectives and verbs, the first component 
generally has the principal accent; in other con.poun Is (prepositions ad 
. conjunctions, etc.). generally the last conlponent ^P"^""^""^' ^^■ 

flc-f Jr '/er-""' '"'"' "' ""'" """^^'= ^''^ ""' ^"'^- ^«^-' 

Exercises in Accentuation. 

1. Simple words: Dh'lniiiimg, tiljrlidjfcit, (?)>(, J^infterniS autia fbnr 

I:;;; s:r ''' ^""^' '^^^^^"'"' ^^^"''^' ^^^^'^^^^SS itj?::: 

2. Compound words: %nmns, aiifflttjcil, Srimcublid tntofdfii «„t 

„ ^; ^r''^"- ®"'*"'"'' 'f'™'''fl''>^' ?rofeffovn., lUflobif, Samitir ^„f(n, 

religiot% ajJoinimcnt, nioiutmnttaf. / "i"Mu;ieieii, 


capt! irL'^'"^^^- ''-' ^"^°^^^"^^ --^^'^ - -^"- with 

i_. Words beginning a paragraph or sentence (after a 
period), and the first word of each line in poetry. 

2. All substantives and words used as such, as: ber 2Betfe 
the wise man ' ; ba^ Stcrbcn, ' dying,' etc. ' ' 

Note. -Substantives used as adverbs are not written wifh r.n'. i 
as: movflciKS, al)eitbi\ wnttei. ^M^h capitals, 

4- Ordinal numeral;, and pronouns in tlfl^-. - . . . , 

^« <^.o|e, .K.ede.c. the .L.^IJ/^J-^.S 



the Fifth'; 3hrc 'Her Majesty'; Seine ^urA 
laudit,* His Serene Highness.' "^^^ 


f, -S, rit^r^r ^ " '"^ ^^^-"™ "^ -^'^-'»^' 

I. in derivative sylls. ; .fUmifltum, IhmiiXm, etc. 

^. after ( medial and final : ^m, Slat, tot, lucrj, etc. 

3. before <i,pl,t],ong.s .• Jior, (o„or. X,\l, etc. 

4. before short vowels : Jurm etc 

the ^„. senior ....or, edition, tt ,e«, L";'-.:.^!:;,',;; -;',:;; 

I. The use of Italics being unknown in Gennan print an 
emp as„ed word is printed with larger spaces between'th 
letters, as: ,* {,„[,c m,r eincn So^„, <i have but .«. son ' 

plur'. StV'™'''" ™''''' "'™'' '"'' ^"''='"'' '''^"^'^^ «5»'"' 

3. The modified ,„wels as capitals are always written « 
C, U, not (as formerly) %c, Oe, lie. ■ 


^er written 
capital, to 



neet with 

r, ami in 


rint, an 
2en the 
le son.' 
























^^^ ^: 







/^ .x^r^^yj- 

^ ^///> ^^ 




/'-^.^v>;^ /^-y>'^^ 



Observe carefully the Difference between i 




• and *\ ^ fcnd ^y ^ and ^^ ^ and^^. 




>^-C>... ."rL.^ y^j^ ,:^; P y- 9 

/-yy- .. ^;.-. ^^.^„ .jr..^.;,f 



-»•*' -»^-^ r« >»•-/» r 

/' /o'' <-^ (2^ 

^ ^^ r^ n*- 

'^..- ^^'... .X;.^.r^ C^'^.. .^ . ^^^;^. / 

6. '-if?^;. 


* Ti 

wuht^rofEriv?;:''' "^ ""''""" "' '"' ""■ ""••^^^ ■"-"=•' 



-^•»--r-«-»-«. .»£_ 



'■*--K^ •»-*-1 

'<J^*^.^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

Remarks. I. Observe the ...../..//, of the small letters, 
each other^" "^'""" " "'^^' ^^^ ^^"^^ - j-ned to 

3. The strokes connecting the different letters should be 

sTmt :r '?h"'- ^^ ^^""^"^"^ ^'^ ^^^^-^^ P-- "^th 

same letter. This is particularly necessary where several 
^/ s or,^/^^^'s follow, each other. 

4. Never omit the hook over^^^, which alone distin- 
guishes It from ^/^/. 

5- The most difficult letters to make neatly are 


V ^ ^ ^^^ 


' ■ I 




Present Indicative: of Joien, to have. 

Sing, id) Babe, I have 
bu :;aft thou hast 
er ^ai, he has 
fic ^at, she has 
eg \:}CLi, it has 

P!ur. hjir ^rbctt, we have 
'^\c 'ifaU, ye have 
fic ^abcit, they have 

^at)t ic^, have I ? 
Inft bu, hast thou 
^at er, has he 
l^at fie, has she 
l^at eg, has it 
^aben iuir, have we 
l^abt i^r, have ye 
l^aben fie, have they 

2. Rule i. The verb agrees with its subject in number 
^nd^person, as : x6) ^abc, I have; er ^at he has ; fie ^abcn, they 

2 Words used in a pariitive sense, i. e., indicating only a 
par^ not the whole, of anything, have no article before them 
in German, and the English some or any remains untrans- 
lated, as: 

Has he {any) bread ? I have {some) gold. 

. 5at er ©rot? ^c^ ^abe ©olb. 


bread, JBrot o^; ' silver, ©ilber ■ 

meat, ^(ctfc^ " water, 3Baffer,v. 

gold, ©olb- wine, SSein ^ " 

flour, 3Kebrr. and, unb ^ 

also, aud^ 
what, hjag? 
but, abcr 

milk, imi 

'iv ■•>, or, ooey 

yes, |a 
no, nein 
not, nid^t 






5 2" fie sir " ^-'tl 1- ''""' "''' f'^ ^'•^^» S 

7. ®t ^at ®nffct, n6et id^ i,abe aSei,,, ^ "• 

brefd ''s^h! """.k""^ '''""''■ ^- ^°' "'W ^he has some 

w^e hlh^' / ^' *ater. and wine? 6. He has onlv 
nr^ea. """• '^ ' ""^ ™"^ ^"^ «°-. i'"' I have 

(Th= „„„„. «,„ .„,,,, ,^, ,„„„ ,^ ^^^ ^__^^^.^^^ ^^_^ ^^^ 

4. WaThlt :;;;•' ^- was habe„ wi.? 3. Was haben sie ? 



Gefma^T °! '^' Cases. - Every declinable word in 

vjerman ha.s two nunihpr« fK^ c- 7 , 

and in earh nn.-!i '"^^''' ^^^ Smgu/ar and the /'//.r^/, 

subjective and answers the question w/w? or wAatt as • 
W-A^ (or «,/«/) ,s there ? The boy (the booI<). 

Oblctivf S'7"T°'"'' '° "" ^"8''»'^ l'»-ssive, or 
-W or,;!:^;:' '—^'o '^equesaon ./.„; ./ 
bool< of the boy "^-''book? The boy^s book, .he 

The />a/«v corresponds to the Indirect Object in Enrfi.h 

Sriorr r"™ '" """""■ '-■^^ "*^ '- "'' 

ooy (dat.) the book, he gives it to the boy (dat.). 



^ The Accusative corresponds to the Direct Object in Eng 
lish, and answers the question whom ? or what ? as : IVhon 
{what) do you see? I see the man (the house). 

4. Declension of the Definite Article. 


Norn, ber 
Gen. be§ 
Dat. bem ** 
Ace. ben 








bie, the 
ber, of the 
ben, (to, for) the 
bie, the 

6. Rule i. The Definite Article, like every determinative 
word, agrees with its substantive in Gender, Number and 
Case, as: ber D^ann, 'the man' (masc); bic ^rau,' 'the 
woman (fern.) ; bO0 i^inb, ' the child ' (neuter). 

2. Articles and other determinative words should be re- 
peated before each substantive in the singular, as : 5Der 
3«ann unb bie ^rau ; ber Server unb ber ©c^uler. 


(N. B. Always learn the definite article with each German substantive.) 

dog, ber §unb 
boy, ber ^mhi 
teacher, ber Sebrer 
teachers, bie Sebver 
scholar, pupil, bcr Sd)uler 
scholars, pupils, bie ®c^uler 
stick, bei- Stpcf 
mother, bie 9)hitter 
pen, feather, bie g=eber 

flower, bie Slume 
horse, bn§ ^ferb 
book, bag 33uc^ 
girl, bag 5)iab*en 
girls, bic gjt'abc^en 
knife, bag 9J?effer 
knives, bic 9}ief[er 
who, lucr? 
only, nur 


being' „:^;;:::,r ™'"'"' '" *' '*«"* >"■"-- -^ »" v„cnb,„aH.., 







A 1 §at fie bag 33uc^ ober bic ^eber ? 2. Bit ^abcr ba« 
^uc^, aber fie ^at bie ^eber. 3. 3)er Secret ^at bie 9Jie[fer ber 
©c|)uler. 4. SDem Secret ber 9J?abc^en. 5. ^ie Sc^uter ^a6en 

^? A"" '«. f ^'' ^"^'" "^^^ ^"^ ^^^^^' 6- ^^ ^«&e ben 
6torf, bag Su4> unb bie ^eber ; aber ber ^nabe \)ai nur bag §8uc6 
unb bie ^eber. ' ^ 

^. 1. Have we not the book of the mother? 2 We have 
the book of the mother. 3. Have the pupils the dog and the 
horse, or have they only the horse ? 4. They have the horse 
but they have not the dog. 5. Has the mother of the girls 
the flower ? 6. She has not the flower, but she has the book 
of the girls, and they have the pen. 7. To the mother and 
to the teacher. 


1. Was hat der Hund.? 2. Wer hat den Hund? 3 Wer 
hatSchuler? 4. Was haben die Lehrer? 5. Was hat das 
Madchen? 6. Hat er den Stock? 

r i 

2)iefcr model. -imperfect indicative of ^o6cn, to have. 
6. Declension of bicfer, this, that. 


Nom. biefcr 
Gen. biefcg 
Dat. biefcm 
Ace. biefcn 


btefc bicfcg, this biefc, these 

biefcr btefcg, of this biefcr, of these 

biefcr biefcm, (to, for) this biefcn, (to, for) these 

bicfc biefcg, this biefc, these 

In the same way decline jener, that; jeber, every; 

ItJcId&et, which ? t ^ y, 




Remark. — The accusative of declinable words differs 
in form from the nominative in the masculine singular only. 

7. Imperfect Indicative of ^atcn, to have. 

Sing. \^ j^attc, I had 

bu ^attpfl, thou hadst 
er ^attc, he had 
fie l()atte, she had 
eg \j0^ii%, it had 

Plur. n)iv flatten, we had 
if)r ^attct, ye had 
fie \jOXXl\\, they had 

\jOAiz ic^, had I ? 
^atteft bu, hadst thou 
^oMt er, had he 
^atte fie, had she 
^atte eg, had it 
\l0Xi^XK h)ir, had we 
^attet tf)r, had ye 
fatten fie, had they 

brother, bcr 33ruber 
garden, ber ^^xi^Xi 
gardens, bic ©iirten 
bone, ber ^noc^en 
bones, bie ^nod^en 
reader, ber Sefer 
readers, bie Sefer 
man, ber 5Jiann 
son, ber (2o^n 
father, ber SSater 




1. ^c^ I)atte biefe ^eitung. 2. 

woman, bte %xo.\x 
sister, bie 6c^tt)efter 
daughter, bie ^oc^ter 
daughters, bie ^od;ter 
newspaper, bie 3eitung 
house, bag ^OiVA 
two, 510 ei 
three, brei 
four, t)ier 

fi I. 

2)iefer §unb '^o^Wt ^noc^en. 

3. 3)iefer ^^\|X^x ^at bier ed;iiler, aber jener Secret Ijat mir 
brei. 4. 2)er ^ruber biefer grau \,oAi^ jeneg ^au§, unb er ^atte 
mid) jene ®arten. 5. ^ebeg Sitd; f)at Sefer. 6. aBelc^eg S3uc^ 
fatten biefe 9}labd;en ? 7. ^er ©cbit^efter unb bem 33ruber. 

B. 1. Which newspaper had the father of these girls? 
2. The dog had these bones, but he had not this stick. 3. 
Which stick has this man? ^1, Which man has this stick.? 
5. 1 his father had three daughters, but that woman had only 



The son of that woman had this dog and horse. 

7. We 

two, (j. 

haHn^^i 1 r, ■'" ' ""•' i'""*"ogandhorse. 7 We 

nad the book of those niinllB q t^ ^u l . ^^- /. vve 

mose pupils. 8. To the brother of those girls. 


1. Welches Madchen hatte die Zeitung? o Welches fi„Ph 
hatlen die Madchf^n ? •? w i . , v\ eicnes ±5uch 

4 Welch! F.1 '^.^^^^^^^^^edasJkichdieserSchuler? 

4. Uelche Feder hatte dieser Knabe ? r> Welchen RnnH 

hatte jener Mann .P 6. Was hat dieser LelJ? "' 


«• Declension of vuitt, my. 



Norn, jiietn 
Gen. mcincS 
Dat. meinrm 
Ace. meincii 





Jiteinc, my 
meincr, of my 

meinc, nj^^ . r^. 




Uitohj ^ 

9 The following words are declined like mein-^T'i^'^ 
fern 'his US'; iB,, ^her, its, their'; unfcr, ^our. ^^ ' ' 

The indefinite article ein, eiue, cin is also declined in the 
same way, but has no plural, thus : ^^ciined m the 

MASC. • pEM. 

Norn, ein eine 

Gen. einc^ einer 

Dat. einem einer 

Ace. einett eine 

Remark. -r- This model differs from theTiefer mod.l . i 

m having no distinctive ending in the l^tr^^. ""^ 

neuter, or in the ace. neuter. Thus. whn. t „! 1 '?'* 









mam but biefcS iHtd), we say tin (fcin, mein, etc.) mann 
and also tm (fein, etc.) ^^^d^. 

10. Present and Imperfect Indicative of fcm, to be. 

^'''■'''''^- ImperfJt. 

Stng. Id) bin, I am ;^ j,,,^ j ^^^ 

bu bift, thou art bu tuarft, thou wast 

^'^ ^^*' h^ ^s er Juar, he was 

^'^ ^^ she is lie luar, she was 

„ '•'^ '^*' 't 's e^ toav, it was 

Plur. tDir finb, we are i,i, ,,,,,„^ ^, ^^^^^ 

i^r feib, ye are if,, j^,,,,^^ ^^^^ 

fte fmb, they are |ie jparen, they were 

bin ic^, am I } etc. " ~ n^ar icb, was I .? etc. 

11. Time before Place. Rule. -In German sen- 
tences, expressions of time always precede those of//^r^, as : 

This man was here to-day. 
®iefer '^)\m\\ umr ^cutc !;icr. 

12. Place of the Negative nif^t. Rule. - The nega- 
tive nirfjt precedes that member of the sentence which it 
negatives. Hence : 

(gr Hmr geftern nid^t E)ier, he was not here yesterday. 

13. Agreement of Pronouns. Rule. - Pronouns 
agree in gender, number and person with the substantive 
to which they refer, as : 

^cr C>ut (masc.) ift ni(f)t c^roi er ift flein, 
the hat is not large, // is small ; but 

bie „Beitinu3 (fem.) ift nid)t grofj, fie i[t f(ein, 
the newspaper is not large, it is small. 
The English pronoun // must therefore be rendered by er 
" "" ^'^'"'"'' '" " '"^sc. substantive, by fie when it refers to 
vhen it refers to a neuter. 





14. Observe : In the sentence ♦ the boy is good,' ^oo^ is 
2i predicative adjective. 

Rule. — Predicative Adjectives are not declined. 

16. A substantive following the verb to be is of course 
subject, not object, and must therefore be put in the nominative, 
and not in the accusative, as : ©r ift cin (not einen) 2Kann, he 
is a man. - 


friend, ber (^reunb 
gentleman, ber §erv 
bird, ber 3[.?ogeI 

wagon, ) ° 

carriages, bte '^ixfi.zx^. 
city, bic ©tabt 

^^^^^' \ bal i^Ieib 
garment, ) 

weather, bag ilBetter 
old, alt 

pretty, j^iibfc^ 

cold, fait 

small, little, flein 

tired, miibe 

beautiful, fine, fd^5n 

strong, ftarf 

idle, trdge 

warm, ioarm 

windy, h)inbig 

very, very much, fe^r 

yesterday, ^e'ftern 

pleasant, agreeable, angenefjm to-day, fjeute 
great, large, big, tall, gro^ still, yet, noc^ (referring to time) 

for, benn 

■' If 



A. 1. din 3?ater unb fein ^inb finb je^t hier. 2. ©ne mtttcr 
unb ibr ^inb luaren geftern ^ier. 3. mtm 33ruber \i<xi fein 5Buc^, 
aber er Ejat ein 9}?effer. 4. Unfer 3=reunb trav ber Sefjrer biefer 
ed)uler. 5. 3)iefe grau ift meine 6c^h)efter, unb fie ift auc^ bie 
9Kutter biefer gjidbc^en. 6. Sir finb ftein, aber fie finb grof;. 
7. Unfer 2ef>rer ift miibe, benn feine ©center iraren fe^r trage. 8. 
Unfere Stabt ift fetjr fcbbn, aber fie ift nic^t fe^r gro^. 9. OJ^einem , 
SSater unb meiner ^utt<»i- 


Declension; — 3na(er model. 


^. 1. I am the sister of those girls. 2. Where are my 
booi<s and newspaper.? U. Our brother and his dog are big 
and strong, but our sister and her bird are small and pretty 
4. Which gentleman was here yesterday ? 5. The friend of 
our brothers was here to-day, but he was not here yesterday 
6. My sister had her book, but she had not her pen 7 Our 
father and mother have still their carriage, but they have 
no horse. 8. The weather was cold and windy, but it is 
now warm and pleasant. 9. To my brother and sister. 


1. Wo ist unsere Mutter? 2. Wann war sie hier? 3 Wer 
war gestern hier .? 4. Was ist sein Vater.? 5. Wer ist die 
Mutter dieser Schuler ? 6. Wer sind diese Madchen ' 



OR -I, -m, -It, -r STEMS. A-^^v^^ 

16. Declension of bcr WlaUv, the painter. "'^'^'^1^^ 

Nom. ber gjjaler, the painter 
Gen. beg ^alerg, the painter's, 

of the painter 
Dat. bem m<x\ix, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben a«aler, the painter 

^ Observe : The only changes are additional -l in the een 
sing., and -n in the dat. pi. 

17. In the same way are declined : 

- Plural. 

bie 3J?aIer, the painters 
ber 3JJaIer, the painters', 

of the painters 
ben gjZalern, (to, for) the 

bie IValcr, the painters 




1. Masc. and neuter substantives ending in -t\, -em, -ftl, 
-er, and diminutives in -i^cil and -\t\\\ (these last being 
always neuter). 

2. Neuters beginning with ®e- and ending in -e, as : ba« 
(^emcilbe, the painting. 

3. Two feminines : bie ^J)?utter, the mother, and bic ^oc^ter, 
the daughter. 

4. 3)er ^dfe, the cheese. 

{a) But many masculines with «, 0, U in the root, the two 
feminines Gutter and Xocbtcv, and one neuter, biv5 .Sllofter, 
'the convent,' take also Umlaut (modified vowel) in the 
plural, as : — 

Sing. N. D. A. ^^rubcr, o. ^^rubcvg ; Plur. n. g. a. 43rubev, 
D. ':lkiiberii. 

{b) Substantives in -\\ do not add n in the dat. plur., as: 

Sing. N. D. A. ^mbdjen, o. ^Jccibc^enS ; Plur. n. g. d. a. 

{c) In feminine substantives all cases are alike in the sing. 
Hence, 9Jtuttev and 2:oc^ter are thus declined : 

Sing. N.G.D.A. ay?utter; /V«r. n. g. a. Mtter, d. gjjiittern. 
Sing. N.G.D.A. ^oc^ter; F/ur. n.g. a. %U}itx, d. 3:ocl^terii. 

Further examples : 

l^cr i^Dcjel, the bird : ^Vw^. n. d. a. 33DgeI, g. g^ogelg ; /'/«/-. 
N.G.A. 3[Jogel, D. ^^ogeln. 

Tcr ^aa,zx\, the carriage : 6"/«^o'. n. d. a. 2Bagen, g. JBageng- 
P/io: N. G. D. A. SBagen. * 

1^asJ ^en[ter, the window : Sing. n. d. a. ^enfter, g. ^enfterg; 
Plur. N. G. a. ^enfter, d. Jenfterit. 

Xa^ ©emalbe, the painting: Sing, n.d.a. ©emalbe, g. 
©emdlbel ; Plur, n, g. a. ©emalbe, d. ©emcilben. 





DECLENSION : — mala model. 


D,,/ine with Umlaut: bcr 58atcr, the father; bet Sc^mager, 
the broth.r-.n-luw; bcr W\^\, the apple; bet ©arten the 
garden ; bcr ^))\<^^Md. tlie cloak. ' 

take UmhT^^-'^K '"7^''' '''' °^ '^"^^^=^"^i-^« of this declensioa that 
take Umlaut in the plur., see App. A. 

Declme nnthout Umlaut: bcr Scbrcr, the teacher; bcr 
^d;ulcr the^scholar; bcr .(blor, the eagle ; ba« -JJfoffor, the 

b« AL.,",,^"""","' '"' ™'"""='' ^"- ^^-'"'"•' ""-■ winter; 
oer ^jniel, the uncle. . 

NoTK.-The prepositicn in i« contracted with the dat. sine niasc 
and neut. of the def. art., when nt.t cn.phasized. thus: ,n .r im i n 
ben, @ai-tn., contr. im Csnu-tc, ; i„ bcrn n.m, contr. \^Z^ ' 

18. Rule of Consthuctiom. - If the verb is in a simple 
tense, the predicate adjective comes at the end. 



tree, ber SBaum 

fire, ba^ goiter 

spring, bcr ^ruf)Iing 

autumn, bcr ,s)erb[t 

stove, bcr Ofeit 

diligent, industrious, flcifjig 

poor, arm 

hot, F)ei^ 

ill, !ran! 

rich, reid^ 

ripe, reif 
weak, fc^irnc^ 
Satisfied, ) . . , 
contented, \ ^"^"'^^" 
quickly, [c^^nca 
not at all, gar nic^t 
not yet, nod; iucf;t 
with, init (gov. dat.) 
in, in (gov. dat.) 
whose, mefjeu? 


Won, benn bnU aSetter it t»«in. s, ^ij ™,.tt»r b^^'-r »=-'', 





( » 

I ! 



bicfe« Servers toarcn franf. 8. m mM meiner Stiic^ter finb 
alt. 9. 35ic ©drten in biefer @tabt finb fef>r fc(>dn. 
^.1. The father of this girl was my teacher. 2. Our 
father and mother are old and weak. 3. The gardens of my 
brother-in-law are very beautiful, but his carriages are not at 
all beautiful. 4. My uncle is not at all satisfied with his 
daughters. 5. These apples are not yet ripe. (}. The 
teacher of these pupils was not very rich. 7. With the wings 
of this bird. 8. The weather is hot in the summer, but it is 
cold in the winter. 9. The eagle is a bird. 


1. Wann ist das Wetter kalt.;* 2. Mit welchen SchUlern 
smd die Lehrer zufrieden ? 3. In wessen Haus sind die 
trader dieses Madchens > 4. Wo waren sic im Herbst ? 5 
Sind diese Madchen trage oder fleiszig ? 6. Ist die Blume 
schon ? 


PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF tncrbcit, to become. - CON. 

19. Present and Imperfect of 

Present Indicative, 
Sing. \6) hjerbe, I become 

bu hJirft, thou becomest 

er tt)irb, he becomes 
Plur. \o\x iDcrbcii, we become 

i^r h)erbet, ye become 

tticrbcn, to become. 
Present Subjunctive. 

ic^ tDerbe 
bu ircrbcft 
cr iDprbe 
h)ir hjerbcn 
''ix toerbet 
fie irevben 



Imperfect Indicative. Imperfect Subjunctive, 

Stng. \^ hjurbf or njorb, I became ic^ tt)iirbe 

bu iuurbcf* or tuavbft, thou becamest bu iDurbeft 
er hjurbf or U)arb, he became er tuurbe 

Plur. h)ir tmubcn, we became tpj^ jyijrben 

\¥ iourbet, ye became . \^^ tourbct 

fie hJurbcn, they became |ie toiirbcti 

Observe : i. the persistent e in the subjunctive endings ; 

2. the Umlaut in the imperfect subjunctive ; 

3. the second form (Joarb, etc.) in the singular only of the 
miperfect indicative. 

20. Construction of Principal Sentences. — Place 
OF Verb and Subject. 

v^l'^^.'Z ^" ^""."^L"' '""^^"^^« containing a statement, the 
verb IS the second idea in the sentence, as • 


f 6m ^ter. gr ift franf. 

A am here. He is iH. 

Obsi,:rv,: x. The verb is the second idea, not necessarily 
the econd W, m the sentence. Thus the subject with 'I 
attributes and enlargements constitutes but one idea, as 

subject and attribute. veL. adv*erb. 

^er^jater biefe^ 2el;rerg mor ^ier. 
2 The svhject (or subjects) with attributes and enlarge 
ments may come either in the first or in the third place af 


'^^ bm ^,er; or: §ier bin \^^ 

3. ^\i^ predicate adjective is placed last, when 

a simple tense, as 

the verb is in 








! 1 

I am satisfied with my daughters. 
^^ ^i» init meincu loditcrn jufricbcn. 

Remarks. — i. Any other member of the sentence may 
occupy the first place, but in that case the subject is thrown 
a//t'r the verb, which still occupies the second place. Thus; 


,^m ^yriibling fiub bic ©ortcii fc^ijn. 

2. [n English, on the contrary, the subject precedes the 
\crb, which is, in such cases, in the /"////v/ place, as : 


In the spring the gardens are beautiful. 

3. This fixed position of the verb as the second idea i?i every 
German principal sentence should never bejorgotten. 

4. The conjunctions uub,, a6er, ober, bcimdo not count as 
members of the sentence. 


sleigh, ber Scfilittcn 
thunder-storm, biv3 ©ctuittcr 
attentive, aufmerffam 
green, c^riiu 
new, ncu 
young, jimg 

inattentive, uuaufinerffam 
unpleasant, ) 
disagreeable, \ 

dissatisfied, unjufrieben 
after, narfi (with dat.) 
therefore, on that account, 

never, nie 
so, fo 

why, Juavum ? 
again, iuieber 
well, iuot)I 


A. 1. ^^a* bcm Wciuittcr muvbe Dtv5 SK^etter fc^^n unb tt)arm. 
2. ©eftent iuurbcn mcinc ^l^hittcv unb ifire e^^ivefter franf, a6er 
W finb fie iuof;I. 3. e in ^kter f)at ein ^m^ unb'einen 
©at'icn \x\ui cv \)^\i auci; M^ixi^w unb 6daitten. 4. Tag better 




^ambuvii 10. §ie,.„„rm ,„ .^,amburg, aber fie n,aten nie in 

^. 1. The brother of these pupils became our teacher 2 
Teachers often become dissatisKed with their pupils 3 !„ 
the sprmg our garden becomes beautiful. 4. Our brothers 
m-law.were m I'aris; they are now in London. r>. This tree 
becomes green very quickly. 6. The pupils of this teacher 
became very attentive. 7. My daughter^ are not contented 
wuhthetr cloaks. H. In the autumn (the)* apples become ripe. ' 
9^ rhe father of these girls becomes old and weak. 10. wfth 

poor It Vh " T-- ' ' ; ^'^ "^-^"-"^ "^''- ''"' "« •'-- 

Th! , t .I "'^ ' " ' '*^-' • " '-^ '"8« =>"d strong. 13. 
The cloaks of those g.rls were new, but now they are gettinsr 
(say : become) old. -^ getimg 


liires Onktls? ,i. Wann waren seine Brlider in Hamburg? 
4. Wann werden die Apfel reif ? 5. Wird der Baum L 
Sommer grun ? (i. Wann wird das Wetter kalt > 

* Words in ( ) are omitted 

are omitt^rl in r' , '" /'"^"'^' ^"* "°^ '" ^«™a" 5 ^ords in [ ] 

are omitted m (.erman, but not in English. 







Declension of j ^^^ ®"S"/ ^^^ son; 
< ber 0unb, the dog. 

bie ©o^ne, the sons 
ber ©of)nc, the sons', of the 

ben <Sof)ncit, (to, for) the sons 

bie ©of)ne, the sons 

id) With Umlaut in the plural 
Norn, ber ©oFjn, the son 
Gen, befg 2o()n(c)g, the son's, 

of the son 
Dat. bem eof)n(c), (to, for) 

the son 
Ace. ben So^n, the son 

OasKRVE : I. The -u of the gen, and -c of dat. sing. 

2. The Umlaut and -e of the plur. 

3. The additional -u of the dat. plur. 

4. The -c may be dropped in the dat. sing., and (except 
after sibilants) in the gen sing, but is usually retained in 

ib) Without Umlaut : 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn, bcr .t)unb, the dog bie §unbe, the dogs 

Gen. bc^ A>unb(r)0, the dog's, ber ^unbc, the dogs', of the 

of the dog dogs 

Dat. bcm|)unb(c),tothedog ben ^unbcit, (to, for) the dogs 
Ace. ben .^unb, the dog bie §unbc, the dogs 

22. In this way are declined : 
I. Most masculine monosyllables: generally add Umlaut 







2. Masculines in -a* -ii* -in i„. .• 

Umlaut. ^' 8/ -IlMg: MW-^r add 

3. Many feminine monosyllables with a, M, or «u in the 
root: ai«,ajs add Umlaut (for list, see App. ") 

4. Substantives in -„i8 and -f,l : «.e„^ add Umlaut 

=dH if r^ "'"'"■ '"°"°^>'»»bles (all those in -r) • „„„, 
add Umlaut, except Jloft, gfior, »„ot (SBbte or 8„ote) AprE^ 
6. Foreign masculines, with accent on last syll. in -„r 

' laut (for exceptions, see App. D.) 
Further ex.Tmples: 
5Die $oiii), the hand : &W n g d a fi„»t, . m 

(Observe again . Feminines have all case, of ,he sing, alike.) 
Ta« Segraeni«, the burial, funeral- .%•„»■ m . m -t ■ 
G. »egra6niffc«, o. ^S^S^nm %uf7o\ I'^'tT' 

(Observe ,Ke douMng of the fi„a, -, when a termination U added., 
Set aiionat, the month : Smjr. n a Wn„„t r- m J, 


J Examples : 

••Has the dog meat.' a. Which man is'ou, 
«at ber§„„b (J.eifc^? SBdc^e. 2«a„„ ^ alt? 





* * -12 8 

3. Who is in the garden? 5. What has the teacher ? 
aBer ift in bcni &avtm ? )Ba^ ijat ber Mjx^v ? 

i 2 9 1 2' 8 

4. ^^'here is my father ? 6. When was the pupil here ? 
^ii^D ift meinmter? 4Bann ioar ber e#Ier i;ier? 

Observe from these examples : 

1. That the construction of Direct Interrogative Sentences 
is exactly the same in German as in English, as far as the 
position of Verb and Subject is concerned. 

2. That in both languages the question-word always begins 
the sentence. 


(An Asterisk (*) after a word signifies that the plural has Umlaut.) 

Tuesday, 3)icne'tag marsh, swamp, ber Bimpf* 

enemy, bcv ^"^-einb day, bcv Jag 

finger, ber ;>-ingev -^ carpet, ber kip\iid) 

Friday, gn-ei'tag ^ curtain, ber 3^^or'6ang * 

foot, ber ^-uj3* " week, bie 'Eod)^ ' 

general, ber &mcvaV room, ba^3 Siiinner 
young man, youth, ber Siingaing thirty, bvei^ig 

emperor, ber SM\cv five, fiiuf 

acquirements, bie ^euntniffe long, lang 


king, ber Monig Vv 
Wednesday, ber 9J?itt'luocf) 
Monday, ber 9J?Dn'tiig 
officer (military) ber Dffi^ier' 
town, city, bic ©tabt*^ 
Sunday, ber Sonn'tag 

Saturday, j ^^-'I'^onn'abenb, 
( or Sam»'tag 

new, neu 

magnificent, prcic^tig 
red, rot 
seven, fieben 
white, ivet^ 
where, hjo? 
twelve, ^toolf 


acher ? 
l;rei- ? 

3il here ? 
iiler i)kx'^ 

Far as the 

ys begins 




A. 1. ©in ^abr Ijat stoolf monaU unb in jebem Wlomt finb 
brei^ig ^ragc. 2. ®ie ^:)dnt)e biefer MaMjcn finb Kein. 3. 3)ie 
©arten m bicfcn Stdbtcn tuurben tm gritf;(tno f*on. 4. ®ie 
Sage [inb im ^omnicr laiig, aUv im 2Bintcr lucrbcn fie furg unb 
fait. 5. ®ie d)lutUx meinc^3 Ju-eunbc^ it)ar gcftcrn in ber etabt 
6. 2)ie ^enntniff e be^ 2ef)rcr^5 finb qxo^. 7. 2)te ^DrF)dnoe bicfe^i 
Bimmerg fmb tt)ciJ3, abcr bic 2ep|3ic^e finb rot. 8. ®ie ©cBiydaer 
biefer Dffigicre finb ©enerale. 

B. 1. The horses and dogs of this young man are hand- 
some. 2. We have two feet and two hands, and each hand 
has five fingers. 3. The emperor and the king were enemies 
but now they are friends. 4. These trees are old, but they 
are still beautiful. 5. The curtains and carpets in this room 
are new and magnificent. 6. Every week has seven days- 
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday 
Saturday. 7. The sons are tall, but the father is not quite 
so tali. 8. The funeral of the king was magnificent. 9. My 
father has two apple-trees in his garden. 10. Where are the 
frogs } In the spring they are in the marshes. 


1. Wo waren die Briider seiner Mutter gestern ? 2. Sind 
die Vorhange weisz oder rot? .">. Was hat sein Vater im 
Ganen? 4. Wer war gestern in der Stadt.? 5. Wessen 
•Schwager sind Offiziere ? 6. Welche sind die Taee der 
Woche? ^ 





CONJUGATION OF Wfi to have. - rlacE OF 


Paradigm of ^alr^ ^ have. 

Principal Parts. 

Pres. Infin. }^ahtn IMPF. iNDic. l^atit Past Part, ^^m 



ic^. f)aht, I have 
bu ^aft thou hast 
er f)ai, he has 
h)ir f)ahc\\, we have 
i^r i)ahi, ye have 
fie l^abcn, — ey have 

ic^ ^attc, I had 
bu ijatk^t, thou hadst 
erratic, he had 
h)ir f>attcil, we had 
t^r Ijattct ye had 
fie fatten, they had 

I have had, etc. 

ic^ ^a6e 

bu ^aft 

er f)at 

h)ir ^aben 

i^r f)aht 

fie baben 

Presi;nt. Subjunctive. 

id; f)aht, I (may) have, etc. 
bu i^abcfi 
er f)aht 
U)ir ^bcn 
i^r ^abct 
fie I;abctt 

id) f)attc, I had (might have), 
bu ^iitteft [etc. 

er ^fitte 
h)ir fatten 
i^r i)atUt 
fie {;otteiT 
(Pres. of iiaben -f. P. part.) 

^ gel^afit 

I (may) have had, etc. 

ic^ f)aU 

bu ^abeft 

er l)ahi 

h)ir f)ahtn 

i^r ^abet 

fxe i;aben 




I had had, etc. 

bu i)atU^t 
er f)aiU 
hjir fatten 

fie fatten 

(Imperf. of ^oben + P. Part.) 



I had (might have) had, etc 


bu ^atteft 
cr l^dtte 
Wiv fatten 

fie fatten 
(Pres. of tocrben + infin. of ijaben ) 
I shall have, etc. i shall have, etc. 


i^ merbe 

bu tDirft 
er hjirb 
i^r toerbet 
fie toerben 


' ^afien 

I shall have had, etc 

tc^ tperbc 

bu n)irft 

er h)irb 

h)ir h)erben 

i^r toerbet 

fie toerben 

(tmpf. Subj. of hjerben -j- Infin 
of ^oben.) 
I should have, etc. 

buh>firbeft r"^^^^ 

i(^ toerbe 
bu hjcrbeft 
er h)crbe 
i^r tuerbet 
fie tuerben 
Future Perfect. 
(Future of ^abcii -f- P. Part.) 

I shall have had, etc. 

id) hjerbe 

bu n^erbeft 

er hjcrbc 

h)irtt)erben r^^^M^Un 

i^x hjerbet 

fie hjerben 

(Simple Cond. of \)aben + Past 
• Part.) 
I should have had, etc. 

Bc^aat ^aBen 

ic^ ttJiirbe > *• ti «. * 



f§§ is- 


er lt)urbe 
it>ir toitrben 
i^r njiirbet 
fie iuiirben 

f)a6c (bu), have (thou) 
l)aht (ibr), have (ye) 



gc^Qbt l^o6en 

h)ir ipuvben 
t^rjuiirbet f 
fie luurben J 

(ju) rjnben, (to) have 


Pres. ^abenb, having p.^,, gcbabt had. 

25. Use of Auxiliaries of Tense — r ftni,.^ f 
the nerfpof f«.,. r i, cube. — i. .pahttl forms 

Perfect of that verb ^ "' "* ''"^ '"^ '°"" '^e 

P.u?ert^t:/:Hltter + "'^^^*-°^--^ 

^J. aB« forms the Future and Simple Conditional 

Fu?ure'''"'"* °' tt^'bc + Infin. of any verb form the 

JsimX^o„^,^La;:^^^'" + '"«"• °^ -^ -- ^°™ 

3. The Future of hnbcn 4- p Pq-.. ^r 

^ J . , , . , vii'-'^ii -t" i". i^art. of any verb Tnot con. 
jugated with fein) form the Future Perfect 

The Simple Conditional of F,a6en + P. Part of anv 
verl. (not conjugated with fein) for. the^Compound CoT 

4. edn replaces ^aben in the Pe>-fect Tenses of m.n , 
Intransitive Verbs rs^^^ s . ^ r^ "^^">^ 
is come ' ^ ^^'^ Compare the English 'He 




Construction of Compound Tenses. — Place 
OF Participle and Infinitive. 
J^u/e of Construction, - In every principal sentence the 
Participle and Infinitive come at the end; but if both be 
present, the Participle precedes the Infinitive, which is always 
lasij as ! 



{Engl) My teacher 


{Germ.) Warn Scf)rer 

1 2 


{Engl.) We shall 

8 8 


has had 

2 8 













a storm. 


{Germ.) 2Bir 



8 4 


hjerben einen ®turm ^aficii. 

* 2 8 4 6 


{Engl.) The beggars would have had no shoes. 

* 3 8 4 6 

{Germ.) 2)te Settler h)iirben !eiue ©c^ui^e gc^olit ^aficii. 

Remember : In compound tenses, the auxiliary is the 
verb, and occupies the second place in a principal sen- 
tence (see § 20, Rule i, above). 

evening, ber Sl'benb money, ba§ ©elb 

beggar, ber S3ettrer guest, ber ©aft* 

holiday, ber gei'ertag harbour, ber §afen * 

fish, ber ^if^ gio^,^ ^^^ ^anb'fc^u^ 

AJ5«Jv, tU JVIUU74 ^ 

, tlv y luu/t 

fox, ber %\x^i 

basket, ber i{or6 * 


^h 5Ru^' 


tESSON Vltl. 



out of, au^ (gov. dat.) 

to become of, au^ . . . feerben 

poor, arm 

bad, fc^lcc^t 

to-morrow, moxQcn 

the day after to-morrow, u'ber. 

much, biel 
already, fc^on 
when, loann j 



to be right, Jiec^t ^abni 
sailing-ship, ba^ ee'gelfc^iff 
chair, ber ©tu^l* 
storm, ber Sturm * 
stocking, ber etrum^f* 
shoe, ber 6d;u^ 
table, ber Ziid) 
animal, bag iier 
to be wrong, Un'recT^t ^abcn 
, pleasure, bag 3[5ergniigen 
wolf, ber3Bolf* 


^. 1. ^c^ ^aBe M ®elb gel;abt, aber je^t bin icb arm 2 
^te » t.crben im ^erbft reif. 3. 41 ber l^abe ein'; 
3:tf(J «nb ^tiif,Ic mfeinem3immerf,a6eu? 4. ^bre Zbf^^^^^^^^^ 
t^urben fd^lec^t, benn fie n>aren fc^on alt. 5. Sr^ ?£ 
^reunbe ju ^aben. 6. ^a^ tvnxh, a«g bem So^ne beg iZ2 
T ^f -«c^ Se^- ^. Sc^ n,erbe ^einbe unb aul ^reunbe abe„ 
8. ®ie ©a te tn unferer ©tabt murben muoe, benn bag LtUx 
mx fe^r ^a^. 9. a^erben ^ep^ic^e unb ^orr;ange in unftm 
3tmmer ^aben? 10. (£r batte ^reunbe ge^t. 11. eie Trben 
tn btefem Sa^ve biel 3?ergnugen ge^abt ^aben. U. ^ie Se 
eg 5?omgg aben ^ferbe unb Sagen, aber bie 3:oc^ter gl3et 
te baben fetne ©c^u^e unb feine etriim^fe. 13. 2Bir batten 
^ec^t gebabt, aber er ^atte Un^ ^t ge^abt. 14. m meinen 
^reunben ^abe ic^ biel 3]ergnugen ge^abt. 15. llnfm ^Z e 
toetben ge^ern .iel ^ergnugen ge^abt ^aben, bemba 2Beft rl 
Won unb Warn. ^"«i iwt 

thi'^; I'J^^- ''"'"P'l'P^ "« '" *e harbour. 2. We had 
thirey fishes ,„ ou. baskets. 3. He would have friends. 4 
The evening was fine, but the weather became cold. 6 We 
have had two storms. 6. Where are our guests ? Thevbecan,. 
urea ana are now in the garden. 7. To-morrow we shall have 


. . . hjerben 


f^ARADlGM OF lobCH. 

rrow, u'ber« 


^ arm. 2. 
nabe einen 
^ Se^rerg ? 
mbe ^abcn. 
>a^ SBetter 
in unferm 
:ie toerben 
Die Sol^nc 
beg 33ett.: 
Bir l^atten 
'it meincn 
e O'reimbc 
Setter Wax 

We had 

;nds. 4. 

5. We 

' became 

lall have 


a holiday, for it is Saturday. 8. We were in fh. ^ 
yesterday, and the trees are already green 9 Wh ,?"'r 
had? He has had apples and nuts To n i ' ^' 

fcxes are animals. ^^ ^''^'' ^^^^^^^ ^n^ 


1. Wer hatte Recht unci „er hatte Unrecht ? 9 W 
Waru„,wurden die G..e „,«,eP «. Welehe Oeilld: "sind 


27. The stem of a verb is whnf ;c i..f^ i 
.ion of .he Present Infi^liH : . , or- Ht'd^ T'"" 
f>ab-c„, stem |j„(,;l„M„, stem fW ^ '^'''''' "' = 

Note.- Weak verbs are also called J,e,ou,ar or Modern. 


pREs. Infin. lobcn 

Paradigm of Tofifn, to praise, 
i^riucipal Pa.-ts. 
Impf. Indic, 

lobtt Past Part. gero6* 

i:H A 







tcf) lobe, I praise (am praising, id; lobe, I (may) praise 
do praise) 

bu Ii?b(e)ft thou praisest, etc. 
er Iob(c)t he praises 

tyir lobcil, we praise 
ibr lob(t)t, ye praise 
fie Irbcn, they praise 

bu lobcft thou (mayesti praise 
er lobe, he (may) praise 
toir lobtn, we (may) praise 
i^r lobct, ye (may) praise 
fie lobctt, they (may) praise 


(Same form for both moods.) 

id; lohit, I praised (was praising, etc.) 

bu (obtcjl, thou praisedst 

er lobtc, he praised 

h)ir loblcn, we praised 

ibr Mitt, ye praised 

fie lobtrn, they praised 

( Pres. of l)abfii -f- P. Part of loben.) 

ic^ f)aU gcfolit I have praised (been ic^ ^abc acloH 


bu baft gelobt, thou hast praised, etc. bu ^abeft gelobt, 2c. 

(Imperf. of babcn + P. Part, foben.) 

ic^ i)atU gcJoat, I had praised (been ic^ f^dtU atioht ic 
praising), etc. ' ' . 

(Present of tPCrftctt + Infin. of lobcn.) 

id^ trerbe (okn, I shall praise (be ic^ toerbe Uhtn 


bu n?irft lohn, thou wilt praise, etc. bu h?erbeft loben, k. 





Future Perfect. 
i Future o{ Ontn, + P. Part, of roben.) 
tc^ t»crbe flcrolit babcn, I shall have irf, h,. ^ , r 

praised . '^^ ^^^^^ Q^^obt f)aben 

biiiuirftnclobtbabcn, thou wilt have 
praised, etc. 

o„,„ Conditional. 


I'll iDcrbeft gelobt 
^a6en, 2c. 

' Simple Cond. of (jabcii + P. part. 
of lobcii.) 
irf' tmirbe ncfoM haOcii, I should 
have praised, etc. 

W lohm, (to) praise. * 
i^fioht Uu) babm, (to) have 

(Impf. Subj. of nm-bcn -f- infin. 

of (Ollfll.) 

. icb iDiirbc (ofini, 1 should 
praise(be praising) etc. 

Ipbc (bu), praise (thou) 
loOc cr, let him praise 
lobm iDir, let us praise 

fobt(if)r), praise (ye, 
loben fio, let tlu in praise 

zj , r ^ Participles. 

^^■c's. (obcnb, praising n^,. . ,, 

j^ ^ '5 y rt-j-A {jelobt praised 

the foHoX Zns ' ites T?r rT'' '^ ^'^ terminations of 

'• Note HRain the persistent c of the Pres. Subj 

in Gef::,'::';C''""" '°™^ °' "><= -^^ •-- '° "^ avoided 


'praise T p^i 

I do praise ) 

I am 


id) Tobe 



am I praising.? [- lobe ic^ ? 
do I praise .? 




(he praised not) ) j . . (praised he not?) ) _ , 
he was not praising [ ''j''' was he not praising? ^ ^'^^f 
he did not praise ) ^''^ did he not praise ? ) "^"^t? 
I have been praising, etc., ic^ babe gelobt, etc. • 
Had I been praising? l^atU id) gelobt?, 
4. The only true Imperative forms are those of the 2. sing, 
and 2. pkir., robe, (obt. For the other persons, tlie pres. subj. 
is used, as : lobe er, let him praise ; loben iuir, let us praise ; 
loben fie, let them praise; — the verb preceding the pronoun! 

Construction of Dependent Sentences. 

32. The Verb in a Dependent Sentence comes /asf, asr 

^d) olaube, ba^ er ®elb f^ai, 
^ I believe that he has money. 

Remember: that the auxiliary is the verb in compound 

33. In compound tenses the Participle and Infinitive 
immediately precede the verb ; if both be piesent, the Parti- 
ciple precedes, as in principal sentences, thus : 

'^d) glaube, baj3 cr @elb ge^olit ^at, 
I believe, that he has /lad money. 
^rf; o^iawU, baB er 0elb ^akn toirb, 
I believe that he will /ia7'e money. 

^cf) Olaube, baf^ er ©elb gc^nlit fiaben irirb, 
I believe that he will have //^^ money. 

Note. -The place of the Subject, in a Dependent Sentence, is 
usually the same as in English. 

34. Prepositions governing the Accusative only. 

»i^, butc^, ffif, gcgcit, ot)m, iim, hiibcr. 

W8, (i) till, until (r/me), as: I shall not come until to- 
morrow {U§ inorgcn). 


(2) up to as far as {place), as • He travelled with us 
as far as (6i0) Montreal. 

. ^"'\^'^^, '"' "^ '''' ^^"--^^^ ^^^ ^-- (^-di 

fiir, for; as: That is for my friend (f«r meinen ^reunb)- 

the scissors are not a toy for children Tfiir i!inber). ' 

gCBClt towards, against (not necessarily denoting hos- 

t^l'ty), as: The enemy advanced towards (or 

against) the bridge (pcgcn bie 53rucfe). 

»!inc,^without ; as : We cannot travel without money (o^ne 

urn, (I) around about; as: We drove around the town 
(urn bie etabt). 

(2) at about (/.W), as: He came at four o'clock 

(m Uter m;r); it happened at (or about) 

Christmas (nm aBc{f)narf;tcn). • 

toibcr against (.//..///.;, ,,,smj% as : He swam against 

the stre.™ (imbcr bcu Strom); the soldiers were fighting 

against the enemy (tolhn h,n ^einb). ^ 

.ithTe"eu;e?of';h^"' '^"'/"^ '^^^ ^^^"^-"^ -"^-^ed 
the Neuter of the unemphasized Definite Article, thus: 

burd; ba^ = burrfjg (burrf/^) 
far ba§ ^ f jirg (^^jy,^) 

umbas; ^ um^ (um'g) 

believe, nlaubcn 
^ope, l;offcn 
buy, faufen 
laugh, racf;cn 
live, leBen 
learn, lemen 


love, HeBen 
make, do, madden 
say, fagen 
send, f^tcfen 
play, fpiefen 
sell, ucrfaufcn 





weep, cry, iDeincn 
bishop, bcr 5i3rfd)of* 
German, Deutfcf) 
servant, bcr Wiener 
industry, diliij;ence, ber J^Icifj 
youn^riady, Miss,bcvJ (3-rduIein 
cardinal, bcr ^tarbtnal 
noise, ber Sdrm 
Latin, ba^ Satetn 
palace, bcr ^|Ja(n'ft* 
pope, bcr ^j:^avft * 

Idiom : to take a walk, 
NoTic. — A past tense after mciui 

place, square, ber ^(a^ "* 

ring, ber Siing 

walk, bere^ajier'gang* 

time, bie ^ctt 

good, kind, gut 

merry, merrily, luftig 

sad, traurig 

that (conj.), ba^ 

because, it)ei( 

if, iucnn 

why, Junrum' ? 

eiucn Spajicr.inng madjeit. 

('if') is put in the subj. mood. 


A. 1 . '3^tc 5larbuia(e uiib i^ifcbofe luaren geftern im ^alafie 
be« %a)^\k^: )i. T}tv3 Js-raulcin luirb bicfe 9itnge faufen, benn fie 
fmbjcbon. 3. I^er m<\kx luihbe bicfc^ (>5cnialbc ntcfit iicrfaufen. 
4. ;V(; )inlrbc bicfcit ^){ing faufen, ioeun \(h retell uuirc. 5. ^^ai cr 
c^ flcglnubt? ^r bat c^3 gcgtaubt, iyeif fctit ^iVater c^5 gefagt \^at 
6. Tie ecfniler hah^n ind gdrnt goinicM. 7. SBir loBen ben 
^iungling, lucil cr flcifjig ift. 8. ier .ftoiug iuirb feine Gene* 
rale gcgcn ben iycinb [ttncfcn. 9. 9J?cine @c(noeftcr tuirb .f^anb= 
fdf;ulie fnufcn, benn ihrc ."ganbfrfuihe fiub fcT/ei^t. 10. mx Mrben 
rjciitc cincn evnstcvgang Hxdj bie ©tabt inc d;en, it?cnn ba^3©etter 
fc(um luare. 11. 3io tuiirbcn aiicf) cincn 3pn^iergang gemac 
ImOen, U^nn fie ^cit gcBabt Uiv^y, V2, Sie iuivb fagcn, bafj id; 
))k<:\}i ()aOc. 13. ^dj I;a6e iinmc gcBofft, bafj cr rernen luiirbe. 
It. 3ie licH ibrcn ^i^atcr nnb ifuc ^JDhitter, benn fie finb gut. 15. 
er iuuvbc ba^=. Wcmalbe nicbt gclobt IniDcn, benn e^ hjarnicT^t fc^on. 
B. ]. What were they doing yesterday.? They were playing 
in the garden. 2. This gentleman will praise his servants, 
for they are industrious. 3. We have taken a walk about 




^e town. 4, The squares in those cities are very fine 5 
Where were the daughters of the officers > They were living 
m a convent. ,, Without industry we shall not'learn ™uch 
7. Tl e boy was with the dog. 8. The gentleman has 
sold h.s horses and carriages. 9. What are thf young ladfes 
do,„g „ow.» U, Why was she crying., She 'vas'crjt. 

re ::;: rr ; , 'uj'"' ^^ '^"s'™^ "^^ '^e 

are merry 12. We shall have learned much in a week. 1.3 
I am laughmg because the child is playing so merrily. U 

Wb' ^15 W r"™f ''"■""'' '°-""'"°" - ^half learn 
beggars. ^"^ ' '''"'' '"^ ''°*'"S» '- "'^ 


L Weshalbhatsiegelacht? 2. Wer machte so viel Larm ? 

Was hat die Frau gekauft ? 5. ^Veshalb hat sefne Schwester 
Handschuhe gekauft ? .. Was werden wir n^orgen macl n 


3?x. Endings of Weak Verbs in Simpl 


Ind. andSuhj, 

— (c)tcii 

— (e)tcn 



E Tenses. 

•Sm^, 2. — e 
/^/t/r. 2. —(t)i 


Pres. ^tnh 
Past. 0e~(c)t 




J'/ur. 2. rebct (i^r) 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following endings : 

(a) Final -t of the 3. sing, occurs on/y in the Pres. Indie. 

(/^) The 2. sing, has -ft except in the Imperative. 

(c) The 2. plur. has -t throughout. 

2. Verb-Stems in -b or -i (t^), or in -m or -n preceded by 
another consonant, retain -c throughout a/^er the stem, as : 

rciipn, to speak. 

Sing. 1. id) rebcte 
2. bu rebcteft 

Thus : arbeiten, to work : id) avbeitcte ; atmen, to breathe • 
ou ntmc|t ; regnen, to rain : e§ regnct. 

3. Verb-Stems in a sibilant (§, f,^, g, y, j) return -e in the 
2. smg. Pres. Ind. and Subj. only, as : 

tanjen, to dance : bu tangcft ; reifen/to travel : bu reifcft. 

4. Verb-Stems in -cl and -tv drop e of the stem before 
termmations in -c (i. e. in i. sing. Pres. Ind., i. and 3. sing. 
Pres. Subj., and 2. sing. Imper.), and, excepf in the Subjunc 
tive, never msert e after ( or n, as : 

Pres. Ind. 
Sing. 2. bu rebeft 
3. er rebct 
Phir. 2. ibr rebct 

Pres. Ind. 

id) tabic 
bu tabclft 
er tabcit 
iuiv tabcin 
\\}x tabclft 
fie tabctn 

tobcfn, to blame. 

Pres. Subj. 







id^ tabclte, etc. 




P. Part. 


tablcn ^^^ 

S. Foreign verbs in -{crcu (-trctt) do not take 7h7prefi< 
OC- in the P. Part., as : ftub-ieren, to study : P. Part, ftubtcri 





(not^gHubiert); bom6arbieren, to bombard: P. Pan. 6om= 

6. Verbs with the prefixes 6c- cr- rmi. .„* 
jer-also omit the prefix at-n\he'pL''^t'T' 
P- Part. Jca^it; «„W,pe„4 berften^.t '•' "^ '"'^^""' 


Declension of ii0j 3)orf, the village. 

Nom. bag 2)Drf, the village 
Gen. beg ®orf(e)g, of the 

Dat. bent ®Drf(e), (to, for) 

the village 
Ace. bag Sorf, the village 

bie ^ijrfcr, the villages 
ber 3)iirfcr, of the villages 

ben 3:)i)rfcrn, (to, for) the 

bie ©orfcr, the villages 

Dativ^'""' -er of the Piural, with the additional -„ of the 

37. In this way are declined : 

- Most neuter monosyllables (exceptions in App.E ) 

2. bubstantives ending in ~i{\))\m. 

3. Pive neuters with prefix @e-, viz. : 

bag ©emac^, the apartment bag rsi.f^..nff .1, 

W. «t, the temper, dis. SS^t^^t 

to^ O^Wrec^t, the sex ^ ° ®'f'''^'' ^^^ « '^4) 

4- Two foreign neiife*-'! -J- . v.=, m ■ , 

ba^ §ofrita. (or Spitaa the h^pi^:, ^'''"""'' *^ "^™^'"' 


II rii' 





5. The following nine masculines : 
ber mUw\d% the villain bcv 9ianb, the edge, margin 

bcr ©cift, the spirit 
bcr ©ott, the God 
bcr 2c\h, the body 
bcr 93iann, the man, 
husband (Lat. 77>) 

ber ^ormunb, tiie guardian 
ber Salb, the forest 
bcr Ul^iirm, the worm 
(also Torn, Crt ; see App. 

Further examples (Sing, like 2ol;n) : 

®ag Scl)Iof5, the castle, palace: /"/ur. n.g.a. ecftliiffer 
D. Sdilbifcrtl. ' 

^a^3 $hicf>, the book : TV/^r. x. (;. a. t^Mm\ d. ^Mcfjcm. 

^cr mam, the man, husband: /7//r. n.g.a. Mnncr, d 
.'^JJdnncrii. i 

^a§ J^inb, the child : /Vur. n.g.a. iltnbcr, d. ^inbcrn. 
^ag §aug, the house : JVur. n. g. a. i^aufcr, d. <Qaufern. 

to row, rubcrn 

shake, fdnittctn 

waste, bcrfdnucnbcn 

exercise, task, bic 2lufgabe 

leaf, ba^ ^latt 

egg, bavj ei 

possession, property, bae 

earth, bic (^rbc 
gardener, bcr (^Kirtner 
fowl, bai? §ul;u 


child, ba^ ^inb 
dress, ba^5 ^fcib 
clothes, pi. of <^[eib 
song, bac> i^icb 
courage, spirit, bcr Mnt 
woman, wife, ba^ ®eib 
yellow, gclb 
enough, i-jcnug 
well (adv.\ gut 
a long while, lange 
too, 5u 


A. 1. ^^m .t)crb[t lucrbcn bi^- ilMdttcr gclb, bcnn bag Setter ift 
fart. 2. ^c^ table bicfe ^JMbc^en, jueil fie ifire ^itufgabe nic^t 
ftubiert r;aben. 3. ^m m'mUv ftubicrten bie Siinglinge; im 




©ommer arBeiteten fie. 4. „^n ruberft nic^t fdmeK cjcnuq mein 

tober. b. ®cr Scf^vcr fagtc, ban bio itiubcr gu mel 2dnu nmc^tcn. 
7. 2)er <(lonu3 rcbete mtt ben C^encialcn, unb lobU ben ^ut ibver 
9fegimcnter 8. ^ic i^ornuiuber biefcr ilinbcf fi.ib ^i^bfetuicfiter 
benn jie (;a6en ba^3 Gioentiuii bei- .Uinber Derfcfnuenbct <) 'T^ie' 
^iirmer leben in bcr Grbc, abcr bic .^i^i^e leben im ^amv ' To 
^^0 ftnb bic Gier ber ionhmx ? ®ie finb in uufcvon Siovku 1 1 * 
^cf) ioerbe miibe, lueil id) gcjieu ben Strom vubre. 1^! :Dev Siaikx 
l)at bie G3enerale getabelt, abcr iBrc ^HcBinicntcr 6at cr Gclobt. 

B. 1, The general has bombarded the town «^ The 
woman was buying books and clothes for her children 'i 
The gardener is shaking the apple-tree. 4. The children 
were learning songs. 5. The boy is industrious ; he has 
studied well. 6. The apartments of the palaces are ma-^ni- 
ficeiTt. 7. It rained yesterday, but it will not rain to-day 
8. We have rowed a long while against the stream. 9 These 
men travelled through towns and villages, lo. The hospitals 
in London are large and fine. 1 ] . The leaves of these trees 
are large and beautiful. )•>. This gentleman would buy my 
houses, if he had money enough. 


1. Weshalb warden die Blatter gelb.? 2. Wessen Regi- 
menter hat der Konig getadelt.? 8. Was sagte der Lehrer? 
4. Wo leben die WTirmer.? 5. W^as lernten die Kinder? 6 
Wurde dieser Herr das Haus kaufen? 






Declension of Personal Pronouns. 

First Person. 
Sing. N. ic^, I 

G. meiner (mein), of me 
D. mir, (to, for) me 
A. tnid^, me 
Plur. N. tt)ir, we 

G. unfer (unfrer), of us 
D. un^, (to, for) us 
A. ung, us 

Third Person. 


N. er, he 

G. f einer (fein), 

of him 
D. il^m,(to,for) 

A. i^n, him 


fie, she 
i^rer (i{;r), 

of her 
i^r, (to, for) 

fie, her 


ca, it 
[einer (fein, 

eg), of it 

eg, it 

Second Person, 
bu, thou 

beiner (bein), of thee 

bir, (to, for) thee 

bic^, thee 

i^r, ye, you 

euer (eurer), of you 

eud;, (to, for) you 

eu(^, you 


fid;, (to, for) himself, 

herself, itself 
fic^, himself, herself, 





N. fie, they 

G. i^rer (i^r), of them 

D. i^nen, (to, for) 

A. fie, them 

Remarks.— i. The forms mein, bein, fein, i^r, unfrer, eurev 
are poetical or archaic. 

2. The form eg of the 3. sing. gen. neuter is only used in cer- 
tain phrases, as : ^cb bin H miibe, I am tired of it. 

fic^, (to, for) them- 
, themselves 




3. The gen. and dat. of the 3. sing, neuter do not occur, 
except when referring to persons (e. g. 9Jiabc^en, ^rauUin). 

4. The Pronouns of the 3. sing, must agree in gender with 
the substantive to which they refer, as : 

^aft bu ben ^wi'^ 
Hast thou the hat > 

Hast thou the flower } 

Where is the girl ? 

Yes, I have it. 

9?ein, ic^ babe fie rac^t. 
No, I have it not. 
^A ift im %(xxi^x\.. 
She is in the garden. 

5- The Pronouns of the 3. person are ^^z" used after Preio^ 
stttons, when referring to inanimate objects, but are replaced 
by the adverb bo(r), there, before the Preposition, the r being 
inserted if the Preposition begins with a vowel, as : 

33ift bu mit biefem ©ut^e gufrieben? ^a, irf; bin bamit 
gufrieben. Art thou satisfied with this book ? Yes, I 
am satisfied with it {therewith). 

How much did you pay for this hat > I paid two dollars 
for it, bafilr {therefor). 

What have you in your purse.? I have money in it 
(borin, thereixi). 

^^« Idiomatic Uses of eg. 

I. Before the verb, representing the real subject, which 
follows the verb, and with which the verb agrees, as : 
Who is it •> It is my cousin ; it is my cousins 
2Ber ift eS? m \\i mein ^Better ; eg finb meine ^ettern. 
@g leuc^tet bie ©onne, the sun shines, i. e., it is the sun 
that shines. 

m leuc^tcn bie eterne, (it is) the stars (that) shine. 


1 1 < 



Remark -G^? in tl construction is often rendered by 
'there' in English, as: ^ 

There is a bird in this cage. 
(?jl ift z\\\ ilUn^ct in bicfcm l\\mx. 
There are three books on this table. 
iH fiiib bvci m^hix auf bicfem 2:i)c^. 
(See also c^ gicbt. Less. XXXVII.) 

2. When the real subject represented by c§ is a personal 
pronoun, uuh the verl) /.; h', ,<, follows th. verb which 
agrees with the re.l subject in person and number, as; 

It is I' m h'xw e^. 

^u (Jift e^. 
It is you, \ o^i-j^ ^eii, eg^ 

Sic finb e^. 

It is we, 
It is they, 
Is it you ? 

luir finb e§. 
fie finb c^. 
flub 8ie ea? 

3. After the verb, representing a predicate or a clause 
and corresponding to the English 'one' or 'so,' as; 
Is your father a soldier.? Yes, he is one (c§). 
We are free, end you shall be so (c0) too. 


Use of Pronouns in Address. 

I. ^M is used only in addressing persons with whom We 
are very nitunate, or towards whom we use no ceremony 
also HI addressing the Supreme Being, as : 

«?«> bift bu, licbcr ,n-cunb? 
Where are you, dear friend ? 
2Ba§ macf)ft uu, mciii .Uinb? 
What are 3'ou doing, my child? 

"^ -^'Hi/ '^ vi^oti! vVc praise Thee, o God! 




2. 3ftr (plur. of bu) is used in nddressing a number of ner 
sons, each of whom we should address by ^ as : 

2i5a^ mac6t i^r, ^inber? 

What are you doing, children? 

3. In all other cases we use for 'you' in German, whether 

IT °'^i"'" ^^'' P'''"^"" °^^'^^ Third Plural : 8ic ^fircr 
31)ncn, Sic, distinguished by a .apM letter, LfZo 
^ 43.) ^ '*'*" 

41. Paradigm ok Jaficn with Reflexive Pronouns. 

^ Present Indicative. 
Sing. 1. ic^ ro6e mij^, I praise myself 

thou praisest thyself 

2. bu h)6[t blr^, 

3. er ^ 
fie \ \M fi(^, 

J'liir. 1. loir loben nn§, 

2. if;r lobt cuf^, 

3. fie loben firfj. 

he ^ . 

she .^praises -s^ herself 
it ) ( itself 

we praise ourselves 
ye praise yourselves 
they praise themselves 
So throughout the verb, as ; 

42. Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns - jdhfi. 

1. The Pronouns of the First and Second Persons express 
reA^jre action without a special form, as shown by the^Z 
paradigm, but those of the Third Person have the form S 

2. These pronouns are also used in the Plural to express 
reciprocal action, as : cApress 

We met each other ; they will see each other ...j^ 
^ir Dcgeaueten yxu ; fie h)erbcu firfj iuieber|e^en/ ''''" 






But when, to prevent ambiguity, it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish reciprocal from reflexive action, we use ciiioilbcr as 
the reciprocal pronoun for all persons, thus : 

We love each other (one anotlier), mx liebpn chittnbfr. " 
(2Bir lieben unS might mean ' we love ourselves:) 

3. To emphasize and strengthen the reflexive pronruns, 
and give them an exclusive sense, as well as further to distin' 
guish them from reciprocal pronouns, the indeclinable word 
fclOft (or fclbcr) is used, as: 

Know yourselves, (^rfcnne. cuc^ fctDfl. 
(©rfcnnct ciir^ might mean ' know one another-:) 
He has injured himself, ©r \i^i fid; fe!6ft befc^abigt. 

Remark. — This word fclbft is in apposition to the subject 
(or object, as the case may be), as : 

SDer ^onig fclbft ift nid;t immcr glucfac^. 
The king himself is not always happy. 

It is also used adverbially (= Eng. ' even '), as 
Even the kmg is not always happy. 
(SclOft ber iBnig ift nic^t iinmcv gliicflic^. 


behave one's self properly (of 

children), arttg felu 
meet, begci-^ncn (dat.) 
visit, bc[ucj)cn 
pay, bc3af;J(en 
have finished (with), fertig 

fein mit 
belong (to), gcfjoren (dat.) 
be ashamed of, fic^ fc^dmen 


seat one's self (sit down), fic^ 

punish, ftrafcn 
work, labour, bie Sfrbeit 
parents, bie ©Itern (no sing.) 
patience, bie (SJetuIb 
gentleman, master, Mr., ber 
hat, bonnet, ber §ut * [^err 
John, :5of)amt 
Charles, ^arl 


to dis- 
aitbcr as 


) distin- 
le word 



n), fidj 


r., bcr 



away, gone, fort 

here, [;icr 

ever, at any time, jc, jcmar^ 

never, nic, ntcmal^ 

artist, bcr Sim\t1'..t 
Mary, mzx\i 
uncle, bcr D'i}('m 
dollar, bcr a:r;alcr 


4. Unfer D^ei.n I,at mi sifiic^et oefauft. 5. .©at. ©etuft T„ 

m,t ba. ^,ct gdauft (,abe, 8. Wovgcn «,„be„ toir nmti tt 
«9r,<,ba, .mbl„,tlKrbo„u„freei,et„kfu<f;cn. 9. 3* tb . 

Mircfit ^(^ mat me ban... 11. fatt unb 3ofl., bcaeaneien 
mem Satet ,ft jcljt ,„o^t. 13. «;atie, (iebft b.. beine gl rnA 

wu ben , „« felbit and; [o6e.,, tue..,. mit u.,|re 3t..fga6e aemad.t 
fatten. 18. gv ..iitbe M fd;amen, toc.,„ et mit f netS 

©.e rok„ emanbet; toeit il,tc ©cnalbe f,*o. fi.,b. "0 s™ sil 
m.t n,e.„ot 2lteeit ,.ftiebe„? 3iei„, ic^ bin .lid,. bamit^Sbt: 
^. I. Is the table large? No, it is small. 3. Her fatl>er 
has bought her a ring. 3. Were the fishes in your batl^^ 
Yes, they were ,njt. 4. Who has told it [to] her > 5 John 
have you my shoes .» No, I have them not. 6. We sit down 
because we are tired. 7. Even the beggars of thTs c ty have 
shoes and stockings. 8. Who has bought this h.^'' .1 
bought It niyself in the c.ty, and paid four dollars for it. "lO. 





Charles and his teacher love each other very much. 11. 
Mother, have you bought me apples or nuts? 12. Mr. A., 
here is a chair for you ; sit down. 1 8. Has the teacher blamed 
him? Yes, he had not done his exercise. 14. Do you believe 
that this milk is good ? Yes, it is very good. 15. 'J'he teacher 
is ashamed of her, because she has not finished (with) her work. 


1. Wiirden sie einen Spaziergang mit mir machen ? 2. 
Weshalb loben Sie sich so viel } 3. Was sagten Sie mir ? 
4. Sind Sie mit meiner Arbeit zufrieden ? 5. Was werden 
wir morgen machen .'' H. Werden Sie morgen Ihre Eltern 


4.'J. Possessive Adjectives. 

First Person. .Second Person. 

Sing, mcitl, my bcitl, thy 

I'/ur. unjcr, our cMcr, your 

Third Person. 


Sing, fcin, his (its) t^r, her (its) fdll, its P/f/r. t§r, their 

Poss. Adj. of Polite Addr ..^s : ^^r. 

Remarks. — i. The Possessive Adiectives ars the Genitive 
Cases of the respective Personal Pronouns, declined after the 
mcin Model. (See § 8, above.) 

2. Unfer and cuer may drop p of the stem wh-^n inflected • 
or they may drop c of the termination, unless the terminaHon 
is -c or -er, as : unfcrc or unfvc ; unfcrc^, unfrc^ cr unfcv^. 

3. Observe the correlatives of the Pronoun.s n{ Address: 

bu — bcin 
tfir — met 




Thus we say : 

bu ^aft bcine Hufgabe gelcrnt, ) 
lift ijaht eure „ ^^ C you have learnt your 

<Stc ^aben ;j^rc „ " ) lesson 

Note. — The last example shows the ii<5f> nf fK» d 
Adj. of m., Pl„.a^ as pLoun of Address " "^"^ ^"' ^"^^• 

4. Observe also the correlatives of the Third Person • 
Referring to subst. .... sin,, fein (whether animate 
» , •^^'''- " «5r ) or inanimate 

tosubsts. plur.(all genders) i^r 
Thus we say : 

^er £unb [jai fcincit .^noc^en berroren (lost) 
5)ic 33anne „ i^rc flatter 

uiey quality the ///■<?///'• ;>^j.5.^,(.(.,/N . <.k_ .. ^^ / i x 
jTPnrl,.r ^f /i 1 -^ /''•»''"-^^«; , tlie shwi (as above) on the 
'n °^ ;"^-"»;-"'™ to which they refer (the^« 

2)n« yjinbrf)eit Ihlit {^rc a>hitter. 
Hie girl loves her mother. 

For Possessive Pronouns, see Less. xxm. 

**• UsF. OF THE Articles. 

th^ir''"*"''*/" '"'''''••'""ves used in the full extent of 




{d) Before nouns (sing, or plur.) denoting a whole class, 

^cr 9}?enfc^ tft fterblid;, Man is mortal; 
3Dic 255gel f»abcn defter. Birds have nests. 

(b) Before names of materials, abstract nouns, etc., 
ascd in their unlimited sense, not partitively, as : 

$)ttg ®Ia§ i[t burc^fic^tig, 
Glass is transparent; 

^00 (^3oIb i[t iucrtiioKer al§ bag Silber, 
Gold is more valuable than silver ; but : 

Wolb imb ©ilbcr \}oSi<i, idb nid)t 

Gold and silver I have not (have none of). 

^ic 9 Jot ift bie 5)iutter bcr ©rfiubung. 
Necessity is the mother of invention; 

^ic m\x\\l ift eiue .(iunft. 
Music is an art ; but : 

C5r ftubicrt 9Wufif, 

He studies music (limited sense). 

Note. — In Proverbs and Enumerations this article is omitted, as: 

''Si^X tonnt tciu @ebot, 
Necessity knows no law; 

aWiiflf luib SRakret fiub |d)i3ne tiinftc, 

Music and painting are fine arts. 

2. IJefore names of mountains, lakes, seas, rivers, 
forests, streets, seasons, months and days of the week, 

^cr 3Se[ut), Mount Vesuvius. 

%tx ^wX<xx\^, Lake Ontario. 

%\t X^emfe, the Thames. 

^cr <3)3effart, the (forest of) Spessart. 

%\^ (Jriebric^ftra^e, Frederick Street. 



$m ^ru^Iing, in spring. 

^cr Sanuar ift tali, January is cold. 

8tin 3Jiontag, on Monday. 

Also before ^pimmel, @rbe, <poae, as: 
^m ^imrnel, in heaven ; 
3ur C^rbe, to earth ; 
and before places of public resort, as : 

^ur ©c^ule ge^cn, to go to school. 
^^ Wax in hex ilirc^e, I was at church. 

3. Before names of countries when not neuter, or when 
preceded by an adjective, as: 

2)ic 6d)Jrei3, Switzerland. 

^ag fc^one ^ranfieic^, fair France. 

4. The English Indefinite Article is replaced by the Z?^«//^ 
Article in German when used distributively (= each), as : 

3^eimal bc£l ^aBre§, twice a year. 

3}rci 3:^aler Oic ©lie, three dollars a yard. 

5. The Indefinite Article is omitted before the unqualified 
predicate after fein o.- luerben, as : 

but- ^'^ ^^* (it)urbe) ©otbat, he is (became) a soldier; 
@r ift fin tapferer 6olbat, he is a brave soldier. 

6. (rt;) The Definite Article replaces the Possessive 
Adjective when no ambiguity would result as to the pos- 
sessor, as : 

@r ftecfte btc .^anb tn btc STafc^e, 
He put his hand into his pocket ; 
(5r fc&uttelt hpit .^nv^f 
He shakes his head. 





©eben ©ic mir bie .t>anb, Give me your hand. 
{d) With parts of the person, clothing, etc., the Dativa of 
the Personal Pronoun -|- Definite Article replace the Pos- 
sessive Adjective, as : 

Gin Stein fid iljui auf ben itlopf, 
A stone fell on his bead; 

Gin '^Zagc( bat mxx ben I'Koc! jerriffen, 
A nail has torn my coat. 

Note. —If the subject is the possessor, the reflexive pronoun is 
used, as : 

Sr l)at fid) in ben 5i"Hcr gcid)nittcn, He has cut his finger. 


to cost, fojteit 

hurt, wound, t)erle^en 

cry, weep, lueinen 

draw, jcidnten 

doctor, physician, ber Slrjt * 

axe, bic 2(rt* 

mountain, hill, ber 53erg 

lead-pencil, bet 33Ieiftift 

iron, ba-3 Gifen 

window, btvo j"\-enfter 

wing, ber ^'^•lugel 

purse, ber ©elbbentel 

hope, bie .*5offnung 

merchant, ber ^aufniann 

master, ber 3)teifter 
Mont Blanc, ber ^JJont SBlanc 
music, bie ^Jhifif 
coat, ber ^Kod* 
Schiller-street, bie ©dbiHers 

tailor, ber ®d;neiber 
cloth, ba§ ^uc^) 
exercise, practice, bie llbung 
hot, bei^ 
light, leic^t 
dear, reuer 
as, when, oXi 
often, oft 

farewell, (ba^) ^ebetvobl 


A. 1. tlbung macbt ben ^IKeifter. 2. ^ie llfufi! imb bie 9D?a(erei 
finb 5^ilnfte. 3. i^inbev, babt ibr enre iHufgaben gemac^it? %^, 
\X)\x baben fie gemarfU. 4. Der ^JJipnt ^^lanc ift ein 53eri3 in, ber 
i^cljiueij. 5. ^ft biefee %yx^ teuer ? :^a, es foftet brei Xbaler 


jl^v^ CA/y^^' '^ *M tvx , 




bie m. 6. 2)ic g^utter fc^icft i^re ^inber gur Sc^ule. 7. ^abm 
eie @oIb m ^f)rem ©elbbeutel? ^5c^ i^abi kin ©olb, aber id) 
^abe Silber. 8. ma^ lernt bag 2)?abc^en ? ®ie lernt tf)re 2(uf. 
gabe. 9. Xer ^^Bater fd;uttelte feinem ©of)ne bie .§anb unb [agte 
tN £eben)oi)I. 10. ^ie g^Iugel ber SSbgel finb fe^v leic^t unb 
ftarf. 11. §at ber ©c^nciber ^bren ?fiod md) .§au[e gefc^icft? 
12. dim, er ^at if)n nod; nid;t oefc^ndt, aber er tuirb ifjn inorgen 
fc^iden. 13. Unfere Gltern rciften in 3^eutfd;lanb unb in ber 
©cbh)ei^ 14. ^;^m Suli ift bag 3Setter oft feF)r \)d^. 15. ®ag 
(Sifen h)irb rot, loenn eg fjei^ loirb. 16. manbm ©ie, ba^ id; 
Siec^t f^ahi"^ 17. Karl oerle^te fid; bie ^anb, alg er mit einer 
STjt arbeitete. 18. '^d) ioiirbe ®oIbat toerben, n?enn id; alt genug 
JDcire. 19. iB3ir iourben ^reunbe ge^abt baben, toenn h)ir reic^ 
getoefen Joaren. 

^. 1. Gold is yellow, but silver is white. 2. Mary is 
studying music and painting. 3. Are your parents still 
living in Frederick-Street.? 4. No, they are now living in 
Schiller-Street. 5. Mont Blanc i a mountain in Switzerland. 
6. The girl is crying; she has hurt her hand. 7. Is your 
father a doctor .? No, he is a merchant. 8. Glass is trans- 
parent, and we make windows of it. 9. What are you doing 
with your lead-pencil .? lam drawing a flower with it. 10. 
The emperor is satisfied with his generals. 11. -I blame you,* 
because you are not industrious. 1;,^ What are you drawing 
now.? I am drawing a bird. 13. Why are you crying, my 
child.? 14. The doctor shook his head, for he had no hope. 
15. Would you buy a horse, if you were rich .? 16. Miss B. 
has sent her Mother a present. 17. The girl will visit her 


1. 1st das Gold weisz.? 2. Weshalb weint das Madchen.? 
3. Werden Sie sich ein Haus kaufen ? 4. Sind Sie Soldat? 5 
Wo wohnen Sie jetzt ? 6. Was machen Sie mit Ihrem Gelde ? 



[§§ 45- 




45. Rules for Position of Objects, Adverbs, etc. 

Rule i. (a) Pronouns first of all, unless governed by 
a preposition, when they come after all other objects, ad- 
verbs, etc. 

(^) Adverbs or Adverbial Expressions of Time precede 
everything except Pronouns without Prepositions, thus : 

1 '2 3 4 6 

(Germ.) ^^d) fdncftc i^m flcfteru (bicfc fflSor^c) einen SBrief, 

12 3 4 5 

{EngL) I sent him a letter yesterday (this week); 


12 3 4 5 

{Germ.) ^cf) fd)id'te gcftcru einen 53rief an i§n, 

12 3 4 6 

(EngL) I sent a letter to him yesterday; 

12 3 4 6 6 

{Germ.) "^dj haht C0 ^cutc inciucr ©c^tuefter gefc^icft, 

12 3 4 6 6 

{Efig/) I have sent it to my sister to-day. 

Rule 2. Of Nouns, persons (unless governed by pre- 
positions) before things, as : 

12 8 4 5 

{Germ:") ^sd} fcf)icfte ocftern mcincm JBatcr einen ©rief, 

12 3 4 5 

{Engl.) I sent my father a letter yesterday; 


12 8 4 6 

{Germ) ^d) fdndte ijcfteru einen ©rief nn tmwm ^tiUx, 

12 3 4 5 

{Engl.) I sent a letter to my father yesterday. 





nofnTas": ""' '''°"°""^' J^rsonai h.ior. all other Pro- 

^c^ ^ak j^m bad (Demonstr. Pron.) qeaeben 
I have given him that. 

ir^ Object,"!:"""^' '™"°""^' ^"•-' «^J-' ^^'»- 

12 8 4 5 

{Germ.) ^d} babe eg i^m gecjcbcn, 

12 8 4 6 

(^//^^/.j I have given it to him. 

iectsTn'th; ^?'''"^' 'V''^' '^'"' ""^ ''^^^^'^^ f°"o^ Ob- 
jects ni the order nanr d, as : 

1 2 *i 

(^«^/.) He has studied the book very diligently 

at home. 
Remember: .. That in compound tenses all these objects 

2 That any of these members of a sentence may occupy the 
• IZ the ^etb, a^: ""'''' ^"^ ^ ^°' °'^^- '^ '» "^ ">-»" 

1 2 3 4 5 

©eftcrit [c^idtc irf) i^m einen ^Brief. 

* 2 3 4 5 

^icfc mo^c fr^itftc id) einen mtf an iijrx, 

46. Prepositions governing the Dative only. 
5(u§, rtu^cr, feci, mit, ) ''''^^' 

ttiic^, fctt, tipit, ^n [govern the Dative Case. 

m, (.) out of (;««^/.«), as : He came out of the house im 
Btm §aufe). ■ ' 




(2) of {made of), as: This house is built of wood (ou8 

(3) from {origin), as: He comes from England (ou§ 

(Snglanb) ; from the town (aue bcr Stabt). 

(4) from {cause), as : I did it from fear (aud ^^^urd^t). 

au^cr^ (i) outside of {rest), Si's,: The table is standing out- 
side of the room (ou^cr bciit (dimmer). 
(2) ex'cept, besides, but, as: I had nothing except 
(besides, but) my stick (nu^cr meincilt Stocfc). 

6ci, (i) (near) by, as : The chair stands (near) by the table 
(ki bcm or beim 3:ifc^c). 

(2) at (the house, etc., of, = Fr. c/iez), with, as : He 

lives at the house of (or: with) his uncle (or: 
at his uncle's), cr Juobnt bci fcincm Onfel. 

(3) about (one's person), with, as : I have no money 

about (with) me (Ijcimir). 

mit, with, as : He is coming with (along with) his friend 
(mit feinem j^-rcunbc) ; he struck the dog with a 
stick (mit eincm Stocfc) . 

nai^, (i) after {tijne, order), as: He arrived after his brotjher 
(imrf) feinem 23ruber). '' 

(2) to (with names oi places), a.s : He is going to Quebec 

(uot^ Quebec); to England (not^ (Snglanb); home- 
(wards) (imrf) i^i^ufe). 

(3) according to (often follows its case in this sense), 

as : This is wrong according to my opinion (not^ 
meincr llieinunoi, or meiner ^Jietnung nor^). 

feit, since, as : He has not been here since the war (fcit bcm 

Alriecjc) ; jcit bunbevt "^akcn, for the last hundred 



foil, f .) froni, as : He has just come from dinner (»„« !,.„ 

■ ^' -°'' *';. "" ''"'"^ °' °" '"°"'^^ ("-a- "»f«'f 
(3)_by (with personal agenl after the passive voice) as • 

Children are loved by their oarenis <-h-.. r ' 
g[,i;„,) ' parents (fcjj, |(,rt„ 

3U, (i) to(/.^..,„),as; He went to his friend, or to hi, 
friend s (ju fciurm Jrcuilbt) ; he spoke to me (51, 

(2) to (//„„., if not proper names ; see „„*. above) as- 

He was going to the town (,„ (,„, or ,„r Stlw)' 

(J) at (witli proper names of tou.ns onlv), as : He lives 

at Ottawa (5,, Dltalua); at liome '(,„ ,C-,a„fc) 

Remarks , Sici, I>on and ,,u (and sometimes'm,f;cr) are 

contracted with the Dative Sing. Masc. and Neuter of he 

w«//.,„,j«/Definiie Article, thus : 6ci bf,n = bchn i,„„ bcm = 

Boin, ju bcm = sunt ; ,u is also contracted with the Dat Sine 

Fern., thus: ju bet = 3iir. *' 

2. The -c of the Dat. Sing, is never used when a prenosi- 
t.on (except ,„) stands i,efore a substantive wi.i,„ut an artlTe 
pronoun or adjective preceding, as: a>,« m,. of wood; ^ 
5re>B on purpose; but „,rt, .§„„,>, home ; ju.paufc, at h;me 

3. Observe the following ; 
{Germ.) Xer ^Brtcf mciiicg Dnfet^, 

{Engl.) The letter of my uncle ~ My uncle's letter. 
{Germ.) '^,u ^lief tiou meincm €ufcl, 
{Engl.) The letter from my uncle. 
The English preposition jaf. with a substantive must -en 
ra y be rendered in German by a Genitire case .J^S. 
PreposU^n.. whenever it can be turned into the English Po t : 
«ve ca.a, as above ; otherwise by s,m, as : 





He was speak' \c,' of his mother (tiotl feincr 3Jiuttcv). 
4. Observe also the foiii>wing: 

(£//j;/.) Show the book to me == Show me the book, 
(Germ.) ^iu;\cn Sic mir ba^ '}^\\d) i Dat. without Preposition). 
The EngHsh preposition to with a substantive 1 lust be 
rendered in German by the Daiive ivitliout a prepositioi, when- 
ever the subst. can be turned into the Ena^lish Indirect 01)jec- 
tive, as above ; otherwise (generally) by the preposition ju, as: 
He spoke to me (ju mir). 

to answerf-antiuorten 
picture,vba'o ^ilb 
letter,^bcr 'iHief 
Germ any, ..^cutfrfilanb 
presenty ba<o 0c[d;cnt 
glass, .ba§ ©tn§ 
war,- bev 5lrieg 


dinner, ba^ 9)iit'tag§cffen 
journey, bic 9teife 
Roman, bcr $)i5mer 
aunt, bic ^ante 
thankful, grateful, baufbar 

(gov. dat.) 
ready, finished, fevtig 
quiet,' still, ftill 
there, ba 

Idiom : It Ig I, 3d) bin e«. 

A. 1. (^eit bem ^ricc^e finb mcine ©c^tiuiger fcf>r arm. 2. 
SBir babcn iin^o giuci .s^dujer in ber 3tabt gefauft. 3. 2Bo ift beine 
9tufgabc ? 5^icr ift fie. 4. Sir 11 .icbten mdj bem g}?ittag§e[fen 
cincn S^agicvgang mit unt'crcn Cniftcn. 5. Wkin Skater bat mir 
ein ©eicbciif gcfdncft unb id; bin tbm bafiir febr banfbar. 6. 33ift 
bu mit beincr ^Hrbcit fcrtig ? 9Jein, idi bin noc^ md)t bamit fertig. 
7. %^\x trcrbcn morgcn mit ^f;neu nad- ^Diontreal reifen. 8. ^axl 
levnt feit bier ^O^ionateu 5)eiitfcb. 9. „(Se|t euc^ unb feib ftill," fagte 
bie ^iutter 311 i^ren ^od)tern. 10. ^Biirben Sie bid fur biefe 
8u4>er bejabien ? ^c^ tourbe fiinf X^aler bafiir l-cjaf^len. 11. 






must be 
ion when- 
ct Objec- 
3n ju, as: 



arm. 2. 
D ift beine 
r f)at mir 
6. SBift 
itit fertig. 
. 8. ii?art 
tilt/' fagte 

fur biefe 
•len. 11» 


flnuflcn, .7. aicfcr Warn, lobt fid; ui met 18 fli V;,' 
... me,„. 3*, finb ;. ^„.f,. J,,. »a. luii b it t 

met 3' c,'uTtr.r;^'f' '"':^' '• '' •■^ ^^ '"^ °^ ^'^--t 

a. wur sen '.t |j from Germam . 4. ' Buv mem 
f es r"fi Th^'f r '" '™""-"- ■^- '"-^ ^-u I,; o , 
7. Iharlt. you have answered well, sit down. 8 Mv son 
a ways sends me the n.-uspaper fron, Chicago. 9. MyVrie,™ 
.bowed me h,s pictures. ,0. Buy me thi: ring ■ iUsTa/ 
nificeat. 11. Who .s in the gnrde,> .' It is she ' V T?' 
■eve that Carles has bought himself a hit H re i the" 

letter from my uncle. ,4. I am .shamed of you. becl!,se ' 
are not mdustrious. 1.5. My father ould send me t" Vh 
city, if I were old enough. '° ""^ 


sein bT^^I' f ^T '" ^'^' "^^"^^ '' 1st es Karl odor 
seinBru r? 3. Seit wann lernen Sie Deutsch ? 4 Wer Im 
mirdieseZeitu, -creschirki -^ '. w ^^^" • 4. wer iut 

Mitta-sessen ? T- ''?f .''• ^^ '^^ "^ 'chte ich nacb dem 

nma.sessen? b. Wo hai mein V ci dieses Buch gek. fi ? 

• ■* 








*7. Pronouns in Address. 

I. The pronouns Hu .-^nd i(,r are the usual pronouns ot address in 
/'or/rr .lud thu ,/nw,a, \l)\- being used for one person or more, as: 

lliiD Moirii "^liMiid noil) bcffimm' id) tir, 

The goblet is thine, 

And this ring too I'll keep for thee. 

(Schiller, ,,'Dcr Xaud)tv.") 

?n|lt, llaUv, (\nu\(\ foin bac nvaiiiaiiie 2pic(. 
Gf [)at citrf) brftaiibi'ii, uuk^ foiiici- lu'ftd)t, 
Hub roimt i^r bpv< Sm-]n\is OHiiiftcii iuii)t ',n()incn, ii, f. ui., 
Knough, father, of this cruel sport. 
He has ventured for you what none will venture, 
And if you cannot subdue the desire of your heart, etc. {/M.) 
2. gr and Zit (3. sing.) were formerly regularly used as pronouns of 
address towards inferiors, with the verb agreeing in 3. sing., and thev 
are often found so used in the classics, being spelt with a capital 
Their use w.y/ imply contempt; so Faust says to his servant Wagner 
who is otherwise addressed as „i()r" ; ' 

<Sci (fr fdii fdnKiMitniittT tljov, 

Don't be a jingling fool. (Goethe, „ffaiift.") 

3- Gvand 2ic, also i()V, are still used in f^w///>//^;;Az;-y address, correspon- 
dmg to the polite use of 8ic (3. plur.), by people of the lower orders. 

48. The forms incinc?g!cid,cn, bpiiic^^rcil^rn, etc, = 'a person, or 
persons, like me, you,' etc. (vulg. ■ ;he like of me '), are used as indeclinable 
substantives, either as object or as predicate, as : 
Wiv lucrbcn ^-incfifilcii^cn nic uuibcr feljeu, 
We ne'er shall look upon his like again. 
®n bift iiid)t mcinc^Blcirfjcii; 
You are not (a person) like me (my equal). 
(For the use of be§fllcic{)cn, berg{eicl)cn, see §§ 97, 139.) 

. xr^^'r/" addressing persons 01 rank, the proper title, as : ^bve ©miben, 
Your Honour'; Sure (abbrev. (Slt>.) Ct-j-ccHeriv 'Your Excellency'; ^nve 


@ic a hi f comp,„„entary titles that gave rise to the u e of 

no^lIoLi; "" °'^""" '''''''■ '''' ^'' ^-- 30ro, ^ero/arc 

60. Prepositions with Accusative. 

I. The preposition fonftcr takes the accusative, but is of rare occurrence 

fleil .V>nnim(, heavenwards ; flrn yjoibcil, northwards, etc. 
3- Odnc has a dative in the phrase of,.u<llcm, ' at any rate.' 

dir:.^;:^ (i;:;^;:;;r:u:7rr! ■; r>'-^^'- =-•'-!.. .otion or 

dat or ace it Ju Ii n M- c.), ,f this preposition is one governing 

ace It vMll always take the accusative when combined with bi«,as? 
Gr gmg bis ati'S 2(,or, he went as far as the gale. 


Prepositions with Dative. 

The following additional prepositions take the Dative only 
^«mnen within (of ,.,.), as : S&Uuun ,.ri Snnen, withir. two days. 

Notes.-,, a.nnen sometimes governs the ^.«//,w. ^ 

2. Sinn.n is used of time only: ,m,crf,a(l, (see § ) of ,/«.. and time. 

I nlXr \ Contrary to, as : / '^-'^'""'f*' ^^'>'nmin mmm (^ilrtJibcr), 
•* ^""'^"f*^ ' ^contrary to my inclination. 

4. OeoeilUfier, opposite (to), follows the case, as : 

tm Xlm-e- flcnenitbcr, opposite the gate 

5. ®emaft, according to. agreeably to, precedes or follows its case as- 

feinmminm mm (or geiimO fcinem SBiinfrfie), 
Agreeably to his desire. 

6. @Icl(^, like, precedes or follows its case, as: 

@te ladjelte n(cicf) einem Gngel (einem ©ngel gleicfi). 
one smiled like an angel. 
7- 9i6(!)f},or I 

3uno(|f| i "^''^ *"" <^^ of/r<7;r//w//y (= neben), as : 






(Sr faf? naci)ft mir (or mir siiuac^ft), 
He sat next to me. 
(2) of succession, as : 

9?arf)ft bem i'f'beii liebt cr bie (g()re, 
Next to life he loves honour. 

Note.— 3iinarf)ft usually follows its case; tiac^ft is the commoner of the two as pre- 
position, especially in the senses under (2). 

8. 9Ie6ft \ 

9. Somt i" ^"Sether with, along with,as : 

®er ,^frr fam ucbft feincm ^^vnnibe, 
The gentleman came along with his friend. 
®er l^ater famt jeiiicri tiiibein, 
The father together with his children. 
Note i. Distinguish iiebft, along with, and neben (alongside of, near). 
2. 3nmt is used of objects naturally belonging together, as above. 

10. 06 is poetical and obsoiete for iibcr, and denotes : 

(i) above {oi position), as: Ob iJcm 3((tave, above the altar. 

(2) about, concerning, as : (Sntriiftct ob biejcm greoel, indignanl 
about (at) this cutrage. 
Note. — In the lauter sense it also takes a genitive. 


TIVES. -WtAK OR -It STEMS: - ^liadc MODEL. 
62. Paradigm of fcill, to be. 

Principal Parts. 
Pres, Infin. fcin Impf. L\dic. mar Past Part, gelttcfeit 


id; Wx\., I am 
bu Mft, thou art 
er if t, he is 
U)ir finb, we are 
tbr fcib, ye are 
fie finb, they are 



id; fci, I (may) be, etc. 
bu feieft 
er fei 
njir feic.i 
i^r feict 
.fie feicn 


i'ARADlGU OF feirt. 

id) toor, I was 


bu toarft, thou wast 
er tuar, he was 
toir hjaicn, wt- were 
il;r toaret, ye were 
fie \mxcn, they were 

Imperfect. ^"''i""^^*'^^- 

ic^ tDiire, (if) r were (might 

be), etc. 
bu tuiiicft, thou wert 
er tottvc, he were 
Jfir uiiircn, we were 
if;r iDaret, ye were 
fie iDJiren, they were 

I have been, etc. 
id) 6in 

(Pres. of fci„ + p^ p^j.^^ 

bu bift 
er ift 
it)ir finb 
i^r feib 
fie finb 

I had been, etc. 
id; luor 

bu luarft 
er Wax 
tt)ii luareii 
ii^r iuaret 
fie loaren 

bu feieft 

' iictticfcn ^^ ^^^ 

t»ir feien 

i^r feiet 
fie feien 

(Imperf. of fcin + p. Part.) 

I (may) have been, etc 


I had (might have) been. 

^ fichicfrn 

ic^ JDiire 
bu tuareft 
er \vaxt 
Juir luiiren 
if;r hjoret 
fie hJttren 



(Pres. of toerteri + Infin. of feii, ) 

I shall be, etc. r , „, ' 

I shall be, etc. 

ic^ tuerbe 

I fcin 

tc^ hjerbe ) 
bu h)erbeft J 




[§§ 5*- 




cr Juirb 
\mx irerben 
ibr lucrbct 
fie Juerben 



I shall have been, etc 

id) ii>crbe 

bu loirft 

er a'irb 

U)ir iuerben 

\^x iucvbct 

fie iperbeti 

gcmrjen )etn 

gcmefen fetn 


;Impf. Subj. of uievben + Infin 
of jeiu.) 

I should be, etc. 

id; iDiirbc i 

bu tourbeft 

er hjiirbe . . 

h)ir tuilrben ^ 

\{}v luuvbet 

fie iDurbeu 

fei (bu), be (thou) 
feib (\^x), be (ye) 


er tucrbe ~) 
w'lx iuerben | 
ibr ioerbet j 
fie iDcrben J 

Future Perfect, 
(Future of fein + P. Part.) 

I shall have been, etc. 

id) lt>erbe 

bu ioerbeft 

er merbe 

\mv loerben 

it)r loerbet 

fie Ujerben 



(Simple Cond. of ffin -f- Past 

I should have been, etc. 

id) luurbc 

bu luiirbeft 

er iuiirbe 

luir unirben 

it;r luiirbet 

fietoiirben ^ 


(ju) fein, (to) be 

gcmtfcn (ju) fein, to h^ve been. 


Past. nettJCJnt, be*'»> 

gcmefen fein 

Pfrs. fetenb, being 

Remarks. — i. Observe the absence of the Subju.40^»v«-e 
in the i. and x. sing. Pres. 



used :ith mos X' '-""""'" ,"" '''"' "^^ ^ ^«^^" '' .e„r.::;:,?i ftn^ir'crr ''"'- ™^ "'^ '^^ 

53. Use of |>u, as Auxiuakv of Tfnsf 

(<^) With those expressing a change of condition, as • 
fterbeii, die . ,, 

ecnefei, recover (f,o.i„„ess) rSC:. 

, oicben, move, go, proceed. 

f4,r";„r^' ''^''^"- •« --'"^ ^^«^«-'- - meet; 

</) "The impersonal verbs • (i.'rin,-.,^,. .r-^ 
SeWc^e,,, to happen. ' ^ "'"' «'"*"' '° '"^'^^''d ! 

vert •s:,:-;iiin2^:Lrr " "^= "* -" 

denote an „./„„ merely, and not .n specirtc ci^ange of place, a! • 
ec 6at Bid nerrift, he .as tr,'.vel]ed a great deal 

as'the':';;:,i"trt ""^rTr "-^ "^^ ^^'-"^ --'-y 

babe,, th' '-efix - ''«"""- ^'"'"^ '^^n^i'ive. lakes 

',TOU,, tn,. i„efix cnangmg the nature of the verb. 





54. Declension of bcr ^ttak, the boy. 


bic .^uabeit, the boys 
btr .^naben, the boys', of 

the boys 
ben .flnaben, (to, for) the 

bie .<ilnabett, the boys 


Nom. bev .ftnabc, the boy 
Gen. bc^ Alnabcu, the boy's, of 

the boy 
I)at. bi ^' S^naben, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben .Slnabeii, the boy 

Observe : i. All cases end in -n, except Nom. Sing. 

2. No Umlaut added in Plural. 

3. The only change is the addition of -n. 

Remark. — The Plural ox-en is a remnant of the -n declen- 
sion in English. 

55. Substantives ending in a consonant add -en, as : 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ©raf, the count 
Gen. be§ ©rafcM, of tlie count 
Dat. bem ©rafcn, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben ©rafcil, the count 

bie ©raffit, the counts 
ber C^jrafctl, of the counts 
ben ©vafcit, (to, for) the 

bie ©rafcil, the counts 

60. Feminines do not vary in the singular, as : 


Nom. bic -Blumc, the flower 
Gen. ber 33lunic, of the flower 
Dat. bcviMumc, (to, for) the 

Ace. bie ^^Muntc, the flower 

57. In thi;, way are declined 


bie 33huneit, the flowers 
ber ^i^huiien, of the flowers 
ben ^i^liunen, (to, for) the 

bie 23(uinett, the flowers. 

I. All masculines ending in-c, except ber ^dfe, cheese (see 
§ 17), and the doubtful ones in § 61. 


DECLENSION :--^naBc model. 


2. Certain masculines which have dropped the final -c as- 

ber ^elb, hero 

ber §evr, gentleman, master 
ber ,<oirt(e), herdsman, shep- 

ber 9J?cnfcfv man (human be- 
ing = Lat. noma) 

ber 33ar, bear 

ber ^aucr, peasant 

ber g^rift, christian 

ber ©e[ca(e), fellow, companion, 

ber ©raf, count 

A full List of these Substantives is given in App^F, 

3. All femin.nes, except gjhittcr, ^orf)ter (§ 17 3) the 
monosyllables under § 2? r>r.A Ii '• . '' ^^' 
(22, 4). • ^ ' 2' ^"^ ^^^^^^^ ^" -ni« and -fa( 

4. No Neuters (but see §§ 62, 63). 

Further Examples : 

Like ^mU : 

'V. ber iBote, messenger g. d. a. SBoten 

ber .f)a[c, hare 
ber 3fiefc, giant 
ber 9tu[[c, Russian 

w. ber 53ar, bear 
ber g^iirft, 
ber ,^elb, here 
ber git'cnfcf), man 
ber Stubent', student 
ber eolbat', soldier 

Remark 1. Ter .^i)err, gentlema 

N. G. D. A. ^Boteit 
|afett §afen 

^^^^^« 3itefen 

^»ff^« Stuffeit 


G.D.A. 53arpn n. g. d. a. ^arcit 

l^'^f" ^iirficn 

£^^^f« §elben 

5J?enfcbeii gj^enfc^en 

©tiibentcit ©tubentctt 

©olbatcn eorbaten 

In the 


g., uut -en ill pjm-^ 

n, master, lord, adds -n only 



[§§ 57- 


N. G. D. A. ^(umc 


Like 53Iume : 


N. G. D. A. ^^lutnen 


Remark 2. Feminines in -c(, -er add -n only in the Plur., as: 

Si7ig. bie ^-cber, pen Plur. ^-cbcrn 

bic ©abel, fork ©a6eln 

bie ed;ii)eftcr, sister ednuoftern 

Remark 3. Feminines in -in double the u in the plur., as: 
Sing, bie (^rcifin, countess Plur. (sjrdfinncil 

admire, 6ctDunbern 
hasten, cilen 
hunt, jagcu 

dwell, reside, live, tuo^ncn 
astrologer, bcv ^Iftrolog' 
lady, bie ®ame 
influence, ber Gin'flu^* 
heathen, ber ^eibe 
comet, bcv ^omef 
landscape, bie 2anbfd)aft 


monarch, bcv SHonarc^' 
news, bic 'Jfad;rid;t 
nephew, ber l)icffe 
planet, ber planet' 
Prussian, ber '^rcu^e 
raven, ber 9Ia6e 
valley, bas %^oX 
happy, gliidlic^ 
when, al^, luenn 
when ? loanu ? 

58. ^A/hen = menu ahoays with Present, Perfect and 
Future ; and also with Imperfect and Pluperfect, of a 
habitual or repeated occurrence (= whenever), as : 

I ahoays xo%<\, when (i. e. whenever, njcim) the sun rose. 

When = a(^ with Imperfect and Pluperfect otily^ of a 
single, definite occurrence, as : 

1 rose yesterday, when (al6) the sun rose. 



59] DECLENSION : — ^lltaBc MODEL. 

When ? interrogative = mnnii ? as : 

When was your father liere? 

NoTK. - Kemeraber ihat lllfim also = "if." 

50. When a conditional or " if " sentence precede, the 
pr,nc,pa sentence on which it depends, the princfpai scte ce 

usually .ntroduced by the particle fo, which is not to be 
ttanslated mto English, or counted as a ,nen,ber of tl^ sit 

Klea ,«e , .o). as : age,,,, irt, ,«elb „a.,e, f„ ,„„,., tl, Rn';m^l ;;,;;:'"""' 


9«,It 3. SD.e atrme mt$ 3(icfc„ finb fe(,r ra„q ,„b ftarf 7 

aiuihd, fe,n, turn,, ie ,„it ifitcr awdt fertia finl, g W fv 
3tuffe„ §eibe„? 9iei„, fie finb Ghrif ,r 1 Mein 9ifff " , 

i'Muu;cn. 10. ii)ie 5{naben Batten b ef 9^t'r,i«ii-> ,« r. - .. 
-««te. I;.r„n. x,. ^i«,«4)crrcn maben arm wcrbct, «,«,„ fle i^j 






©clb fo uerfc^tocuben. 18. Unfcrc 9?effen finb lange 6ei un^ 

i9. 1. The castles of the count are magnificent. 2 The 
churches of this city are large and beautiful. ;i. When will 
your brother be at home ? 4. Are these soldiers Prussians ? 
No they are Russians. 5. The bears live in the forests', 
b. llie boys have two ravens and three hares. 7 The 
ladies^ have been in the church, but they are now at home. 
a_ Who was right ? 9. For a boy of (uon) five years he is 
very large. 10. I should be happy, if I were rich. 11 He 
has not been at home to-day. 1 2. Wh.n she was in the city 
she lived at her aunt's. 18. Would th , girl be contented, if 
she were with her mother.? 1^. The students became tired 
because they had studied too much. 


P \7.'''J'V^' ^'^' "' ^''"^•" gemacht.? 2. Hatte ich 
Kecht.? 3. Wer elite mit der Nachricht nach Paris? 4 
Haben Sie jemals Hasen oder Fuchse gejagt .? 5 Wann 
wird mein Pruder xu Hause sein ? 6. Wiirde ich glucklich 
sein, wenn ich reich ware > 


60. Declension of bcr mmt, the name. 

Norn, bcr :?kmc, the name 
Gen. bc^5 5Zanieng, of the name 
Dat. bem teamen, (to, for) the 

Ace. ben 9iameii, the name 

bic ^amen, the names 
ber 9?amen, of the names 
ben 9?amett, (to, for) the 

bie SRamen, the names 



ber iQaufc, heap 
ber ©ame, seed 
ber ecf;abc, harm, injury 

[pl. 3rf'abcnJ 
ber iliMfrc, will 


O-kvk: -e in the No.. Sin,, and -c„, in Gen. Sin. 
2. -en all other cases. "^ 

NcK »T..'^ ^«;^-'-'n except in 2dmbe (see below). 
I he Non,. S,„g. sometimes has «. . 

oer ^ud;ta6c Jetter (of the \l i^.wu w , 
phabet) ^ .^!' i^^'^?"^> thought, idea 

ber ^riebe, peace * M 

ber ^unfe, spark ^f^ 

ber mauU, faith, belief, 

., ^^^ ;:iMuc, will 

Also one neuter: bn« .Jaj, the hear. (Ace. Sing. §er,) 

^^^. "^ ^"-^ ^'"^'- ''■^- ^'^'' «■ °"<')i - C^r(c); 

63. In this way decline also : 
I. Certain masculines, as • 

2. Certain neuters, as : 

III iTu': "'' '5-^^' ^"rt 

oa^ 33ett, bed 
(A full List of these substantives will be found in App G ^ 
3^Foreign (Latin) masculines in unaccented -or as "^ 

ber ^rofef or, the professor- c. si^rof.fior* • /./ a? -" 
ber 3:0!. 0,, the doctor: g. ^oftor^; I^/ur. ^oWxtn. 








SnUSTANIIVKS with Doun/ K I'MrUAI,. 

riu' foUowiii'; h.ivi- doiihlc forms oC tlu* IMiiral, with a 
dirrorent nKMiiiii<« for each : 







bac" '.i^inb, ribbon 
ba>:; iUnt>, tie, bond 
(brr '^^anb, volume 
bio 'l^a)\\, bank (commercial) 
bic ^l\an\, bench 
ba^^ ('>iciid>t, face, countenannp 
ba-o (^JcjidU, vision 
bcv Vabcn, shop 
bcr :i?abon, shutter 
ba\< X^lnb, land, country 
ba-? 'i?anb, province 
biV-> ^i'^>>rt i '^-'''^^f''' "^^'Ttls considenui scf^aratcly 
word ' ) '^^-''^^'^^' ^^'^^rds considered ccnncctcdly 
\ (as makin::: sense) 

Rkmark. — I'he plural Vaubc is also used in [)oet;cal ?au- 
jiuage: and in the compound bic ^)ticbcvUinbc, the Methcrhmds 
(^= Lower Provinces). 

«5. Prepositioxs covkrmnc. ihe Dativk or 

accusa iivk. 
The following nine prepositions govern the Dative when 
they indicate louilify merely, or aiTswer the question 
'where?' or Mn what place?'; the Accusative when 
they imply motion, i/inrfio/i or tendency (figurative motion) 
towards, or answer the questicin 'whither?' or 'to whp* 
place or person ? ' : 

«»»' «»Mf' Wxicv, in, iicbcii, 

titicr, iinter, nor and jtotfc^ctto 

r non- 


an, I. (of />Ai,r, 

(a)^•h] yy .iponfa(lj;.(:(;„tfo>,as: 

'i'i^ .u lure. /ur„^rs on tl... wall (n„ s.irface 

brr ^ji;a,tb). I „„^. 

■) With Acc, ((., towards, 0,1, as: 

1 /'^'//A'- the picture; on the wall (an 
bic iiyaiib). 

2. (of //W, ,/,,/„ with MAT. r,vr V, on, ,ipon/as.. 

I wn '.orn on the ei^r,,teenth of Au^ (0,,, 

He will arrive on Monday (nm Wonla(V> 

J"^ ^'^^ ^" ''^ "^^ ^'^^ ''^^'--^ ^^^^^'---^^ 
auf, (of//./rr): 

(a) With :)AT., on, upon (o;/ top of), as : 
The hook //;■.»• on the table (ouf 
bcm CTifdu. 
(<J) With Acc, to, towards, on, as : 

I hiy the book on the table (ouf 


Winter, behind : 

{a) With DAT., as: The dog lies behind the stove 
(^mtcrbcm Cfcn). 

{b) With Acc as : The dog ^oes behind the stove 
(fjintcr ben Cfcn). 
fn, I. {oi place): 

(a) With HAT., in, as : The gardener /. in the garden 
(im Ciarten). 

(l>) With ACC into, as: The gardener ,w. into the 
garden (m bcu ©artenX 

( surface 





o .. \.^.^ 




{./ f^ 








14 111.6 







WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 87^4503 







2. (of time) in (with dat. only), as : God made the 
world in six days (in fcc^« 3;agcn). 
neden^ near, alongside of, by : 

(«) With DAT, as : The chair stands near (by) the 
table (ncbcn bem ^ifdjc). 

{b) With Acc, as : I place the chair near the table 
(nc6cn bcii ^ifd;). 

iilicr, I. (of place) over, above : 

id) With DAT, as : The bridge is over the river Ciifier 

bcm gfuffc). ^ 

{b) Witb ACC, as : I ^^ over the river (iikr bcn ^lu^). 

2. (of excess) over, above (with acc. only), as : He 

remained over (niore than) two days Cukr 3Jt)ei 

3. about, concerning (with acc. only), as: He spoke 

v/ith me about his journey (itftcr feinc 9^eife). 
Unter, i. {oi place), under, beneath, below: 

(a) With DAT., as : The cat lies under the chair (untcr 
bcm ©tufjic). 

(^) With ACC, as : The cat creeps under the chair 

(uutcr belt etii^I), 

2. (of mimber) among : 

{a) Witn DAT., as: The wolf is among the sheep 

(utitcr bcn ©c^afcii). 
{b) With ACC, as : The wolf mingles among the 
sheep (uittcr bic erf^afc). 
HX, I. (of place) before, in front of : 

{a) With DAT., as : The chair stands before the win- 
dow (tior bcm ^enfter). 






(/^) With Acc, as : Place the chair before the window 
(t»or0 ^Icnftev). 

2. (of order) before Twith dat. only), as: He came 

before me (tiarmii). 

3. (of time) before, igo (with dat. only), as : 

He came before two o'clock (tior gtuet U^r). 
He came two hours ago (dor ^luei Stunben). 
JttJtfd^Cn, between (of two objects) : 

(«) With DAT., as : The chair stands between the 

door and the window (jmifr^eil bcr ^^ure unb 
Dcm ^^enftcr). 

{b) With ACC, as : Put the chair between the door 
and the wmdow (jnitfl^eil bic Z^xxxt unb ba0 

Remark. - Observe the following contractions with the 
unemphasized Definite Article : 

anbem==om in bem = tm 

an bag = o„g ^^ ^^^ _ .^^ 

auf bag = uiifg 
Also the following, which are of less frequent occurrence. 
gutter beni = f,intcrm unter bem = unterm 

.^tnterbag=^interg unter bag = nnterg 

uber bem = nbevm t,or bem = uoim 

uber bag = uberg t,or bag = borg 

Vocabulary. / 

please, lit, (I) beg, (I) pray, lay, legen 

(ic^) bitte 
hang (trans.), ^angen 
fetch, bring, get, ^olen 
hear, boren 
hunt, chase, pursue, |?.gen 

put, place, set (down), fe^en 
put, place, set (upright). 

seek, look for, fuc^en 
kill, toten 




waii (for), \vavUn (auf -f- ace; 
strawberry, bie Grbbeevc 
fire, ba^ ^euev 

Netherlands, bie ^aebevlaubc 
philosophy, bie ^^i)iIofo))l)ic' 
stove, ber Cfen* 
school, bie ®c^ule 
door, bie 2f»ur(e) 
difference, ber Unterfc^ieb 
university, bie UniDerfitat 
dictionary, ba^ SBiJrterbucf; 

open, offen 

heavy, hard, fdbtDCr 

ten, jelni 

thereupon, on it, etc., barauf 

first, not before, erft 

if you please, gefiiKigft 

no longer (lit, not more), 

md)t mebr. 
where, h)0 
in order to, um (foil, by infin. 

with gu at end of clause) 


^- 1. Sener 9??ann toejidj gegeu meincn mikn auf bie 
^a -1 2. ®er ^fcffe beilfrofe]jor| wax lange (^fuS^t, aber er 
tft je^t Xdtov bev ^bilofo^bie. 3. 2i5anim hahm meine ^ettern 
uber (at) mic^ gelad)t ? 4. gjjein 33ater loirb un^ am gj?ontag 
obcr (am) ^ienc^tag in bie ecbule fc^iden. 5. ®cr eot)n unb 
bte a-oc^ter un[cr(c)^ 9iad;barg fur^ten ^iHumcn unb ©rbbeeren im 
2BaIbe. 6. gj^ein i^atev unb mcine 9Jiutter finb [eit brei 5Koc^en 
auf bem Sanbe. 7. tie il^anfen lycrben e.ft morgen um gefjn Ubr 
offen fern. 8. ^..gen 2ie gefalligft biefe i^anbe neben mic^ auf 
bte 33anf. 9. ^er ^onig bev ^Jieberlanbe veifte burc^ feinc 
etai\kn unter bem 9]amen einca ©rafen. 10. ^er ^riebe beg 
§erm fei mit end;. 11. ^er &vaf fc^idte feinen ®of,n auf bie 
Uniberfitcit 12. Xa^, ^mh x\t fcJ;r fran! unb bie g^utter \)at 
givei ^o!toren gebolt. 13. a^e^^alb lyarten eie fo lange bor ber 
3:F)ure ? 14. 3)ie -perrcn jagten ben ^i^drcn Winter ben 3Salb, it)o 
fie i^n toteten. 15. ^m SBinter fet^en Wiv um oft bor bag ^euer 
unb beh)unbern bie ^unfen. 16. Unfere .^cx:,m toerben immer 
traurig, jyenn toir 'Md)xid)t bom Alviege fioren. 17. 2Sag ift ber 
Unterfc^ieb ^\v\\d)in ben Jiiortern 33anfen unb 53anfe? 18. 2)ie 
3rugen beg etubenten finb fd^toa*, ioeil er gu biel ftubieri i}at 
19. ®e^en @ie ft* auf biefen etuf)!, benn eie finb miibe. 20 








^ittc, fteEeu Sie mir biefcii 3tul;l bintcv ben Dfen. 21 ®ie 
v^tubenten (crnm bom ^:|]rofc)|-ov bie %mmx bcv(s3ottev ber 9iomev. 
_^. 1. The children were playing before the house. 2.' 
What IS the name of this professor? His name is Srhmidt 
3. Hang the picture of my father over the door. 4 Every 
human being has two eyes and two ears. 5. Why do the 
professors praise their students? (i. The professors praise the 
diligence of their students. 7. The difference between my 
brother and me is not great. 8. I laid the pens upon the 
table, but they are no longer there. 5). Our neighbours sent 
their children into the wood to search for flowers. 10 Our 
cousin lived happy and in peace with iiis neighbours 11 
The pupils would look for the words in a dictionary, if they 
had time. 1 0. Your eyes are tired, because x ou have studied 
too much. 18. These words are hard to learn, for every 
u;ord has ten letters. 14. Place this chair, if you please, be- 
hind the ste. for me. 15. li Charles is not ready, we shall 
go (reifen) without him to Germany. 


w^uT ^'l'^ ^^' ^"'"^ ^'^ ^"^ ^'^ Universitat schicken .^ 
2. Weshalb hat die Mutter die Doktoren gehoit.? 3 Was 
lernten die Studenten von den Professoren .? 4. Werden Sie 
ohne mich nach Chicago reisen } 5. Wo reiste der Koni^ 
der Niederlande .? 6. Wann werden die Kirchen offen seint 




Substantives without Pt^ural. 

The following classes of substantives are uscl in the singular only • 
like'^^Ze^^^^"' unless they denote a class (as: bie r^Vlfade, painters 
^etnn(i)e, the first four Henries, i. e., kings of that name). 

^ /' 






2. Names of materials, etc., unless they denote different kinds of the 
same material (as : ©vafcv, Salsc different kinds of grass, salt), or when 
they have a special meaning (as : @c(ber, . urns of money; ^^3npiere, docu- 

3. Abstract Substantives, unless they have a concrete {particular) 
meaning, as: Iiujeiibcn, virtues; ®d)i)nl)ritni, beauties, etc. 

Note.— Many nouns of this sort, when used in a coiicrete sense, use the plurals of 
other words, generally compound, as: ber Sob, death ; bi? SobeSfaHe, deaths (i. e. case* 
of death). 

A list of these is given in App. H. 

For the plural of nouns of measure, etc., see Less. XXX. 


Substantives without Singular. 

The following classes of substantives are used in the plural only: 

1. Names of certain diseases: Die S8(attevn, the small-pox; bie Spfiolern 
or ;)?otcln, the measles, 

2. The following names of festivals, etc.: 2Bci{)nad)ten, Christmas, 
gaftcii, Lent; Ofteni, Easter; ^in'i»flften, Pentecost (Whitsuntide). 

3. Those plural by meaning, viz.: Stlpcii, Alps; Seiuf (fiber, trou- 
sers; 33ricffd)aftcn, documents; (Siufiliifte, income, revenae; eitcrit, 
parens; ^crien, holidays; ©Ucbmofieit, limbs; .^)cfcn, dregs, yeast;' 
Soften, Uiitoftcu, expenses ; ?eute, people ; 3JZo(fcn, curds. 

68. Irregular Compounds, i. Substantives having -manit as the 
last component form the plural: 

(a) Regularly, when denoting male individuals or occupations, as: 

(Sliemiiimer, husbands; (Sf)renm6nner, men of honour; @taat«imomicr, 

(b) By changing -mnnit into -leuU, when used collectively or in a 
general sense, or to include both sexes, as: ^rbeitjilcutc, working-people; 
(Sljclcute, married people; ApaubckMcutC, trades - people ; ?anblcutf! 
country-people; ^ailb^lcutC, people of the same country; 9Ktet8lctttc' 
lodgers (male and female). ' 

Notes. — i. With words of common occurrence, such as «aufmonn, merchant, fiof* 
mann, courtier, the plur. with -leute only is used. 

2. The form with -Icute is the plur. of the fem. compound with -frau (e. g. ©Befrau 
married woman), as well as of that with -mann. ' 

2. Die 0[)innad)t, the fainting-fit, and bic iBoUmacI)t, the power-of- 
attorney (from a)?ad)t, pi. Win'^Xt), have the pi. ntad)tcn ; bte 2tntrt)ort, 
the answer (from bo^ Sort, pi. 2Bortc and ^Sorter), has pi. -en. 



abater .odd (§,6) in the s rT ur^n;:;""'^ ^""^^ ^'^^ 
model, § .:, ,. no Umlaut,, Lep Cam wh ch"i ' " " ' '^^""' 
w^a/t in the plur. (-en). ^i^iam, which IS more commonly 

2. Weak feminines are often found with th^ ^m 
-en, especially when used without ar"e .f! "''^ ^'"' ""^^ ^^*- '" 
erben, on earth (ln.taufb,rIbeonThLr iT ' P^'^^^'^^"' ««= «"f 
In Onaben, in mercy e c '^^ ' ^" ®^^''^'"' ^" h°"°"r of; 


70. Summary of Declension of Substantives 

I. WlaUv Model 
(Contracted Form.) 

^. Strong Declension. 


Nom. ■ 

Gen. ^ 





11. @r^n Model. 

(Primary Form.) 

III. ©orf Model. 

(Enlarged Form.) 

Sing. piur. 


— -cr 
— cr 
— cm 
— cr 

Remarks. - 1. The term ' Strong Declension ' is applicable 
to all the three forms given above. -^l^piicable 

2. The eo^n Model is sometimes called the Primary 
Form of the Strong Declension, and shows the -.of Gen 

fti:l:: ''^ '^"^* ^''''' '''' ''' ^-^-^ ^^- ' ^^- two 



Hi 7^ 

3. By contraction dropping -c of the termination), the 
^iJialcr Model, hence called also the Contracted Form of 
the Strong Declension ; and 

4. By enlargement (adding -r in the Plur., the Sing, remain- 
ing the same), the ®orf Model, hence also called the En- 
larged Form of the Strong Declension. 

5. Feminines remain unchanged in the Sing. 

6. The Umlaut may occur in any of these forms, viz.: 
generally in masc. monosyllables, regularly in feminines and 
in Enlarged Form ; never in neuter monosyllables of Primary 
Form. (See Lists, App. A., B., C., E.) 

B. Weak Declension. 

.<i?nabe, (Sjraf, 33Iume Model. 

Sing. Nom. (c) Plur. - 

Gen. (e)n 

Dat. (c)n 

Ace. (e)n 

Observe: i. The persistent -n. 2. The absence of Um- 
laut. 3. Uniformity of Cases. 4. Feminines unchanged in 

C. Mixed Declension. 


I. 9?amc Model. 
^ing. N. — e Plur, — n 
G. — u8 _n 

D. — n — n 

ir. 9?ad(>6ar, Dfjr Model. 
Sing. — ^ Plur. - -(e)n 

-(e)l -(e)n 

-(f) -(e)tt 

— — — (e)« 

A. — n —It 

Remarks.— i. All three follow the ^nabe Model in the Plur, 

9. The gjamc Model is a Mixture of the'^Jlaler and .<{lnabe 
models in the Sing., usually taking -g in the Gen., sometimes 
-n in the Nom. 





^J^ The 3tai,bax Model follows the min Model in the 

4. The 0{,t Model follows the Sobn Model in the Sing 

s.a";e?;e .'^"^"'^' "'"' '"' '^^ °-'--n oi a Sub 

The Nominative Singular, 
The Genitive Singular, and 
The Nominative Plural 

roitdtr ihf :L:t^ — ^irr °' *^ "-- -- "« 

following: ' '^ """ ''ssistance of the 

Remakks.-,, All Feminines are unchanged in the Sing, 
the Weak Declension (.ft„„Oe, ®r«f and «.u,e n^ocie^ 

.e^w?a:?;e:i;Sri::^^;:uS^"""- ^--' '» 

4- The Nom., Gen. and Arr Pi,,.. 

cu. ana acc. Plur. are a/ways alike. 

5. The Dat. Plur. a/wajys ends in -n. 
(Djlinelhefollo vvjng substantives thrn.o-h^,ft . 

Declension of Proper Names. 
T2. Geographical Proper Names; 
I. If «^zrr used without an article, etc. (see ^ aa \ 
•ieclmed like common nouns, as : ber^Jific m g JVi 'V^'' 

ending :i;TTi: "tt f' ':■ '''-'-^ ^^^^ ^^^^ -^' - 

ng except -| m the Gen. Sing, (unless they end in a 


LESSON xvr. 


sibilant), as : ^eutfcftf :inb, Germany, g. ^cutfc^Ianbg ; ^vanU 
rcid), France, g. ?vran!rdcIiS ; 9tom, Rome, g. ^Homg. 

3. If they end in a sibilant (g, \^, J, J, y), the Gen. is 
replaced by the preposition tioit, as: Die Sefeftigungen Han 
part's?', the fortifications of Paris. 

4. %^\\ may replace the Gen. with other names also, and 
is always used after titles, as : ^ie 5lbnigiu Don Gncilanb, the 
Queen of England ; ber SBilrgcnneifter bott Toronto, the Mayor 
of Toronto. 

5. When the Name of a Place is preceded by a common 
noun, they are in apposition to each other, but the proper 
name is not inflected, as : %\<i, ©tabt t^ottbou (not >»^}\ Sons 
bon), the City of London, g. ber StabtSonbon. Da^ ^bnigreic^ 
^reu^Ctt, the Kingdom of Pru'ssia, g. beg ^bnigreic6§ ^reu^en. 

6. Proper Names of Places are not used in the Plural. 

73. Proper Names of Persons are now inflected in the 
Gen. Sing, only, as follows : 

I. If preceded by an article, etc. (which shows the case) 
they remain unchanged, as : The letters of Cicero, bie -Bncfe 
bc0 ©iccro. 
--/^ 2. If not preceded by an article showing case, etc., those 
ending in a sibilant, and Feminines in -c, add -(e)n§ in the 
Gen. ; all others add -§ only, as : 3)lay, G. 33ia£Cn8 ; Souifc, G. 
£Dui[c;i3 ; ^arl, g. ^axU. 

Remark. — Surnames and classical names in a sibilant 
now commonly take an apostrophe instead of -en8, as: 
Dpi^' JBcvfe, Opitz's works. 

74. Family Names are used in the Plural with added -8, 
as in English, but without article, as : the Schmidts, 6c^mibt^ 
(meaning the members of the Schmidt family). 

Further Remarks on the Declension of Proper Names and of Foreign' 
Substantives will be found in Supp. Less. C, below. 


75. Prepositions Governing the Genitive. ^' "^^^^^ "" ir' 
1. »flei;, on account of, on behalf of, for the^'f of- t<^. 
(sometimes >/^z£/j its case), as : I remained at home on ^ ' 
account of (for the sake of) my child, (mcgctt mcim 

NoTE.-533e0cn always /o//ows the Gen. of the Pers. Prons which 
are then written in one word with the preposition, and have special forms 
ending in -t, as: meiuclniqini, for my sake; il)n1uir{irn, for her (their) 
sake; unfcvhucflcn, for our sake, etc.; also with the Relative and 
Denionstr. ttr '. bm(ii)(iucgen (Sing. Fern, and Plur. = 'for the sake of 
whom, which, that,' etc.). 

2- ^totb, during, as: We went out walking during the 
rain (ma^rcitb beg Siegeng). 

3' ^MJi, or anftatt instead of, as : He will come instead 
of his friend (ftntt, or oilftott |einc0 <lrcunbc0). 
The other preps, with gen. will be found in Lesson 

give, present, make a present Henry, .^etnric^ 

of (foil, by dat. of person 
and ace. of thing), fc^enfcn 
library, bie Jbibliot^ef 
bookseller, bcr ^ud)'f)anbrer 
cousin (fem.), bie goufine 
Elizabeth, ©(ifabet^ 
Europe, Guro'^a 
festivity, bie ^eftltcf;!eit 
Frederick, ^riebric^ 
Fred, Freddy, ^rt| 
poem, ba3 ©cbtc^t 
George, ©eorg 
Greece, (ba§) ©riec^enlanb 
capital (city), bie ^au^tftabt* 

Ireland, (ba^) Orlanb 
Margaret, g)?argarete 
speech, oration, bie S^iebe 
St. Lawrence, ber ©t. (@anct) 

Sarah, Sara 
Scotchman, ber Sd^ottc 
street, bie Stra§e 
Thames, bie 3:f)emfe 
work, bav3 9Ber! 
William, Wiit^elm 
broad, wide, breit 
high, boc^ 
clear, !(ar 






turbid, muddy (of water), 

soon, 6alb 
everywhere, iibcrafl' 

Idlomn: to be on a visit at(aiiy onp's), nuf 33rfuil) feJn bei ; a.e a birth- 
day pn'HtMit, )iiiu Wrburt«tafl. 


A. 1 . ^er .^aifcr toon Xcutidilanb i[t c^l^ Monig toon ^reu|cn. 
2. ^ie 33ergc Giij^lanb^ unb '^vlanb^ finb nid;t \}od), aber bie 
!!t3cr(^e bcr 2cl;tuci5 finb boc^ unb pracbtii^. 3. Wxx ftiibiercu bie 
SBricfe bc^ (Siccro. 4. 3ara^:( (5ou[inc wax bci if)r auf Sefud;, 

7abcr jct^t ift fie fmt. 5. ^JJiuUcr^ juarcn iicftcrn bei am, ahcx 
h)ir tuarcn nicbt ^u .s>au[e. i;. ^^hvj ift bcr ^Jiame bes; 93iivger= 
meiftcr^:^ uon i'onbon? 7. tUicin %ier f?at mi? 2effing^ !;liserfe 
unb .f)cinc0 ^icber jum (ik'burtetiig gefcbcntt. 8. 3(uf mciner 
SHcifc befudUc id; bie ©tiibtc 9onbon, ^ari^, Berlin unb ^Kom. 
9. Tie ?^-liiffc (SanabivJ finb giof^, aber bie ^-tiiffe Wried)cnlanb^ 
finb tlcin unb furj. 10. 2Bir lucrbcn bie 'i3hunen fiir So))t>ie auf 

J^ 2:ifa)^ ftcacn.. 11. ?yviebvidH3 Dhittcr fdicnft ibm j^fopftod^ 
9BcHe^~Tenn beute ift fein (^K'burtetag. 12. T)a^ 2Baffei be^ 
8anct Sovenj ift f'lar, aber ba^ Ul^iffcr bcr 2i)m\i ift trub'' 13. 
2|uifc, bole '3opl;ic unb ©lifabctt) unb Juir lucrbcn eincn S^^ajievs 
gang iin Slsaltie madicn. 14. ^^irfer 8c^^otte rebet uiel oon 
Bumps' ©ebicbten. 15. <Qcinricf)^5 g-rcunbe Juerben balb nac^ 
(Sncjlanb reifcn, unb fie iucrbcn and) ^-ranfrcic^i befud;en. 16. Tie 
iStraf^n ^orontoS luarcn n>abrenb ber ^cftlic^fciten fc^r fcfion. 
11. SBe^o^alb ftubieren 3ie bie 9ieben beC^ Tcmoftfienc^? 18. 
2lm -yrcitacj ober Sonnabcn^ mcrbcn \v\x nacf) i^ingfton reifen 
urn 2|uifc unb 'OJtargarcte ju befud)en. 19. ©eorg ift je^t bei 
feinon !i>ctter ?>'rit^ auf Befud;. 20. 2(m Sonntag h>aren toir 
megen bc<^ Sturmcs §u .s^aufc. 21. ^d; ^abe in ber ®d;iueij nic^t 
biel ii?ergniigen gcbabt, lueil id; auf ber ^lieife Iran! luar. 

B. 1. Chg.rle3, bring Freddy and Max, and we shall play 
in the garden., 2. We have looked for Wiiiiam's book every- 
where, 3. The stjeets of Paris are wide and beautiful. 4. 








Who has bought these gloves for Emma? 5. The city of 
Ottawa is the capital oi Canada. 6. We live in Canada, but 
our parents live in Germany. 7. We have presented flowers 
to Ehzabeth and Mary. 8. You have Goethe's woH^ThT 
your library. 9. I bought Schiller's Wil/iaw Tell at (bci) a 
bookselT^s in Hamilton. 10. We learn in this book the 
names of the gods of the Romans. 11. Ti,e Schmidts visited 
us yesterday. 12. What is the cafiit^l of Switzerland.? 13 
My father sent me instead of Max, because Ma.v was too tired' 
14. Ihe city of Berlin is the capital of the kingdom oi 
Prussia. 15. Would you be happy, if yo. were rich ? 


1. Wer ist Konig vci Preussen .? 2. Wo wr.r Saras Cou- 
sine.> 3. W^as hat Ihr Vater Ihnen ;:um Geburtstag ge- 
schenkt } 4. SJnd die Strassen Torontos immer schon ? 5 
Weshalb waren wir am Sonntag zu Hause .? 6. Was i-',t die 
Hauptstadt Canadas ? ~"^ 



Further Remarks on Declension of Proper Names. 

1. Proper name, of towns, governed by a preposition in the genitive 
do not take -%, as : iiniueit A>n,„burg, not far from Hamburg 

2. N..mes of persons, even if preceded by an article, etc., take -0 in 

3- Feminine names frequently take -(e)ll in the dat. and ace, especialh 
If they end in -t, as : tm\% d. a. l^ouifoH. ^ 

4. Family names (and even Christian names) formerly added -(f)n in 
the dat. and ace, and are usually so found in the classics, as: 
®octl)P, n. A. @oct()ei! 

®rf)iacr, " ®d)iUcrii 

tar(, » ^(n.|„ 

?effi"0, " ?effinge« 

iN OTE. - This inflection is now obsolete and not to be imitated. 





5. In the case of proper names in the genitive, preceded by a common 
noun as title : 

(a) If the governing word fol/ovjs, the proper name takes the ,'enitive 
ending, the title remaining undeclined and having no article, as: itijilig 
^eini'iri)d ^i)I)nr, King Henry's sons. 

{li) If the governing word precedes, the title has the article and the 
genitive ending, the proper name remaining undeclined, as: bie So()ne 

NoTK. — Tlie title Jpcvr takes n in the genitive in both these cases, as: ^errit 
©cfimibtfl .fiaiiS, or bass ^ou9 bc3 .i^errn (5cf)mibt. 

6. In the case of a Christian name without article, connected with a 
family name ■)receded by Hon (indicating noble rank) : 

(a) Wlu-n the governing wo. d follows, the family name only is de- 
clined, as : J^vicbrirf) uoii >2rf)illcvg ©cbirfjtc. 

{l>) When the governing word precedes, only the Christian name is 
declined, as: Xic C'')i-btd)tc j^i-icbvtri)g uon >2d)iUer. 

7. The names of the Saviour, SriiiS (Il)viftii?, usually both follow the 
Latin declension, thus: n. 3cfitg ei)ii|tu?, g. 3efii C£l)rifti, D. 3efu (Sdrifto, 
A. 3efum (Sl)riftuiii, Voc. -si'fu e()viftc. 

NoTU. — Other biblical names, if without article, also follow the Latin inflection, espe- 
cially in the gen,, as : 1>m Gunii,]eltuiit St. iDiattt^cit, the Gospel of St. Matthew. 

77. Declension of Foreign Substantives. 

1. Most foreign substantives fol low one or other of the regular form& 
of declension, all feniinines being weak. 

2. Most masculines and neuters from the Latin, ending in -u8, have 
the classical i)lural, but with no case-inflection in either number, as-, 
bev yjfobU?, the mood: Sing. ifJiobua, Plur. iWobi ; bei imi, 
the case: n.r.. \^. k. Sing. ^<k\U, Plu, . (^afug ; baS Scm^JUg, the tense : 

N.O.I). A. Sing. Icmpug, Plur. Iciiiporo. 

Notes — i. Others change -uS to -en in the plur., as: @lo&U'3, Plur. @Io6en (such 
forms ad ©hluiffe should be avoided as barbarous). 
1, I)cr 'iWXtii, has pi. bie Jltlaiitcrt. 

.1 The Hebrew words (S:i)cnib and (£erap^ have the Hebr. PI. in -lm and take -g in 
the gen. sing. 

3. Neuters in -0 from the Greek, and in -um from the Latin, take -% 
in the gen. sing., and change - a or -um into -en in the plur., as : ba« 
2)raino, the drama, g. Sing. 3)ramag, Plur. $)rauie;t; bag 3:l)emo, the 


80] „...„,.. 


theme, Piur. Sljemen ; bag ^nbioibuum. the indiviHuni n ^- v • 

Note. -5)aS Jllima, the climate, has pi. filimato or iiUmate,, 
4. Neuters from Latin Sub.stantives with plur. \n~ic add «in tl. 
smg., often dropping the Latin sing. ter.inLion and fol" . f Tn 
-ten, as: ba.s 2Jblici-l,(ium), the adverb, g. Sin^r ^VbUc4,(iiM,l ^/ ^A 
J^erh cn; ba. iHU-ticip(i„,„), the participle, o. ^/.f ^a i 'n^"^^^ ' 

?Jarttcip,eii; ba« goffil', the fossil, Piur. mLt ITmZaf I' 
mineral, /'/«r. iDJincralicn. '>"nmcn, Oa(< iUduieial , the 

Notes. - i. These words formerly followed the full form.; nf T ,f;„ a i • 
matican^rr.. (e. g. «crO„m, etc.) retaining these forms ^if ^''" '"'^"^""' ^^^'«- 

guageftr^'n. th' ""'"^^ °' "''"* '^^^^^'"^^•■"" ^-- --^- lan- 
guages take -i m the gen. «,ng, and add -^ to form the piur as • PnrhS 

Note. - Italian words are also found with their proper foreign plur., as Soli, (JontJ. 

78. The Article v/ith Names of Per.sons. 

Besides the cases specified in ^ 7^ i nhnv^ fK« • , • 
names of person.s : ^^' ' '^'' '^' ^•'^'^'^ '^ "^''"^ ^^^h 

I. Colloquially ^x,A familiarly, as: ilcr itillt btC l\niif(> ' 
^_^2. Jhen they denote a ./..., as: ein il^eUi„flton, a j.^^W/^,) Wel- 

3- Before names of paintings, etc., named from a pers., etc as- em 
W'oj^ir"^ ^<) Rafae, ,. .e.u. .u ^^, thL (^J ^^ 



7a The Gender of Substantives is determined in German : 
r. by Meaning; or 
n. by Form (Ending, etc.). 

80^ I. Gender a,s dethrmined bv Meaning. 
I. Masculine are names of : 
Sa) Males, as : bcr %\^m, the man ; bcr ^elb, the hero. 






Remark : But diminutives in -j^cn and -Icitt are neuter, as : 
bail 9}?annlein or ^.Itdnnd^en. 

,(^) Seasons, months and days, as: ber .^erbft, the autumn; 
ber ^anuar, January ; bcr ^Jiittirodi, Wednesday. 

(c) Poi7its of the cofnpass, as: bcr 5?Drb(en), the north. 

(^) Precious stones and mountaifis, as ; bcr 2)tamant, the 
diamond ; bcr 33rodfen, the Brocken. 

2. Feminine are names of : 

-{a) Females, as: bic %xa\x, the woman; bic ^^cd^ter, the 

Remark : But ba§ SBeib, the woman, is neuter ; also diminu- 
tives in -r^cit and -fcill, as: bag ^orf)terrf)en, the h.^tle 
daughter; baS 5!)idbchen, the girl; bag l^rduldn, the young 

(J)) Trees, plants, fruits -^wdi flowers generally, as : bic @id)t>, 
the oak ; bic 'Jfcffel, the nettle ; tic 33irne, the pear (but bct 
3().>fcl, the, apple); bic 3iofe, the rose. 

if) Cardinal Numerals used as substantives, as : blc (Sir.§, 
the (number or figure) one ; bic Sed;^, the six (at dice, etc.). 

3. Neuter are names of : 

{a) Metals almost always, as : bag 33Iei, lead; bag @ifen, iron. 

Note.— %tx 3ta()(, steel, is Masc. 

(/;) Collectives almost always, as : bag S^^ol!, the people ; bag 
.'peer, the army ; especially when beginning with @c-, as : bag 
©ebircje, the mountain-chain. 

{c) Countries and provinces almost always, as : (bag) ©uro^a, 
Europe ; (bag) (Sanaba ; islands, cities, towns, villages, etc., 
always, as : (bag) .^pamburc^ ; (bag) ^Ttom, Rome. 

Remarks. — i. Names of countries and provinces in -ci, 
-au and -5 are feminine, as ; bic ^J'iirfd, Turkey ; bic Scpitjcij, 


2. Names of countries, etc., when not neuter, always have 
the definite article (see § 44, 3). 

{d) Infinitives, letters of the alphabet, and other parts of 
speech (except Adjectives used of persons, and Cardinal 
Numerals; see 2, c, above), used as Substantives, as- bag 
Sacben, the (act of) laughing; bag %, the (letter) A; \su ^c^ 
the I; bag i5]emi unb "^^i IVotx, (the) 'if and (the) 'but.' 

Give the gender of the following Substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case: %^xx[, (S^oib, Gvbbt'orr, Soditci, Giiropa, m^, I'onbdn, lura 
ati.bui (mby), 2BaUad)ei (Wallachia), Uurciljt, ^iiben (South), ©efb' 

81. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives. 
The Interrogative Pronouns are : 

1. loclt^cr? which?— Defjni IE. 

2. mcr? who.? ; 

3. ttia§r»what?i— ^^^'^™^^- 

82. aOcIr^cy? is declined after the biefer Model, but, as 
Profioun, lacks the Gen., thus : ' ' 



Joerrf;c tuelcf;cg 


Nom. iuc(rf)cr 


Dat. lueld^cm 
Ace. Jucldicn 



ti'cld;c, which 

Jt)eld)cr lycld)cm iueldicn, (;(o,for)which 
iueld;c Joeld^cg ioelcf^c, which 
Remarks.- I. ^V'ldier ? asks 'which of a number?' of 
persons or things, and agrees in gender with the noun follow- 
ing it, as : 

iK>eId;cr toon bicfen SKauucrit iff f)ier gemefen ? 
Which of these men has been here .? 

aScIc^cg i)on biefeu ©iit^crn I^abcn Sie ge^abt ? 
Which of these books have voii had.? 





2. The neuter sing. tuelc^CS is used before the verb 'to be,' 
irrespectively of the gender or number of the subject (com- 
pare the similar use of es, § 39, i), as : 

Which is your sister (brother)? 
illkld)cg i[t '^bxi '3d;it)eftev (^^r Sruber) ? 
Which are the children of the count? 
^r5}eld;c§ finb bie llinbeu bc§ G)rafen ? 

83. Jfi^cr ? and lua£l ? are used in the Sing, only, and are 
declined as follows : 


Nom. luev, who? iua^3, what? 

Gen. lyef)o« (or iuco), whose, of iuc[feu (or n)e§), of 

whom ' what 

Dat. tvem, (to, for) whom — -^ 

Ace. luen, whom h.ia^3, what 

Remarks. — i. 9Bcr is used of persons only, for all gen- 
ders and both numbers, as: 

S/ng. M. aiHT ift biefer 9Wonn? f. jene Jprnu? n. biefe^ ^inti? 
F/ur. iBer finb bicfe 9Kliiincr? etc. 

2. 9Bo^ is not used of persons. 

3. 2Bo§ is never used in the Dative. In the Dat. or Ace. 
with prepositions, ti)a<§ is replaced by mo (luor before vowels), 
placed />e/(?/r the preposition (compare § 38, Rem. 5, for 
similar use of b(l), as : 

3Borauf fi|cn <Bk? On what (whereon) are you sitting? 
ffijouon^jf^redjen Si"'? Of what (whereof) are you speaking? 
Note. — SBoi'iun? =for what, wherefore, why? not tuOrum. 

4. With prepositions governing the Gen., )t)cg is used before 
the preposition, as: m^\)alb, tUCgtuegcu ? on what account, 
wherefore, why ? 

5. The neuter Gen. rt^effen? is rarely used, except as above. 



ect (coni- 

, and are 



n)e§), of 

r all gen- 

;. or Ace. 

5 vowels), 
m. 5, for 

tting ? 
peaking ? 

ed before 

as above. 


6. gBttg is sometimes used (as interrog. ^rt'z'.)for tcarum, why? 
(For the use of iimg for ettoa^, see under ettoa^, § 149, /.) 

84. The Interrogative Adjectives are : 

1. ttJcli^cr, toefr^c, mit^t^? which? what ? — Definite. 
,^2. ma fiir cin, tou fur cine, ttiog fur cin ? j what kind of " 

J'Jur.tOa&^UV? \ -INDEFINITE. 

85. JHJcrr^cr, as Interrogative Adjective, follows the 
biefer Model throughout, as : 



h)e(d;er h)elcf;e^ 
lDeld;cr ioeld^em 
hJeIrf)e tt>e(c^e^ 

Examples : 
Which man was here ? 
9!BeIi^cr gjknn tear ^ier ? 
What books have you "i 
JKScIi^c i^ucf;er ^a6cn (2ie ? 
Remarks. — I. ^BelrfnT is also used in exclamatory sen- 
tcnces (= what!), sometimes without termination, as : 
Jfi>cl(^(i'6) Iscriptiiflen ! What pleasure ! 

2. The stem treld; is also followed by ein, and is unin- 
flected, as: 

2Bclr^ cin Sturtn ! What a storm ! 

86. In declining tt)a§ fur eiu, JtJa^ remams unchanged, 
while ciu agrees with the substantive, ><; : 
N. M. 9Ba6 fiir cin C^ut ? a. 2Ba^ fiir emeu .§ut? What kind 

of (a) hat ? D. 2Ba§ far eiuem ^^\xi ? To what kind 

of a hat ? 


Nom. ioeldjer 
Gen. h)e(d;e^ 
Dat. h)eld)em 
Ace. h)eld;en 



tt)eld;c, which 
tt)eld)er, of which 
toeldKu, (to, for which) 
hjelc^e, which 




G. F. 2Ba6 fiir eincr 33Iume ? Of what kind of (a) flower, etc. 
In the Plur. ftiog fiir is used without article, as : 
N. A. gSaS fur ^inber ? What kind (sort) of children ? 
D. Ja>o^ fur mnbcru ? To what kind of children ? 

The cin is also omitted before names of materials and 
other words used partitively, as : 

Bog fiir C^ol^ •? 
What kind of wood ? 

JK?tt§ fiir 2i? ttcr? 
What sort of weather ? 


Indirect Statements. 

Direct Statement or Quotation : 
He said:' I am tired.' 

Indirect Statement or Quotation : 

He said (that) he was tired. 

1. An Indirect Statement is always a subordinate rlause. 

2. In Indirect Statements, the Verb is usually in the Sub- 
junctive (especially if the verb of the principal clause be in 
the Impf.), and has the same tense which it would have, if 
statement were made directly, as : 

©ie fagten, bafi eg luabr fcl (i.e., fie fagten: „^% ifl ira^r/- 
pres:), They said that it was true. 

@r anth)prtete, bafi ev geftern angefommen fei (i. e., er anth)or= 
iiiz : „"scf) bin gefteru angefonimen/'/^^-), He answered, 
that he had arrived yesterday. 

Note. — In English, on the other hand, a past tense is always fol- 
lowed by a past tense, as in the above examples. 

3. The conjunction bcfj may be omitted in such clauses, 
which then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb in second place), as : 

©r fagte, cr fci geftern angefomtrten. 




Indirf.ct Questions. 

Direct Question : 
Who is there ? 

Indirect Question ; 
He asked who was there ? 

1. In Indirect (or Dependent) Questions the con- 
struction IS that of a dependent clause (verb last). 

2. If the verb of the principal sentence be in the Impf 
that of the question will be in the subjunctive, and have the 
same tense which it would have in the direct question, as : 

Sagen Sie mir gefariigft, luo jcner .^crr iuof;nt (Dir Qu • 
2Bo U)of)nt jener .t)err?/;ri-.), Tell me, if you please 
where that gentleman lives ? ' 

er fragtc mid;, \oMm Mm biefcit .sperrcu mein 33ruber ict He 
asked me which of those gentlemen was my brother '(Dir 
Qu. : Seld;er, etc., ift %\jx 33ruber .? pres.) 

V The article will be supplied by the pupil, according to preceding 

rules, where not given. 

to use, braud^en 

march, marfd^ieren 

save, retten 

answering, b— 2(ntit)orten 

paying, b— ^e3af)Ien 

jewel, precious stone, b— 

asking (of questions), b— 

Italy, ^talten 
fire-place, b— ^amin' 
elm, b— Ulme 
blue, Diau 
light, easy, leic^t 
useful, nii^Itd^ 

buying, b- <Raufen 

life, b— Seben 

learning (act of), b- ,*^ernen 

lily, b-Si(ie 

market, ber m<xx\i 

morning, ber 9J?orgen 

afternoon, ber 5Racf)mittag 
plum, b-^flaume 
emerald, b— ©maragb' 
winter-month, ber 2Bintermo'. 

valuable, precious, tDertbDfl 
generally, usually, getDo^nlic^ 
etc., u.f.hj. (=unb fc tueitcr, 
. . i. e. " and so furthei ") 






^adlibill''' I !" ^^^ "corning, moriieng or bc^ 9J?orgen§ 

force. ) ill the afternoon, nadjmittaije^ or be§ Oiarfimitiagg 
The Cardina' Points of the Compass (= bie bier §immelg= 
gcgenbcn): North, (bcr) ^Jiorben; Soutli, (bcr) eiiben ; East, 
(ber) Often ; West, (bev) iBeften. 

Names of the Months : ber S«nuar, ber ^ebruar, ber SKarj, 
ber 2(prir, ber max, ber ^u'ni, ber ."su'Ii, ber 3tuguft', ber ©e^* •j 
tember, ber Dttober, ber 9iobember, bcr Tejeniber. 

Idiom : I saved his life, lit. I saved to or for lilm the life, 

3* rcttcte < I) III ta» i'cbc ii. See § 44, 6 (A). 


A. 1. 2Ber ^ai ba§ iBilb t>Du meinem ^JZeffen iiber ba€ ^amin 
geljcingt? 2. 3Ba^ fur eineii ^ifr^ l)at '^^oham auf bem 9Jiar!te 
gcfauft ? 3. 2(uf luelc^e ^an! lucvbcn toir xuvi fe^en ? 4. 28el= 
c^em 5lnaben ge^brt bicfe^S Wkf]cv ? G^5 gebi)rt iiBitbelm. 5. ^eneg 
3)iabdieu auf ber ©trafse ift ba^3 T:brf;terdH'n unfere^ 9iac§bar§. 

6. i\?a^ mad;en 6ie {jcinbbniid), tDenn Sie einen ^eiertag fiaben? 

7. 2)e<^ gjJorgen^:^ ftubierc id>, unb be§ ^Radnnittag^ rubre ic^ auf 
bem ^luffe. 8. iBUcf^e^ finb bie Xiamen ber fieben ^Tage ber 
2Bod)e? 5!Kontag, u. f. iu. 9. 3Bem fdjideu ©ie biefen Srief? 
10. 3d; fd;ide i(;n bem Sucbbaubler. 11. SSorilber ^aben bie 
.^errcu gclad;t ? 13. Jl^ev ift bie Jrau mhcn meiner Sfante auf 
bcr l^anU 13. Sfia^S fiir 5(ugen l;at ber ©tubent? ©eine STugen 
finb blau. 14. 3Sorau§ mac^eu unr©d)iffe? 9Bir mac^en fie 
au§ eifen unb 2ta^l 15. ^^'arl ift mit bem Semen feiner 2tuf= 
gabe nidjt fertig. 16. Borauf Ijabcn bie ed;uler fic^ gefe^t? 
eie ^aben fi^) auf bie Sriide gefe^t. 17. 2Bag fiir ©belfteine 
l)ahm eie ba ? 18. ^d; haU einen ^iamaut(en), einen 9^ubin, 
unb einen ©maragb. 19. ®a§ §eer ift bon ^ranfreic^ nac^ 
^talien marfc^iert. 20. 5fJa^)Dleon fd)idte bem ©rafen einen 2)ias 
mant(en), lyeit ber ©raf ibm bag ^zh^n gerettet batte. 

£. 1. Which of your sisters are learning German ? 2. For 
whom is this diamond ? It is for the countess. 3. Which 




are your pens ? 4. The asking of questions is verv easy, but 
the answering is very difficult. ^S.^The north, the'south, the 
east, and the west are the tour cardinal points of the compass. 
6. Which of these students is Mr. Braun .? Z f heXoy buys 
himself pears and plums in the market. 8. My uncle has 
^ three children- a girl and two boys. 9. June, July, and' 
.> August are very hot in Canada. 10. Buying is pleasant, but 
paying is very disagreeable. 11. Iron and steel are 'very 
useful. \% The rose and the Hly are flowers, but the oak 
and the elm are trees. IH. I blame Mary because she wastes 
her m^ney. 14. What would you do with your money, if you 
were rich? 15. We always hoped that William would learn / 


1. Wo hangt das Bild von Ihrem Neffen .? 2. Wer ist das 
Mn.dchen vor unserm Hause .? 3. Weshalb schickte der 
K6n:g dem Burgermeister einen Diamant(en).? 4. Was fur 
Augen hat der Student.? 5, 1st das Fragen leicht.? 6. Was 
wurden Sie machen, wenn Sie einen Feiertag hatten ? 




89. Gender of Substantives as determined by Form. 
I. Masculine are : 

(a) Substantives in -irj, -ig, -ing, -m, almost always, 
as : ber iiranir^, the crane ; bcr ^onig, the honey ; 
bcr ^yrembHng, the stranger ; bcr ^tem, the breath. 

(p) Those in -c{, en (not infinitives), -er, generally 
\ (names of agents in -c 


Iways^ , 






the spoon ; bcr (iJarteil, the garden ; ttt ©drtner, 
the gardener. 

(^) Monosyllables — generally (^but with many excej> 
tions), as : bcr ^rieg, the war; ber %^<^, the day, 

2. Feminine are : 

{a) Substantives in -fi, -\t\i, ^fclt, -^aft -m% Axi, 

ahuays, as : bie €)rf)meic^elci, flattery ; bie Scions 
|cit, beauty; bit ^anfbarfctt, gratitude; bte 
greunbfi^aft friendship ; bie .•ooffnung, hope; bie 
(S^rafin, the countess ; bie ^reunbiu, the (female) 

Note. The termination in is used to fomi feminine names from 
masculines, usually with Umlaut, always so in monosyllables. 

ib) Those in -t (especially after a consonant), -enb, 
generally, as : bte Sltaft, strength ; bte 3ufunft, 
the future ; bte ^ugeitb, virtue. 

{c) Those in -e, generally (but with many exceptions), 
as : bie .^ol;e, height ; bie (SJrb^e, size. 

{d) Some in -nifil (see also under neuters), as: bie 
3Silbni8, the wilderness. 

ie) Foreign Substantives in -age, -ie (French); -if 
(Greek); -citj, -tiit, -(t)iott, -ur (Lat.), always 
as : bie Gouroge, courage ; bie ^JJelobie', the melody ; 
bie gjiufif, music; bie ^lubieitg', the audience; 
bte UniDerfitiit', the university ; bie SiZation', the 
nation ; bie '^cXViX' , nature. 

3. Neuter are : 

(a) Substantives in -i^cit and -letn (diminutives), al- 
ways (without regard to sex\ as : bai 5[)?annJejn, 

bag %xi\x\wx, bal aJliib^en. 




(p) Those in -turn, almost always, as : bad Gfriftcnhim, 
Christendom, Christianity. 

(c) Those in -nig, -fol, -fcf, generally, as : bag GrefgniS, 

the event ; bal 3c^icffar, fate, destiny ; bag mu 
\t\, the riddle. 

(d) Those beginning with the prefix @c- unless other- 

wise determined by meaning, termination, or 
derivation, as: bad OJciiuilbc, the painting; bag 
@cmad>, the npartment; but: bcr Gebattcr, the 
godfather ; bic OjcDatteviii, the godmother; bte 
©efea|(^aft the company; bcr ©edrnm^, the 
usage (from bcr ^xawd), masc. monosyll.). 

Give the gender of the following substantives, assigning the rule in 
each case: il^ciUDcu, .^>iit, itifdjo, itilnftlcr, ^'aiiMdjaft, tiffin (vinegar), 
«(innc 0)rld,enf, ^iiuiblei::, ^hmhxx% ^iird)t, .^nfcn, ©eimtter, finger, 
Slpfel, ^orb, Uuiocrfitnt', SIftrolog, £eppid|, ^^^(jilofop^ie. 


General Remarks on Gender. 

1. Gender agrees, as in English, with sex, except in bag 
ai^eib, in Diminutives in -j^cn and -kin, and in certain 
compounds (see below). 

2. Inanimate objects, which in English are all alike neu 
ter, may be of any gender in German, as determined by 
Meaning or Form, as : bcr §ut, bic 33(ume, bag ^ud^. 

3. Each substantive of which the gender is not determined 
by the n-les should be learnt with the Definite ^^rticle as 
the sign of its gender. 

4. Compounds are of the gender of the last component 
<hence bog ^rauenjimmcr, the woman, is neuter), except 

bcr 3t6f{^cn, disgust, from bic ec^eu. 
bic Siniimiri, the answer, from bog 3i^ort. 
bcr SKittltJOr^, Wednesday, from bic Soc^e. 



Also certain compounds of ^ut, which are given in Ap- 
pendix L 

5- The exceptions to the foregoing lists will be found in 
Appendix I. 


Double Gender. 

Tiie gender of the following substantives (with others 
given in App. J.), varies with their meaning : 

tai 39anb, 


bet 33anb, volume 
bond, tie 

ber S3auev, peasant 

bafli ^aucr, bird-cage 

bcr Apeibc, heathen > 

bic ipeibe, heath ) 

bcr ©d)ilb, shield 

bag Sd;ilb, sign (of an inn, etc.) 6c^ilbcr 

bcr <2ee, lake 

bic ©ee, sea 

bcr l^or, fool, G. be^ 3:^oren Z^oxtn 
bad Z^ox, gate, G. be8 ^^orc8 zifoxt 




S3onber \ See § 64, above. 







(The pupil will supply the article in German where not given.) 

to visit, study (at a univer- 
sity), befucften {-\- Ace.) 

collect, gather, fammeij! 

peasant, country-man nv^^^^ 

bee, b^ 33iene 

relate, tell, crjafjten 
paint, tnalen 

(female) neighbour, b4f9^cici^! 
barin - ,A \ 

bedroom, b — Scblofjimtner 

' '1 '-• 



e ^ 

T ^ 

pi m 





little^son, b6K,@5t).t(^en 
sun, b — Sonne 
city-gate, town-gate, b — 

ingratitude, b— Unbanfbarfeit 
way, road, b - SBeg 
wind, b— 3Kinb 
rage, fury, bic ^vX 
sign, ba«( 3fif^«" 
terrible, terribly, furc^tcrlid^ 
strong (^heavily, of rain, etc.), 

willingly, with pleasure, gem 


boat, bfl« 59oot 

friendship, b-^C. ^rcunbfd^aft 

inn, b— (SSafthau« 

district, locality, b— ©e'genb 

history, story, b— 0e[c{)id;te 

waiter, b— .^cUner 

piaro, ba^ ^laoier' 

vice, ba^ Cafter 

ksson, b— Settion' 

people, bie I'eute (pi.) 

love, b~ fiicbe 

mathematics, b— !0?at^ematif 

so, fo 

8. A week ajfo to-day, ^f ute » p r a d) t lafjeii (Dat.).' 
3. A week from to-day, ^eute ii b e r ad)t %a^t (Ace). 


A. 1. D^ne (bie) ^rcunbfc^aft, (bie) i)offmmg unb (bie) SieBe 
iDuvbe bag Scbeu fcl^r traurig fein. 2. Unfere ^l^ettcrn luareu ^eute 
Dov acTit 3:agen bei ung. 3. (I)ic) erf^meid^elei i[t fcin ^eic^eu ber 
^rcunbfdiaft. 4. Si(f)elm, >xm beine geftion. 5. Sag fur 
33anbe ftnb auf bem 2:ifc^e in ^l;rer SBibtiotbef ? 6. (gg finb funf 
S3anbe bon Sdjifferg 2Berfen. 7. Tie 2But beg ©turmeg ift 
furd)terlic^, aber bag Sdnff ift [d)on im ^-^afen. 8. Sernt %hx 
timber gcrn 9Jiathematif ? ??ein, aber er lernt gem 2)eutfc^ 
9. 2BeId;em gjidbc^^en gel^orm biefe 9iinge, ber mo^m ober ber 
©ara ? 10. Tie Tantbarfcit ift etne ^Tugenb, aber bie Unbaitf6ar= 
feit tfi em 2after. 11. ^avl ed>mibt befuc^^t im Sinter bie Uni* 
berfitat, aber im ©oinmer JDof^nt ec bei feinen ettern auf bem 
Sanbe. 12. ^eneg ^raufein \)<xi i^rer ^reunbin ein 33anb mm 
(Seburtgtag gefdjenft. unb \\sx^. ^vnmSm ift v>Am;* k.u^ ...c-:.w... 

la res' f ~ e^ <1 r ^ ' '"' ^' ' "■■•""" [vy* 5u[ntv?;u. 

irf. 3)ic[e §anbfc^u^e ge(;oren nidU mir, fie gc^dren metnem 








:. 14. ^er ^alcr ^at ein ©cfitlb fiir ba§ ©aft^au« "oox 
bem 3:f)or nematt. 15. 3Jiarie,, f^aft bii bic ©anber fur beinc 
SJiuttcr gefauft ? 9Zein, aber ic^ loerbc [ie morgen ober am TtxtU 
tt)oc^ !aufcn. 16. ^ettner, ^olen ©ie mir gefaffigft ein ?!)?effer 
unb eincn Soffef. 17. dv i)at mir feine STntttJort auf meinen 
33rief gcfdiicft. 18. 2Ba§ fur cine 3JJeIobie f^ielt ba§ 3:oc^terc^en 
unicrer 3Sirtiu auf bem tlauier? 19. 3Senn id; ©elb ^atti, fo 
tDiirbe ic^ einen X^ppid) unb ^Borbange fur mein (3cf)Iafsimmer 
faufcn. 20. JBcnn maxk i^re Seftion nid^t lernt, fo h)irb fie in 
bcr ©d)ule nid;t gut antttjorten. 

-^. 1. This country-man lives on a heath near the lake. 
2. The tempest is terrible, but the ship is already in the 
harbour. 3. The stranger praises this locality on account of 
the beauty of the landscape. 4. What kind of a flower is it ? 
It is a violet. 5. We met a stranger on the way to the uni- 
versity, f). Your aunt is my neighbour. 7. Who are these 
people ? They are the parents of my cousin. 8. The mother 
relates to her little son the story of the little man in the 
wood. 9. Have you heard the words of the orator? 10. 
During the tempest the wind shook the house. 1 1 . The girl 
hangs the bird-cage before the window in the sun (ace). 12. 
The bees gather honey from the flowers upon the heath, and 
the peasant sells it in the town. 13. When we hastened 
home yesterday, it was raining heavily. 14. I shnll not wait 
for George, because I have no time. 15. When I resided at 
(hd) my uncle's, I was always at home at ten o'clock in the 


1. Wer war heute vor acht Tageu bei Ihnen ? 2. Was fiir 
Biicher haben Sie auf Ihreni Tische ? 3. Lernen Sie gern 
Mathematik? 4. Was macht Karl Schmidt im Winter? 
5. Wer spielt jetzt auf dem Klavier.? 6. Was werden Sie 
heute iiber acht Tage machen ? 






I 92. Relative Pronouns. 

/ The Relative Pronouns are : 

j I. bcr, bie, bttg, ) who (of persons), whiCh (of 

I 2. tuel^er, toell^e^ toK(^Ki»/ ) things) — Definite. 



5. ttcr^ who (= he who, whoever) 

4. ttltt0, what (= that which, whatever) 


Indefinite. C 


'. bcrdciAcn' i ^^^ ^^^^ °^ ^^°"^ ^^ which — Indeclinable. 

93. ^cr, btc, bag, as Relative Pronoun, is declined as 
follows : 



Norn, ber bie ba§ 
Gen. oeffcn bercn bcffen 

Dat. bem 
Ace. ben 






bte, who, which, that 
bercn whose, of which 
bencit, (to, for) whom, which 
bie, whom, which, that 

Observe. — These forms are the same as those of the Defi- 
nite Article, except the added -en of the Gen. Sing., Gen. 
Plur., and Dat. Plur. 

94. SBclrfjcr, as Relative Pronoun, is declined after the 
biei'ei Model, but, like the Interrogative ivelc^er^ lacks the 







Remarks on bev and melt^er. 

I. ^er and toell^cr refer alike to both persons and things, 
and are interchangeable, except that : 

(a) In the gen., bcff en, beren, beffen, //. beren (not trelc^eS, 
etc.), are always used (see § 82, above). 

(^) ^cr is used when the antecedent is of the First or 
Second Person, the relative being, in that case, always fol- 
lowed by the Personal Pronoun, as : 

I, who am your friend, 
^c^, bcr id) ^hx ^reunb Hn, 
(or : ^c^, bic ir^ ^l)ve ^reimbin Bin). 

O God, (thou) who art in Heaven, 

D ©ott, bcr bu im ^immcl bift. 

2. ^rr and miaiiCV, referring to inanimate objects, are usu- 
ally replaced by tHO (iuor- before a vowel) ^<?/J7r^ a preposition 
(compare § 83, 3, above, for similar use of ttJO for h)a^), as: 

The table, on which {rivhereofi) the book is, 
^er %:\\^, auf tt)c(cf)eni, or ; luorauf ba§ 33uc^ ift. 

3. The Gen. beffen, etc., always precedes its case, as : 

A tree, the leave.- of which are green, 
(Sin 33aum, bcff en ^laiv'.r griin finb. 


Remarks on met and ttin§. 

I. JBScr and nia§ are declined like the Interrogative Pro- 
nouns luer? and iua§? 

2. fflRpt is used of persons only, for all genders and bo 
numbers; lua§ never of persons. 


REMARKS ON ftjer AND ftjag. 


3- SBcr and tool, as relatives, are .Wc^«,V^ and com/>oun^ 
m meaning, and include the antecedent, as : 
aBcr nic^t ^oren Jt)iIT, mu^ fU^ren, 
(He) 'who will not hear, must feel. 
99Bag td^ ^f)nen gefc^irft ^abe, i[t nicbt biel 
What (= that which) I have sent you, is not much. 

4. afier never has an antecedent, since it includes the ante- 
cedent itself ; therefore 

never say : ^er mam, tott i)kx toar, 
but: ®er mann, merrier ^ter War, 
(The man who was here). 

5. 99B0§ never has an antecedent, unless the antecedent be 
a neuter adjective or pronoun, such as nic^t§, nothing • ctm^ 
somethmg; aUc^ everything , or a phrase, in which h,al 
always replaces bcl, as : 

Nothing (that) I say, etc., md)t§, toa§ ic^ [age, etc. 
All (that) I have, etc, 2[ae^, tnol id; ^aBe, etc. 
The best (that) I have, etc., Xa^ ^efte, lt,a0 id) ^abc, etc. 
He does not learn his lessons, which (i. e. ' the not 

tOttl fe^r [c6abe tft. 

6. Ever = 0U($ or immcr after Joer or t»a§, as : 

9Ser eg aur^ (immcr) gefagt ^at, Whoever has said it. 

7. The Relative loag, like the Interrogative, is not used 
after prepositions in the Dative or Accusative but is re 
placed in the same way by ma(r); with prepositions governing 
the Genitive, ltic0 is used (see § 83, 3, above). 

Observe. - The re/afive must never be omitted in German 
as It so frequently Is in English, hence : ' 

{Engl.) The man I met, 
{Germ.) ^er 3Kann, 

mclr^cm (bem) id^ Bcgegnete 







E! < j 

97. ^edgleti^cn and hergletf^en are indeclinable words, 
the former referring to a masc. or neuter noun in the sing., 
the latter to fera. or plural nouns, as : 

@in 9)iann, bc§gleicf)en (dat.) id; nie begegnetc, • 

A man, the like of whom I never met. 

^aben i3ie jcmal^ bc§gleic^en getjbrt ? 

Have you ever heard the like of that ? 

Gtne^rau, bcrgleid;en, etc., A woman, the like of v.hom, etc. 

^inber, bcrgleic^en, etc., Children, the like of whom, etc. 

98. Construction of Relative Sentences. 

I. Every relative sentence is of course a dependent sen« 
tence, and as such must have the verb at the end, as : 

The wine, which I have sent you, is very good. 
^er 2>]ein, bcu id) J^bneu gcfr^irft ^abc, ift febr gut. 
3. The Relative must immediately follow its antecedent, 
when the latter (whether subject or not) precedes the verb of 
a principal sentence, or when the separation from the ante- 
cedent would cause any ambiguity, as : 

!Dcr W\.<x\\\\ iveld)cr <},i\\^\\\ ()icr anir, ift mcin Dnfcl. The 

man who was here yesterday is my uncle. 
Das! 33ud^, ivcld)e»? (2ic mir fd)icftcu, l)abe id) ttid)t gcbraud)t, 
I have not used the book you sent me, but : 3d) ^abe 
t>a^ 33uc^ ntd)t gcbraud)t, ivel^eg u. «. t». 
3. In sentences with tuer or n.>o§, the relative clause will be 
counted as the first member of the principal sentence, which 
will therefore begin with the verb, e. g. : 

2Bcr ni4>t f)i)rcn \x>\\\, muj fii^len, 
He who will not hear, must feel. 

Note. — In German, every dependent sentence or clause is separated 
from the sentence on which it depends by a comma. The relatives 
tt)eld)er and ber must therefore always be preceded by a comma. 





®®- Irregular Weak Verbs. 

r. A Few U'eak Verbs, besides adding the termination -te 
to form the impf., and -t to form the P. Part., also change 
the Stem Vowel m the Impf. Indicative and P. Part, but 
not m the Impf. Subjunctive. They are : 


Brennen (intr.), to burn, be 
consumed with fire 

fennen, to know, be ac- 
quainted with 

ncnnen, to name 

rennen, to run (at full speed) 

fenben, to send 
tucnben, to turn 

Impf. Ind. Impf. Subj. 
£-onnte brcnnte 

P. Part. 


fannte fcnnte gefannt 

( [onbte 
( fenbcte 
( tonnbte 
( tDcnbcte 



I gefonbt 
1 G^fenbet 
I geiDanbt 
1 getDcnbet 

Observe: i. The double forms of the last two verbs of 
which the shorter are in more general use. 

2 The three following verbs have also a consonant change 
witfi Umlaut in the Impf. Subj. : ^ ' 

Infinitive. Impf. Ind. 

bnitgen, to bring ^^ar^te 

bcnfen, to think ^^^^^ 

biinfcn, to seem (impers.) ( ^"^"^^^ 
(beud;tcn, bciud^ten) ) (t'rtud)te) 

I biinfte 

Remarks. -I. Compare the English: bring, "brought- 
think, thought. ^ ' 

2. The forms bauc^te, gebciuc^t, are as yet more common 
than beucfUe, gcbcucf;t, but the latter are according to the now 
official orthography. 

Impf. Subj. 





P. Part. 








3. Besides the Inf. beuc^ten, there is also a Pres. Ind, 
3. sing, beucijt. 

Note. — The German Perfect often replaces the English Past or 
Imperfect (see also Less. XLIII.), as : 

I sent you the book yesterday, 

3cl) ^atc 31)ncn flcfteru bai< iyud) gcfc^irft. 

I was working yesterday the whole day, 

3(f) ^obc gcftern beu flanseu Xag geartiettet 


consider, bcbcnfen (trans.) acquaintance, bie33efanntfc^aft 

order, bespeak, beftellen postman, ber ^oftbote 

think of, bent'en an (+ ace.) title, ber %M 

or bcnfen (+ gen.) 
recognize, erfennen 
like to hear, gem fjoren 
divide, share, teilen 
burn, consume with fire 

(trans.), Derbrennen 
wish, iuiinfdfjen 
apply to, fid) irenben 


all, everything, -JIKe^ 
unhappy, unfortunate, uns 

improbable, unn)af)rf(i)einlid) 
just now, ibcn, foeben 
diligently, industriously, flei^ig 
easily, readily, lei^t 
really, loirflid; 

(-|- ace.) 

Idiom : It Is a pity, @« ifl fd)afce (adj.). 

A. 1. !I)er.^aii£r fattbte einen Sote.n mit ber gflac^ridit nad^ 
33erlin. 2. 'Bcv nidjt fur mic^ ift, ift ioiber micb. 3. ®ie 2eute, 
bei bcnen id^ auf ^efud; getDefen bin, finb ®c&ottm. 4. §at bet 
tettner mu^ gebvaAt, h)aa loir braud(>en? 5. Der ^oftbote t)at 
mir bie 9iad)rid)t gebrad)t, loorauf id) loartete. 6. ^d) er!annte 
\t)ixtl\d) beu ^errn nid)t, ber gefteru luit meinem ^Setter in ber 
^ird)e Wax. 7. 2)ag ^ferb be^3 C3cneral§ raunte urn ben ^reil. 
8. ^er "trembling,, beffen Sefan.ntfd^aft id) tu madden tDitnfcbe^ 
mirb morgen l)ier fein. 9. ®a^ ^euer brannte im Dfen unb ber* 






brannte ba§ ^ofj. 10. $©enn er imglucflic^ mar, mrxW er ft* 
immer an mic^, ber ic^ fciu g^rcunb luar. 11. ^c^ barf;te Beute an 
bie ©efc^ic^le bie eie mir geftern erja^Itcn, unb ic^ ^abe febr 
baruber gelac^t. 12. §at ber Wiener bie Sucker nacf; §aufe 
0ebrarf;t bie tc^ beim 33uc^f,anbler gcfauft \)aU? 13. 2«enf(6 baft 
bu le h,M)t^ tpa^ bu bift? 14. Wxr baben bag §0(3 fc^on t)er= 
brannt, bag mir bor ac()t ^agen gefauft f^aben. 15. 3)ie[eg i^inb 
ergalilt immer ju .f^aufe, mag eg in ber ©c^ule ^ort. 1(5 Meg 
joag er ^^, teilt or mit mir, ber ic^ fcin ^reunb bin. 17. 03(auben 
Jie bie @e[c^icf)te, bie Aperr 33raun m^S ,r,ablt Ijat? 18 ^ie 
^rau, beren ^od;terc^en bei ung auf 33e[uc^ ift, mirb morgen nacb 

^^Z^[7J'-\J^' ^"' ^'' "^ ^^^ ®*«^* 9^^^^-* ^«&en, ift fe^ 
unn)a{,rfcr;einric^. 20. @g regnete geftern, mag febr fcbabe mv 
ba iDir auf bem Sanbe luaren. ' 

^. 1. Do you hear what I say to you ? 2. My father al- 
ways burnt the letters which were no longer useful 3 He 
has not told me what he wishes. 4. The man, in whose / 
hou, , we lived, is the brother of our neighbour. 5. Here is '. 
the ueat which you have ordered. G. The honey which the 
countryman brought us yesterday is not good. 7. Do you 
know the artist who has painted this picture? 8. People 
who are not industrious do not become rich. 9 We readily 
beheve what we hope and wish for. 10. :^hat^ were you 
thinkmg of when you met me yesterday ? 1]. H^ye you all 
you need? 12. I believe that I know the man who is in 
front of the house. 13. I always burn the newspapers I do 
not need. 14. The students to whom these books belong do 
not study them diligently, which is a pity. 15. I do not 
know the song, the title of which you have just named. 16 
What was burning .? The gardener was burning leaves. 


^ 1. Was machen Sie gewohnlich mit den Zeitungen, die Sie 
nicht mehr brauchen ?. 2. Wer hat Ihnen diese Nachricht 




gebracht? 3. Woran denken Sie ? 4. Was machen Sie, 
wenn Sie einen Feiertag haben ? ."?. Glauben Sie jede Ge- 
schichte, die Sie horen ? 6. Was erzahlt das Kind ? 



100. Declension of Attributive Adjectives. 

The boy is good — Predicative Adjective. 
The good boy — Attributive " 

Remember: That Adjectives used as Predicates are not 
varied (see § 14). 

101. Every Attributive Adjective either is or is not 
preceded by a defertninatiire word (i. e., article or pronominal 
adjective), which shows gender, number and case by distinc- 
tive endings. 

102. First Form. — If not preceded by any such deter- 
minative word, the Attributive Adjective follows ihe Strong 
Declension, which is the same as the biefer Model through' 
out, thus : 

Strong Declension of gut, good. 





























Substantives with Adjectives. 





good wine 
flitter ifi^ein 
fluteg (cit) 2Bein(e)^ 
gutcm 2Bein(e) 
guten 2Bein 


good soup 
0Utc (Suppe 
Quter Suppe 
0utcr 6uppe 
0utc <Suppe 


good glass 
gutcg ©lag 

gutcm 63raf(c) 
gutcl mo<^ 



Norn." gutc 2Beine, ©uppen, @[dfer 
Gen. gutcr 2Beine, (Sup|)en, ©lafer 
Dat. gutcn SSeinen, (2u))pen, ©lafern 
Ace. gutc 2Beine, ©u^jpen, ©lafer 

Observe: In this form, where there is no other word to 
show the gender, etc., of the noun, this work must be done 
by the adjective, which therefore has as full a set of end- 
ings as possible. 

Remarks. - i. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neuter generally 
has -en mstead of -eg before strong substantives, as: quten 
2Bemc§, gutcn 33rotcg. ^ " 

2. Adjectives in -c drop the -c of the stem in declension, 
as : mube, tired : miib-er, miib-e, mub-cg, etc. 

3. If several Adjectives precede the same substantive, 
all follow the same form, as : 

gutcr, alter, rotcr 3Sein, etc., 
good, old, red wine. 



[§§ 103- 

103. Conjugation of Strong Verbs. 

Verbs in German are either Strong or Weak. The Weak 
Verbs, which indicate change of tense by the addition of a 
termination (usually 7vithoiit change of Totael), as: lob-en, 
lobtc, gelob-t have been treated in Lessons IX, X. 

104. The Strong Verbs, on the otner hand, indicate the 
change of tense by a change of the Root Vowel with- 
out adding a termination, as : fing-en, to sing, Impf. fong; 
biciben, to remain, Impf. blicb. 

105. The Past Participle in Strong Verbs ends in -en 
(not -et), usually also with change of Vowel, as: fing-en, P. 
Part, gc-fung-tn; blciben, P. Part, ge-blicb-cii ; but gcbcn, P. 
Part, ge-gcbcn. 

Remark. — This change of Root-Vowel is called 'Ablaut, 
and is common to English and German. Compare Eng. sing, 
sang, sung ; give, gave, giv-en. 

106. Paradigm of Simple Tenses of fingCtt, to sing. 

Principal Parts. 

Impf. fong P. Part, ge-fiing-cn 


icf) jlngc, I (may) sing, etc. 
bu fingcft 
er fingc 

In fin. fing-en 

id; fingc, I sing 
bu jing(e)ft, thou sing-est 
er fing(e)t, he sing-s 
h)ir fingcn, we sing 
ibr fing(e)t, ye sing 
fie fingcn, they sing 



it)ir fingcn 
i^r fin get 
fie fingcn 

Imperfect. . 

(Ind. Stem withUmlaut, where posisible.) 

fong(e)ft, thou sangst 

bu fdngeft 






er fiinge 
fie foncjen 

er fong, he sang 
hJir fnniicn, we sang 
i^i- fonn(c)t ye sang 
fie fongcn, they sang 

f|nG(e) [bu], sing [thou] 
fingc er, let him sing 
fingcii luir, let us sing 
fing(c)t [ifn-], sing [ye] 
fiiujcit fie, let them sing 
Ohserve : The Person endings are <he same throughout a. 
m tJ,e paradigm of (o6cn, in which - ,c of the InL ila 

flno'L; ' ^""^ ^"""' '^' ^' = ""^ '^ ^'•-■' "y 'h^ 

107. Table of Endings of Strong Verbs in 

Simple Tenses. 


Sing. 1 . — c 

2. -(e)ft 

3. -(c)t 

Plur. \ . — fn 

2. -(C)t 

3. —en 


— c 


— c 
— cu 

— cu 




— Clt 

— ni 


Observe: i. The changed Vowel of the Imperfect, and ab- 
sence of person endings in i. and 3. sing. 
2. The Umlaut of the Imperfect Subjunctive. 
3- The persistent -c of the Subjunctive (Imperf. 


as well as Pres.) 




m »o7 

Remarks. — i. The -c of the termination in the 2. Sing, 
of the Tres. and Impf. Ind. is only retained in Strong Verbs 
after b, t, or a sibilant, as : id> rcit-c, hi vcit-cft ; id; prci|-c, 
hi V>vci)-C[t; and in the 3. Sing. I'res. Ind., and 2. Plur. Pres. 
and Impf. Ind. after t, i, as. cv rcit-Ct, i^r vcit-ct, '\i)X ritt-et ; 

but cv vreif-t/ ^^J^ V'^cif-t. ^^)^ Vrief-t. 

:>.. Tlie compound tenses of a Strong; Verb are formed pre- 
cisely like those of a Weak Verb, some being conjugated 
with f^abcn, others with fcin ; hence it is only necessary to 
know the Inf., Impf. and P. Part., and in some cases the 
2. Sing. Imper.,in order to conjugate a Strong Verb throughout. 

108. Paradiom of Compound Tknses of fingClt, to 

sing (with hahcn) ; foOcn, to fall (with feiu). 

Indicative. ^ Subjunctive. 


id; ^abc cjefungen, I have sung ic^ ^abi ^cfungett 

bu ^aft cjcfungcn, thou hast sung, etc. bu babeft gefimgen, etc. 
id) bin gefatten, I have (am) fallen, etc. id) fci gefalien, etc. 


(Imperf. of { ^;.^^ ^- + P. Part, of ^ ^^^^ J ; 

id» f)atte gcfungen, I had sung, etc. id^ fjattc gefungen, etc. 
id) wor gcfatfen, I had (was) fallen, etc. id) ttjiiirc gefaffeu, etc. 


(Pres. of luci-bcu + Infin. of | "Jjj,^ J ) 

tc^ tDcrbe fingen (fatten), I shall sing ic^ hjerbe fingen (fatten) 

bu H?irft finaen (faKen), thou wilt sing bu iuerbeft fmge*- ''fatten), 





"Ol COMPOUND TKNSKS OF fillflCtl, faaCrt. 12^ 


r* i> Subjunctive, 

Future Pkrf'ect. 

' 'f'" > / fallen i J 

icf>^h)a-be iicfiuuien l;aben, I shall have irf. jocrbe gefungen l)ahtn 

bu tuirft ticfungcn hahcn, thou wilt 
have sung, etc. 

tc^ tueibc gcfaricji fciil, I shall have 
(be) fallen, etc. 

c„.„ Conditional. 


(Impf. Subj. of tucrbcii + Infin. 

of ftngen, faacii) 

tc^ Jourbe fingcn (faacn), I 
should sing (fall), etc. 

bu tucrbeft gefungen 
^fl&cn, etc. 

icf; toerbe gefallcn fcin, 


(Simple Coad. .f \ ^f ^''" '- + 

P. Tart, of fiitgcn, fnl(cn) 
ic^ iDiirbe gefungen baben, 

ic^ n)urbe gefairen fcin, etc. 
Infin. Perf. 

gefungen (gu) l^aben, to have sung 
gefaffcn ju fein, to have (be) fallen 

^ 109. Compound Verbs. — Compound Verbs are con- 
jugated like the simple verbs from which they are derived- 
those having one of the insepara le particles bc-, cr- mti- 
ent- gc- tier-, gcr- do not take the prefix ge- in the P Part ' 
as : 6c-|ingen, P. Part. 6c-fungcn (compare fie-jaWen, P. Part' 
IlC-3af)lt, § 35, Rem. 6), .nd in the Inf. take gu /^e/ore the 
prefix; other compounds take the prefix ge- and the particle 
JU ^e/weeri the prefix and the verb (Part, or Inf. respectively). 
110. The Strong Verbs are divided into classes, accorHing 
to the 'Ablaut, ' or Vowel-changes, of the root (see § 105 Ren 
above). These classes, with the verbs belonging to eacii, ar.' 
given m the following Lessons (XXII-XXXI). 




111. Shorter Forms of the Conditional. 

The Impf. and Plupf. Subj. are frequently used in all 
Verbs instead of the Simple and Compound Conaitional 
respectively, thus: 

id; \)aiit = id) h)urbe ^abcn ; \(h fiinge = ic^ ti)urbe fingen ; 

\6) ^ttttc ^ti)aU = '\d) iDuvbc Qdjabi l;aben; ic^ ptc gcfungcn = 

id} iuiivbc gcfungcn Ijahm. 

Note. — These shorter forms are always to be preferred in the Passive 
Voice (Less. XXI), and in the Modal Auxiliaries (Less. XXXIV). 


help (serve) one's self, fid; 

acknowledge, confess, be!en= 

catch cold, fid) erfcilten 
nominate, appoint, ernennen 
fill, fUlkn 

spread out, fid) toerbveiten 
bough, branch, ber 2tft* 
ink, bie Xintc or 2:inte 
company, bie 0)cfcllfduaft 
governor, ber C'kniDerneur' 
concert, ^a^ .Slonjert' 
queen, bie ^^onigin 
paper, ba^ ^^a^ier' 
advice, counsel, ber dlai 

singer, ber ©anger, bie <Sdn» 

liberal, generous, freigebig 
friendly, kind, freunblid^ 
fresh, frifc^ 
glad, frot) 
hard, Ijaxt 
hoarse, {;eifer 
bad, fd}Ied;t 
black, fd;marg 
brave, valiant, tapfer 
true, faithful, trcu 
weighty, important, h)ic^tig 
at last, finally, enblid^ 
yes (emphatic), yes indeed, 

ja luobt 

■' — J ~ ^ - _j,.-^,.-. ^ , 

Idlomn : To appoint (as) governor, ^uin ©ouoerneur ernennen ; cheer- 
fully, fiuhen Wllltc* (genitive with ac'.vi rbial force); f;ooil morning, guten SWor* 
gen (.1. e., 3d) n>Hn|d)e 3lj"e» c5"e«« 9"*en SWorgciv). 


A, 1 . ?Ii}?dn 2)ifeffcr ift t^on ciuteni^ bartem ©table, 2, .f)Dbc 
Saume Ijohtw, gehjb^nlic^ gro^e Ifte. 3. 2i3ag fiir ^ferbe ^oben 


©ie gefauft? 3cf. f,aU td^iMtje imb toeifee !pfetbe defauft 4 

9)ienf<^o, u^tma, i„ jccm §«ufe. 7. .Jaben Sie rtmniS 

re fantcs. 8. fpiev ift gutcr Safe unb fri *«« i ob t to 
Be .ene„ eie fi*. 9. 28er bu bift ,eiot beU Sefeaf* f.. " o' 

12 jcf, ^nBe fluted ^, nber meinc gebet ifl f*tec6t. 13 Jiie 
fl.nbcr lu'bten me.neu DnM, .„ei( er nie miibe tourbe, itmen MSne 
©efd^d, en ,« ersaMen. U. Sie ^„6en e„blic| befannt, bcftS 
Unre4.t^«ben. 15. 3* (;a6e mid, evf«rtet; toenn i* jeV tow 

X: 'te?*l\'"-"- "'•• 3^ ^"^' w°" » ' '«« '^ 

roL ^ "'^ '■"■' '° "'"■^^■" ""f"' Se^rer «„« 

^. 1. Have you black ink or red ? I have black. 2 Rich 
people are not always generous, and generous people a're not 
always nch 3. kind^of neighbours have you ^ We 
have fr,endly neighbours. 4. Please fill my glass with pure 
fresh water. 5. High mountains and beau.Ld valleys spread 
out before our eyes. 6. I have something in,portant to say 

. This mother buys her children something useful. 9. Have 
you whtte paper or blue > I have white, but my brother has 
blue. 10. I hke to hear the singer, who sang at (in) the 
concert yesterday. 11 Mv si^tPr H,'^ „„► • s ^ V»V me 
because she was hoarse if If h T T^ u'" '""''''' 
she would have su„r- "• " ""^ ''"' "°' •=-" '— ■ 


) - 







1. Weshalb liebten die Kinder meinen Onkel ? 2. Wer 
wohnt in jeneni Hause? 3. Was hat die Mutter ihren Kin- 
dern gekauft ? 4. Was fiir Papier haben Sie fiir mich 
gekauft ? 5. Warum sangen Sie nicht ? 6. Womit haben Sie 
mein Glas gefiillt ? 

1 -'i 




112. The Passive Voice is formed by means of the various 
tenses of the auxiliary verb tticrbcn, to become (see § 19) -f- 
the Past Participle of the Verb to be conjugated, as in 
the Paradigm below. 

Principal Parts of merben : 
Infin. ttJcrbcn Impf. imirbc (toarb) Past Part. geiDOrbcn 

Note. — The perfect tenses of Uierbcil are formed with feilt (see 
§ S3. «), Perf. 3cl) bin gciuovben; Plupf. id) tuor fletuorbcii, etc. For the 
formation of the future and conditional, see fcin (§ 52). 

Paradigm of the Passive Voice of loibeit^ to praise. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


(Pres. of lucrbcn + ^- Part, of loben.) 

I am (being) praised, etc. I (may) be praised, etc. 
icf) trerbe 
bu mirft 
er t»irb 

\mx toevbcn 
il;r iuerbct 
fie iuerben 


id) yt>erbe 
bu tuerbcft 
er hjerbe 
luir iuerben 
tf)r iocrbet 
fie iuerben 







(Imperf. of uierbcii -f- P. Part, of lobeii.) 
r was (being) praised, etc. 1 might be (being) praised, 

ic^ h)urbe (iuarb) 
bu trurbeft (tyarbft) 
er luurbe (toarb) 
h)ir tDurben 
i^r luurbet 
fie luurben 


id) toiirbe 
bu tourbeft 
er Juiirbe 
tvix iDiirben 
il)v tuiirbet 
fie iuiirben 



(Perfect of luerbeit -f P. Part, of lobeit.) 
(Part, of uierbru omits gc-) 

I have been praised, etc. 

id) bin 

bu bift 


h)ir finb 

i^r f eib 

fie finb 

> gefoBt iuorben 

I (may) have been praised, 

ic^ fei 

bu feieft 

er fei 

l»ir feien 

i^r feiet 

fie feien 

1 [etc. 

gefoM loorben 

(Plupf. of uierbeii + p. part, of (obcn.) 
I had been praised, etc. I might have been praised 

.^n.arge(aatu>orben id; ^are 9erol.h.orbm [1 

bu tDarft gelobt irorben, etc. bu tucireft gelobt tr)orben, etc. 

(Future of njcrbeii + P. Part, of (obcn.) 
I^shall^be praised, etc. i shall be praised, etc. 

lu; griooi luerben ic^ h)erbe gcfobt t.crben 

bu imrft gelDbt lucrben, etc. bu luerbeft gclobt lucrben etc 






Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect, 

(Fut. Perf. of uifiben + P- Part, of lobcn.) 
I shall have been praised, etc. I shall have been praised, etc. 
id; tucrbc plobi iuor^cii [ein - icf) iucrbe flcloftt tuorbcn fcin 
bu \v\x\i gclobt morben fein, etc. bu iuerbcft gelobt tuorben [ein 


(Cond. of lucrbeii + P. Part, of loben.) 


I should be praised, etc. 

id} iuiirbc ^tloht lucrbcn 

bu iuUrbeft gelobt iDCvben, etc. 

(Infin. of luerbcu + P- Part 
of tolien.) 

J^res, to be praised 

ficloBt (^u) iucvben 
Perf. to have been praised 
gclobt iuorbcn (511) fein 

I should have been praised 
ic^ Juiirbe gdofit iuorben fein 
bu toiirbeft gelobt njorben fein 

(Part, of tucibeii + P- Part 
of loden.) 

jRres. being praised 

gclofit lucrbenb 
Pas^. been praised 
gclobt iuorben 

Subj. (see §111 
longer forms wit 

(Imper. of UH'ibcn + P. Part, of tobeu.) 

be praised, etc. 
iuerbe gcIoBt 
toevbe cr gelobt 
irerben wix gelobt 
iocvbet gelobt 
iuevben fie gelobt 

-I. The shorter forms, i. e. Impf. and Plupf. 
and Note), are commonly used for the 
luiirbe in the conditional. 




2 Observe the omission of the 9c- in the P. Part, of iuerben 
(morHcn for gc-h)orben) when used as auxiliary of the passive 

3. The personal agent with the passive voice (which is 
the s^^^Mtoi the active verb) is denoted by the preposition 
tion (Engl, by), as ; j f i' 

S)er unartige ^nabe irirb tion feinem 2eF)rer beftraft. 
The naughty boy is being punished by his teacher. 

4. The auxiliary participle loorben is omitted whenever the 
state of the subject may be regarded as still continuing, thus: 

®ag .filing ift ^zhawi, 

The house has been (is) built (and is still standing). 

5. The Engl. ' I am,- I was/ etc., as part of the passive 
Araxihary 'to be,' must be rendered into German as follows: 

{a) By the proper tense of tocrbcil when they are equivalent 
*o 'I am being,' ' I was being,' etc., as : 

The child is (i. e., is being) punished by its parents, 
3)a^ 5!tnb hJiri) bon feincn (^rterii k'ftraft ; 
The dinner was being served, when we arrived, 
3)aa gjattag^effen ttiurbe fermert, aU h)ir anfamen; 
o^' when the verb, being turned into the active voice, is in the 
Jsresant or imperf. tense respectively, as : 

f The boy is (was) always punished by the teacher. 
Passive: \ ^^^"^ ^'^ ^^ (^^s) naughty, 

1)er ilnabe toirb (louvbc) immer bom Secret 6e= 
^ ftraft, luenn er unartig i[t (mar) ; 

The teacher always punishes (pres.) or punished 
Ac^he: \ _ (^"iP^-) the boy, when he is (was) naughty. 

njenn er unartig ift (ipar), 












Active : 

(b) By the proper tense of fein (with or without n)orben, see 
last Remark), when they are equivalent to ' I have been, 
*I had been,' etc., or when the verb, being turned into the 
active, would be perf. or pluperf. respectively, as : 
f I am (= have been) invited to tht 
1 ^c^) ilu jur 0efcUfcf)aft eingcloben OoDr.'.; : j 
( They have invited (perf.) me to the party, 
t '^QXi |at mic^ gur ©e[eKfc6afl cingctobcu. 
( The dinner was (= had been) served, when we 
Passive: •< arrived, 

( ©ae ^Uiittag^efjen \mx fcrbicrt, alv^ Joir anfamen; 
. . ^ , ( They had served (plupf.) the dinner, etc., 
t '?)Uxi \^^iW biv3 'ilJiittaij^efjcn fcrtiicrt, u. f. it). 

The following examples will serve to show more clearly the 
proper use of the various fc of the passive : 

" (a) Tic Sciben lucvbcu jel^t ge[d)Ioffen, The shops are 
being shut now (^present). 
{b) Die Scibcu finb bicfe ^l\>od;e fritter qefc&Ioffen loorbcu, 
The shops have been shut earlier this week 
(c) ®ie Sdbeu fhlb je^t gefc^Ioffen, The shops are (and 
remain) shut (past state, continuing in the 

{a) !Der Solbat tmivbc ben ciner ^ugel ticrttiunbct. The 
soldier was wounded by a ball (a ball w^ounded 
him, imp/.), 

(b) ®er 3olbat toor toon einer ^ugel uertuunbet morbcn. 
The soldier had been wounded by a ball 

(c) !Der ©olbat Itiot fd^hjet beritjunbet. The soldier was 




«?ii\T^a»-<:illF ^afz-^li*^ 

i (and still suffered from his 
wound : past state, continuing in Xh^past). 




' (a) 1)icfc ^^riicfe hiurbe Dor jebn ^af>ren gebaut. This 
bridge was built ten years ago (they built it 
then, that is the date of its being built, im/>/.) 
{b) 3)ie[c iBriicfe luttr bor je^n ^atjren cjcbaut. This 
bridge was built ten years ago (and is still 
standing: past state, continuing in th^ present). 

Exercise on the Preceding Rules. 

A. Turn the following sentences into German: 1. This house was 
built by my father. 2. My window is broken (flcbvOC^cn). 3. The child 
is washed (gclDaid)Cii). 4. This man is esteemed by everybody (iebeniiaun). 
5. The garden must be sold. 6. The enemy was beaten (gcj(f)Iagen). 

B. Turn the following sentences into the passive : 1. liffiovaitS macl)en 
n)ir 9«effer? 2. 9Jobert ©tetjciifon I)at bic 5Sictorin^53ractc bci 2)ioiitrcat 
gcbaiit. 3. HWciii SBrnbcr l)at mir biefc Uf)r gcfrfienft. 4. 2)ie g-cinbe bom- 
bavbiertcu bic '^tnbt. 5. ©cr ?ef)rer f)atte ben ^nabeu beftraft, tueit ber 
tnabc fein iBud) berlorcn (lost) t)attc. 6. 2)ein ilSater Jyirb bic^ (oben. 


Limitations of the Passive Voice. 

I. Only the direct object of a transitive verb can be- 
come the subject of the passive verb ; thus we say in the 

Active : Mt\\\ 3Satcr liebt mir^ ; and in the 
Passive : %^ trerbe toon tneinem 58ater geliebt. 

But the sentence : 

* I have been promised help by him ' = 
0iUfc ift mir Don i^m Derf^roc^en (promised) foorben, 
since in the 

Active : ©r \^oX mir ^iilfe t)erf^rorf)en (promised), 

^iilfc is the direct, but mir the indirect object. Hence it fol- 
lows, that 

2. Intransitive verbs can only be used impersonally in the 
passiv 2, thus ; 



!*§ "j- 

I am allowed == ^g tuirb mir crloubt (Lat. mihi per- 

tnittitur) ; 

He has been helped = 0^8 ift i^m gel^olfcn h)orben. 

This impersonal passive is also used in expressing an action 
without specifying any agent, as : 

(^0 tumfcc gcfteru 3lbcnb Did flcton^t, 

There was a great deal of dancing yesterday evening, 

NoTK. The pion. c3 in these constructions is omitted if any other 
mennber of the sentence precedes the verb, as: 

3Mtr toirtJ cdauM ; ®cficrn 3lbi'nb tourtie, etc. 


Substitutes for the Passive Voice. 


'J'he passive voice is much less frequently used in German 
than in English, particularly in the longer forms. It is often 
replaced, especially with intransitive verbs : 

(a) By the indefinite pronoun lUttU (Fr. i 7, see Less. XXVII), 
with the verb in the active voice, as : 

SOJan glailtit tf;m nid;t. He is not believed ; 

9Wan !aun tf)m nic^^t troucn. He cannot be trusted. 

ip) By a reflexive verb, as : 

^er (2d()luffcl iuirb fid) finben. The key will be \ound; 
and particularly with laffen, as : 

3)a^ (ii^t fit^ Ieid)t madden. That can easily be done 


to conquer, overcome, ero'bern 
believe, gUiuben (intr.^ -}- dat. 

of person) 
wait (for), tt)arten(auf 4- ace.) 
workman, bcr 9tv'beiter 
visit, visitors, ber ^efuc§ 

mill, bie 5Rul^le 
beef, ba§ ^inbfleifd^ 
courage, bie .^a^^fcrfeit 
untruth, falsehood, bie UnV 

as, at^ 






once, ein'mal carefully, forg'fciltig 

this evening, IjeUiC Hbenb severely, ftreng 

as soon as, fobalb' little, menig 

Idioms: As a child, when (I etc. was) a child, al« ftinb; Thlg house 
Is for sale (lit., to sell, to be sold), bicfe* Jpaui ift ju oerhiufer; to have 
visitors, Sefud) ftabcn. 


A. 1. ^iefe§33iIbn)urbei)onmcinered)Jt)e[tcrgemart,unbe^ift 
Diet gelobt Juorben. 2. J)ie3tabtiftliomG5encral bombarbiertunber* 
Dbert iDorbcn. 3. W\v h)crbcn beftraft loerben, locnn iuir unfcre £ef= 
tton nidjt forgfciltig lerncn. 4. ®ieSabcn finb gefc^Uo] jen, benn f)eute 
ift (ein) ^etertag. 5. ^ft ba§ .t>a»^ nebcu ber mii^U berfauft? 
6. ^ait)of)l, eg tDurbe geftern tjon ^fjrem 9teffen gefauft. 7. 33Dn 
h)em ttjurbe ba^ ^inb gercttct, al§ baa <r>i^"^ brannte? 8. (gg 
iDurbe Don eincm ^(rbcitcr gcrcttet, lueld)er iuegen fciucr 3:a^fer!eit 
Don ben Seutcn gclobt lyurbe. 9. 2Bare ber ilnabe larf; ^aii[e 
ge)4ncft toorben, loenn er nid;t unartig geirefen ioiire? 10. g^eben 
bem ^aufe unfercg S^Znc^bars toivb :ine ^ird;e Q^hant 11. Gg 
hjurbe geftern 2(benb Diel bei una gefungen unb gefpielt, benn h)ir 
flatten 53e[ucr;. 12. ^[t ba§ ^inbfleifd) gefc^iicEt .uorben, tuelc^eg 
ic^ befteirt fjabe? 13. ®er Sef)rer fagte, ba^ er mit meiner mieit 
gufrieben fei. 14. X)a§ ^ilb ioare bon b;u ^iinfttern nic^t gelobt 
hjorb'-n, loenn eg nic^t fe^r fc^on ge^efen iocire. 15. 3llg ^inb 
h)urbe ir^ immer Don meinem SSater ftreng beftraft, tocnn irf) eine 
llnioa^rF>eit [agte. 16. Sffiirb eg ung eriaubt ^,^*{inlm$tufgaben 
gu Dcrbrennen, \vm\ \m bamit fertig finb? 17. ©g trirb ^eute 
Diet gef))ielt, aber nientg ftubiert, jueil ioir morgen feine ©c^ulc 
l)ahm. 18. @g ift mir nidjtg baDon gefagt ioorben. ly. 2Bir 
tDurben nid;t gelobt, Joeil Wix nxd^t flei^ig iuaren. 20. SoOalb bie 
Seltionen getcrnt finb, iverben iyir einen ©pa^iergang madjQn. 

B. 1. Our parents love us. 2. We are loved by our parents 
3. By whom was this letter brought? 4. It was brought bj 
a messenger. 5. Our house isv.built, and we are already 
living in it. 6. Is the dinner served ? No, it is being served 

i i 




now. 7. Was the soldier in the hospital wounded, or was he 
ill ? H. He had been wounded by a bullet. 0. The carriages 
of the count will be sold to-day. H). His horses are already 
sold. 11. Why is this boy not believed? 1:2. He is not 
believed because he once told an untruth. 13. It is agreeable 
to be praised. 11. My sister is learning the song, which was 
sung at (in) the concert yesterday. 


1. Wer hat dieses Rindtleisch gebracht? 2. Wann wird 
uns erlaubt werden, im Garten zu spielen ? 3. 1st das Haus 
neben der Kirche verkauft ? 4. Wird heute Abend viel stu« 
diert werden? 5. Von wem wurde der Knabe nach Hausa 
geschickt? 6. 1st dieses Bild zu verkaufen? 





116. Declension of Adjectives: Second Form. 

If preceded by the Definite Article or by any deter- 
minative word of the bicfcr Model, the Attributive Adjective 
follows the Weak Declension, and takes -c in the Nomi- 
native Sing, of all Genders, and in the Accusative 
Sing. Feminine and Neuter; otherwise -••n throughout 


Weak Declension of gut, good. 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. gute 

Gen. gutCtt 

Dat. gutcn 

Ace. gutm 






Subs IAN iivKs with Adjectivks. 


the good child 
ba^ Qiitt ^linb 
bc« gutcit itinbcv3 
bcm (\i\tm .sjiiibc 
bn^ gute fiinb 



the good man the good woman 

Norn bcr gutc 5!)iann bie gutc ^-vmi 

(/en. bc-^ gutcn ^JJ?anne«5 ber gutcn Jyrau 

Dat. beni giitcn 'DJJanne bcr gutcn ^x<x\\ 

Ace. ben gutcn anann bie gute ^rau 


Norn, bie gutctl ^Uianncv, ;yvauen, 5l1nber 
Gen. ber gutcn ^JJiiinner, Jrauen, Alinber 
Dat. ben gutcn ^33Mnncrn, ^^rauen, Alinbern 
Ace. bie gutcn 9JKinner, ^rauen, .<(linber 
Observk : Words of the bicfcr Model having (as far as pos- 
sible) a full set of endings showing gender, etc., the adjective 
has as few of such distinctive endings as possible. 
P'urther examples : 

bicfcr gutc 50Jauu, this good man 
biefe^ gutcn 3)iaune^, of this good man, etc. 
jenc gutc g'rau, that good woman 
jener gutcn ^rau, of that good woman, etc. 
toc(l^C§ gutc iliub, which good child 
ioelcfieg gutcn itiubce, of which good child, etc. 
Remark. — Two or more adjectives qualifying the same 
substantive follow the same form (compare § 102, Remark x 
above), as : 

bcr gutc, altc, rote 3Sein, 
gutcr, alter, roter SSein. 

Decline througl.out in German : the sick child; that high tree • which 
long lesson; this beautiful, broad stream ; that youn- wonan • thi= lazv 
^orse; which tired boy. ' ^ "' "' ^ 




] 16. Third Form. — If preceded by the Indefinite Ar- 
ticle or by any determinative word of the iircitl Model, the 
Attributive Adjective follows the bicfcr Model in the Nom- 
inative and Accusative Sing, of all Genders ; otherwise, 
it takes -cil (i. e., follows the Weak Declension) through- 
out, thus : 

Mixed Declension of pt good. 


















gut en 











Substantives with Adjectives. 




a good man 
Nom. ein gutcr Hccinn 


a good child 
ein gutcg 5linb 

a good woman 

eine gutc '^-vau 

Gen. eine^j guten 9Jianne^3 einer guten ^rau einel guten 5linbe^ 
Dat. eineni guten 9Jianue einer guten ^-rau eineni guten ^inbe 
Ace. einen guten 9J('ann eine gutc %xQi\x ein gutc8 ^inb 

Observe : This form differs from the weak form only in the 
Nom. Sing. Masc, and Nom. and Ace. Sing. Neut., 
where words of the niein Model have no distinctive endings. 
The adjective must consequently have the missing sign of 
gender and case. 

The Plural of this form is the same as that of the Weak 
Declension, but, as ein has no Plur., the full declension of 
Substantives with mein is given here : 



MASC* xrirvr 

'*-**• ftKUTER. 

my good brother my good sister my good child 

N. mem gutcr 3irubcr nieinc onto ed;Jueftcr mcin gutcg iliub 

O. memc^ gutcn meiucr guten meine^ guten • 

53rubcr^ Sd^tucftcr ^linbc^ 

D. ttKmem flutcn meincr gutcn meincm Qutcn 

©ruber • e^Mucfter .^^inb" 

A. memen guten ©rubcnneine gute 3d)it)efter meiu gutc0 ^inb 


Norn, meine guteu SBriiber, Srf;Jucftern, .^inber . 
Gen. meincr niitcu ©riibcr, ®c()lueftciu, .Hinber 
Dat. mcinen gutcu 43viibcvn, 3d>u)citcrn, ilinbern 
Ace. meinc o^xxi^n ^rUber, erfnueftcrn, Alinbcr 

117. Compound Verbs with Separable Prefix. 

I. The prefixes fie-, er-, < ic. (see § 35, Rem. 6), hence 
called Inseparable Prefixes, are never separated from the 
verb; other prefixes (chiefly the Prepositions) are Separable 
but only in Principal Sentences with Simple Tense' 
as : r , 

^er ^bnig fr^irftc ^loei iBoten ou8. 

The king sent out two messengers. 

9}?ein ^^niber reift nun-gcu od, 
■ My brother sets out (== departs) to-morrow. 

Note.- These Prefixes contain an idea distinct from that of the verb 
and hence ,f retained before the Verb in the cases above, would thro^ 
the verb out of its place as Second Idea of the Principal Sentence. 

2. The j|c- of the P. Part, and 511 in the Infin. follow the 
prefix, makmg together but one word, as : 
SDie 33otcn beg .^onigg finb aBflcreift, 


messengers of the king have departed. 



yr,.. - 





^Jiein i^ater ttjun|cf;t morgcn abjurcifen. 
My father wishes to depart to-morrow. 

3. The principal accent is on the Verb when the Prefix is 
Inscpardblc ; on the Prefix when Separable, as: bcfu'rf)en, t)er= 
tau'fen ; but aue'frfncfen, ab'veifen. 

4. The principal parts of Separable Compound Verbs 
should therefore be given as in the following examples : 

Infin. Impf. p. Part. 

fln'greifcn, to attack cjttff ... an auc^egrtffen 
ab'fc^neiben, to cut off fcfjnitt . . . ab abcjcfc^nitten 

118. Strong Vei^bs: lict^cn Model. 

Infin. Imff. P. Part. 

Germ. Model : bci^en 

Epigl. Analogy : bite 

Ablaut : ti 






Notes. — i. Compounds are only given in the Lists when the slmpU 
Verb is not found in the strong form. 

2. R. = Reflexive; N. = Neuter, i. e., conjugated with jeill only^ 
N. A. --- Neuter and Active, i. e., with feill or l)abeu; W. indicates thai 
the Weak for- is also used without difference of meaning. 

_bei^en, bite 

(er)bicid;en (W. N.). turn pale 
(bc)fleifH'n ( R.), apply one's self 
jjleicficn, resemble, be equal to 
gldten (N.), glide 
flycifm, grasp, seize 
fneifen, pinch 















^. (cib^iL suffer 






^feifen, whistle 
^cifec n. tear 

fcr)Iei(f>en (N.), sneak 
fd)Ieifen, grind 
fd)mei|?tMt, fling 
Jiteiilen, cut 
frf;vciten (N.), stride 
ftrcicfien, stroke 
ftreiten, contend 
toeic^en, yield 



















REMARKS.-I. The root vowel being Shortened in the Impf ' 
the following consonant, if single, is doubled; and stems' 
in -D (Idntciben, [cibcn) change b into ti. 

2 Those whose stem ends in -f^ change J into ff in the 

3. The following Verbs are weak when they have a different 
meaning, as below : 

bleicBen (trans.), bleach (,(eic6te 

f4)Ieifen, drag ; raze (to the ground) fd,(cifte 
lt)eid;en, soften, soak juetdUe 


4. ^egleiten, to accompany,' is no compound of qkiten 'o 
glide, but of loiton, td lead (weak, = 6c-BC-lcitcn) ; i>crrciben 
to make disagreeable, spoil (not from Icibcn, but £eib) is 
weak. ^ 


to set out, depart, ab'reifen 
cut otf, aO^fdmcibcn 
pai.)t (not pictures), an'^ 

slip, slide, nue'gleitcrt 
comprehend, understand, 6e= 

seize, ergvcifen 





fear, ficb furc{)ten (Dor-f-dat.) 
tear (to pieces), jerrei^cn 
pass (time, etc.), ju'bringen 
Cinderella, 3tf4>enputtel 
barber, ber 33arbier' 
idea, notion, bcr 33cgrtff 
steamer, steam-boat, baio 

thief, ber ^kb 
grass, bag ©rag 
hair, bag ^aar 
hay, bag -t^eu 

huntsman, hunter, bcr ^dger 
illness, bie .f^ranfi;eit 
fever, bag i^-iebcr 
slipper, bev ^sautoffet 
rain, bcr 3{cgcn 
rheumatism, bcr S^tbcumatigmug 

piece, bag ©turf 
little piece, bag BtM6)tn 
traveller, bcr 2Banberer 
tooth, ber 3^^^'^* 
toothache, bag 3«^"^C^ 
evil, angry, cross, bofc 
joyous, merry, frofjltd^ 
smooth, slippery, cjlatt 
golden, of gold, golben 
violent, heavy (of rain), ^eftig 
naughty, ill-behaved (of 

children), un'artig 
true, iuaf;r 
furious, toii'tcnb 
on that account, bcgtDcgen 
of it, babon 
the day before yesterday, i)Dr'= 


Idioms : To be on the point of (be aboutto), im aScflviffe fciii. You are 
tired, are you not? (Sic finfc miifcc, nid)t loahr'? So are we, aBiv finb ei 
aud). George has torn my coat, &eovs hat miv ben 9lorf jcrrfffen. 


A. 1. ®cr ©cnerat 9JL ritt auf eincni fc^lt)arsert ^ferbe burc^ 
bie ©trajicn ^orontog (i^on Toronto) . 2. 2Bie 'i)ahm ©te bie ^i\t 
auf bcm Sanbe 5iu3cbrad;t ? 3. 3(n tDag fiir cincr ^ranfbeit ^at 
^br 3Satcr fo tange ndittcn? 4. 6ie fiub miibe, nicf)t tua^r? 
2Bir finb eg auc^>. 5. %U mcin 33rubev jung i»ar, mtte er fcf)Iecf)te 
,3a{)ne uub litt fcl;r an S(^[)n\vd). 6. ^er fctiiuarje §unb un= 
fev(e)g ^JJadibarg ift bijfc ; er f^at borgeftcvn ein !lcineg ^inb gcs 
bifjcn. 7. Unf(c)re altcn 3iarf)barn bcgleitcten img nacf; bcm 
§afm, alg tDir abvciftcu. 8. 3So l»of)nt ber Sarbter, ber 3f)ncn 

bag §aar gefcfmittcu hat' 

^Mm\ alteg ^e[|cr f^ncibct [H^t 

gut, benn ber Wiener l?at eg gt.ytern gefd;Iiffen. 10. Stig ic^ tor 


STRONG verbs: bei^cu model. 


ber ©d;ule iiber bie glatte ©tra^e fc^ritt, glitt ic^ aug imb jerrife 
mir ben neuen SfJorf. 11. 2(l§ ber 3)teb im 33egriffe Wax, ing 
§aug §u fc(ileicf)en, ergriff ifin ber 2)iener. 12. Unfer alter 9iac^s 
bar Htt (ange an (am) ^ftfjeumati^mu^, unb Wax be^tvegen immer ju 
^aufe. 13. ^er ©eneral ritt mit feinen Offijieren iiber bie SBriid'e. 
14. ^er bofe ^nabe auf bem Slpfelbaum ri^ bie reifen 2(^fel 
/ bom Saume unb frf)mi^ fie auf bie Grbe. 15. 5!Jiein junger g^Jeffe, 
T- ber auf ber Uniijerfitdt Wax, \)at am ^ieber gelitten, aber er ift 
je^t n?ieber Wo\)l 16. 3(frf)en^uttelg ©cfjtuefter fdjnitt fid) (dat) 
ein ©titd t>om ^u^e ah, tueil er 5U gro^ fiir ben golbenen ^antoffel 
Wax. 17. ^c^ bin fd)nett nac^ §aufe geritten, iueil icf) mid; t)or 
bem hJiitenben Sturme furd)tete. 18. ®er 9Sanberer fc^ritt froben 
'^iJlwm burd; ben griinen 2Salb unb ^fiff ein frbfjlic^e^ 2ieb. 

19. ^iefe^ 9)ieffer ift nidt fd)arf; tuann tinivbe e§ gefc^Iiffen? 

20. ilarig fd>oncr, neuer diod tintrbe V»om .*ounbe gerviffen. 

' B. ]. Where is the old knife that you ground? 2. When 
Mary was young she reseml^led her mother. 3. The bears 
sneaked (pert.) into the wood, but the hunters followed (perf.) 
them. 4. Where does the painter live who painted (perf.) 
our house } 5. The industrious countryman cut (perf.) the 
grass yesterday, and is making hay to-day. (>. Why are you 
crying, Charles ? I am crying because George pinched (perf.) 
me. 7. The rain spoiled my (dat. -|- def. art.) journey to the 
country. 8. The steamer has whistled already. Now I shall say 
farewell. 9. Little Charles is a naughty child ; he has torn 
his (dat. of refl. pron. -f- art.) new dress. 10. Old people 
often suffer from rheumatism. 11. Have you understood 
what he said ? 1"2. The gardener was burning the boughs, 
which he had cut from the trees. 13, I have quarrelled with 
my old friend, because he was wrong. 14. This blue ribbon 
is too long, please cut a little of it off for me. 15. Why is 
Charles crying ? He has been bitten by a dog. 






]. Was fiir einen Hund hat Ihr Nachbar? 2. Wie wurden 
Sie die Zeit zubringen, wenn Sie reich waren ? 8. Was 
machte der Wanderer, als er durch den Wald schritt? 4. Wo 
wohnen Sie jetzt ? 5. Wann werden Sie Heu machen? 
6. Weshalb sind Sie so schnell nach Haiise geritten? 


HO. Possessive Pronouns. 

1. The Possessive Pronouns are used when no substantive 
is expressed, as : 

The hat is mine {Pronoun) ; but : 
It is my hat {Adjective). 

2. They are formed from the stems of the corresponding 
Possessive Adjectives by adding certain endings, as follows : 

{a) Endings of biefcr Model (without article), as : 



Norn, meincr 
Gen. meinCiS 
Dat. meincm 
Ace. lueincn 



meinc, mine 
meincr, of mine 
meincil, (to, for) mine 
tiieinc, mine 


meiuc mein(c)8 
meincr meineS 
meincr meincm 
meinc mein(c)8 
Observe : In the Nom. and Ace. Neuter, -? of the ending 
may be omitted. 

Go for the other persons : 


Sing, beincr beinc beincd, thine 




jeinc^, his, its 
il^rc0, hers (its) 





N. bermeine 
G. be^ meiiicn 
D. bem meincn 


bie meinc 

ber meincn 

bev meincn 

A. ben meincn I bie meinc 



bie meincn, mine 
bcr meincn, of mine 

ben meincn, (to, for)mine 
bie meincn, mine 


Plur. un[(e)rcr un[(e)re unf(e)rc8, ours 
eu(e)rcr eu(e)rc eu(e)rci, yours 
*^'^f'' '^¥^ if>rc§, theirs 

iXs¥n ^brc ^{,rc«, yours) 

{b) Preceded by the Definite Article, and hence with end- 
mgs of Weak Adjective, thus: 



ba§ meinc 
beg meincn 
bem meincn 
bne meinc 

So : ber, bie, ba§ beinc, thine ber, bie, bag eu(e)rc, yours 

ber, bie, bag feinc, his, its ber, bie, bag if,rc, theirs 

ber, bie, bag i^rc, hers, (its) (ber, bie, bag ^brc, yours) 
ber, bie, bag unf(e)rc, ours 

ic) Preceded by Definite Article, with ending -fa 4- Weak 
terminations, thus : »8 T" vveaK 


^''^'^' FEM. NEUTER. 

Nom. ber meinige bie meinige bag meinioe 

Gen. beg memigen, etc. ber meinigen, etc. beg meinigen, etc. 



Nom. bie meinigen, mine 
Gen. ber meinigen, of mine, etc. 
So : ber, bie, bag beinige, thine 

bcr, bie, bag feintge, his, its 
and so on for the other persons. 




unfrige and eurigc the -e of the stem is always omitted. 



[§§ "9- 

I ^■ 

Remark, — i. These forms are interchangeable, without 
difference in meaning, as : 

I have my book, but I have not yours, 

^c^ f)abc mein 53u*, aber id; t}aU md)t < bag ^^re 

( bag 3^rigc. 

His letter is here, but ours is not here, 

( un|(c)rcr \ 
©ein 33rief ift ^kv, aUx < bcr uiif(c)rc >■ ift nicl;t ^ier. 

( bcr unfrigc ) 

2. When a Possessive Pronoun is used as predicate, it may 
be replaced by the Possessive Adjective without ending, as : 

This book is mine, ®ivfe§ 33urf) ift mctlt. 

3. Observe the following idiomatic uses of the Poss, Prons. : 

{a) ^cf) ioerbe b. 8 9WcinigC (neuter sing.) tJ)UU, 
Is shall do my part, my utmost. 

(^) ^ic ^Jieinigen, bie Seinigen (Plur.), 
My, his friends, family. 

(r) A friend of mine --- filter tiott meinen ^reunben. 
This friend of mine = ^icjcr mein ^^reunb. 


Strong Verbs: bl«6cn Model. 

Germ. Model : 
Eng. Analogy. 

Ablaut : 





bleibeu (N.), stay, remain 
(ge)beibcn (N.), thrive 
leibcn, lend, borrow 




P. Part. 







meiben, avoid ■ ^ 

*)reifen, praise . 

reiben, rub . , 

fc^eiben (N. A.), part (intr. and trans.) f^'ieb 

itvljei^i, shine ; seem, appear 

fc^reib en^ write 

fc^reien, scream, shout 

fc^hjeigen, be silent 

fjjeien, spit 
L leiflm (N.), mount, ascend 

treiben, drive 

/Deifen, show, point out 
; ijei^cn, accuse 


to copy, ab^^reiben 

hangup, auf'^angen 

ascend, befteigen (trans.) 

prove, dernohstrate, be* 

appear, erfd;einen 

shine, glitter, glangen 

descend, f»erab'ftei0en 

guard, keep, ^iiten 

rule, reign, govern, regicren 

write (to), frf;retben (dat. or 

an-)- ace.) 
climb, ftetgen (auf -f- ace.) 
pardon, excuse, berjeitjeti 
remain behind, jurud'bleiben 
cold, bie (grfdltung 
family, bie ^amilk 
herd, flock, bie <0erbe 

















heat, bie §i^e 

last, ber Seiften 

pepper, ber ^feffer 

shepherd, ber S chafer 

shoemaker, cobbler, ber 

silence (act of keeping s.), 
ba^ ©c^lDeigen 

speaking (act of), bag ©^rec^en 
throne, ber 2hxon 
pasture, pasturage, bie 3Beibe 
fifty, funfgig, funfgig 
bright, brightly, ^elT 
loud, loudly, laut 
correct, rtc^tig 
round, runb 


It mm 


strong, severe, ftar! 
Xdiom: Up to the present time, still, npcf, immer. 

1 1 






A. 1. (S^ {ft mrf)t mU^i (violb, \\)ik^ c,VmX. 2. ©predKii ift 
©tiber, ec^tuciv3en ift Wolb. :i. Scbufter, bleib' bei beincm Sciften. 
4. eeit arf)t ^ai^en bin i* iucgen ciner ftarteu (Irfciltung 311 .•paufe 
gcbliebcn. 5. einc bon mcincn (Soufinen ift jclit bei ung auf 33efucJ), 
abcr fie bleibt uirf^t lauge. <>. ^1^0^:^ fiir ^Tiere finb in jenem 
^Balbe'c' (S« finb ^iiven. 7. ^ie mwiin unb ibrc %o6:)Ux 
iueintcn fjeftio;, a^5 fie Don einanbev fd;ieben. H, ^})iein Df)eim 
blieb iueflcn be: gvof^en ,f>il)e mit feinev )^amilie auf bem ^anbe. 
0. .Slarl (;at aw feinen 3.Uiter iiefd>vieben, unb id) bin im ^^ecjriffe 
<in ben meinitgen gu fd^reibcn. lo. ®er It'onig fd)Uneg unb fd;ien 
traurig ju fein, al^^ cv bie fd^limme ^Jiad^ridit imU. \ 1 . ^^itte, 
Der5ei(;en Sie mir, ba^ id) ^bnen noc^ nic^t gefdirieben {;abe' 
12. %}>o IjaUw ©ie ^bren .Sput aufge(;angt? I^d; \}aU i^n neben 
ben :5f;ngett gefjcingt. 1 ;i. 31U luir auf ben ikvg ftiegen, fc^ien 
bie ©onne fc^on ^ell. 14. ^[BeldK Don biefen ^^Biic^evn ioiinfdien 
©ie ? ^;3cl) umnfdK bie nieinen. 15. mx luiirben auf bem Sanbe 
geblieben fein, loenn unfere ^-reunbe aud; geblieben iuaren. 1 H. ®ie 
^erben tuurben auf bie 2Beibe getrieben, aU \m Dom SBerg 
f)erabftiegen. 17. g^ ift ung beimefen ioovben, ba^ bie (Srbe 
runb ift. 18. ^^or funf^ig ^jjafjven beftieg bie ^onigin ^^ictoria 
ben^bron, unb fie regiert nod) inuuer. 19. 2Burben ©ie nac^ 
(Surojja reifen, ioenn ic^ ^umrfbliebe, urn '^^jx <oau6 ju fjiiten? 
20. ®ie ibtaben pfiffen unb fd^rieen, aU fie auf ben ^erg ftiegen. 

B. I. George has black ink, but mine is red. 2. Mary's 

sister and mine are learning German. 3. We have looked 

for William's books and ours everywhere. 4. Your exercise 

'is not correct, copy it. 5. Whose gloves have you ? I have 

mine and yours. <}. Why did the boy shout so loud? 7. To 
whom were you writing the long letter yesterday > 8. I have 
black eyes, but yours are blue. 9. In what yeai did Goethe's 
'Faust' appear? 10. Waiter, please bring me the vinegar 
and the pepper, 11. This lead-pencil is mine, where is 


your.,? 1--'. Your aunt .iml mine arc nei^.hbours. ];) The 
pro essor s.e.ned not ,0 h. at home, for l.i.s window.; and 
shutters were not open. I I. I should write to him if he 
wrme to „,e. I... , .,„ „.riti,,, to ,nj tuother and c'harles 
was wntmg to h,s when the post.nan bronglu us the letters' 


1. Seit wann sincl 8ie schon .u Hause Meblieben ? 2 Was 
-chtendie Schafer, als wir vom Ilerge herabstiegei^? 1 
^^ ann bes leg d,e Konigin Victoria den Thron ? 1 Wa 
ur Iinte haben Sie? 5. Fur wen ist dieser lange BrieP 
b. Welches sind die Namen der Alonate ? 




Table of Adjective Endings. 

I. Strong. 


N. — cr 

G. —eg (en) 

D. —em 
A. —en 



-eg (en) 


— e 
— er 
— e 

Observe: -en for -C;^ in Gen. Sing. 
Masc. and Neuter before strong substs. 


M. F. N. 

— e 
— er 

—eg — e 


— e 
— ?n 

II. Weak. 


— e — e 
—en —en 


M. F. N. 


—en —en 
— e — e 

OiiSERVK: Persistent -:i, 
except Norn. Sing, of all 
genders, and Ace. Sing. 
Fern, and Neuter. 












M. F. N. 

Nom. — er 

— e 

— e8 


Gen. —en 




Dat. —en 




Ace. — en 

— e 

— e« 


[§§ lai- 

Objkrvk: Same as Weak (II), except Nom. Sing. Masc. anc} Non». 
Ace. Sing. Neuter. 


General Remarks on Adjectives. 

1. Participles used attributively are employed and declined 
as Adjectives, as : (^eliebter !!8atcr, beloved father ; ba^ tueinenbe 
Alinb, the weeping child ; mcine geeijrte 9Jiutter, my honoured 

2. Adjectives and Participles used as Substantives vary 
their declension according to the rules for Adjective Declen- 
sion, but are spelt with capital letters, as : tier ilranfe, the 
sick man, patient ; Fern, bie Slranfe, the sick woman; Plur. bie 
.%anfen; cin 5^ranfer, a sick man, patient; pi. ^ranfe, sick 
people, patients. 

Remarks. — i. Many words, the English equivalents of which 
are Substantives only, are Adjectives in German, as : bet 
^"^rembe, the stranger, foreigner, PI. bJc A'vemben, but eui ^rem= 
ber, PI. i^rembe ; ber I^Kcifcnbe, the traveller, eiii I'Keifcnbcr, etc. 
These Adjective-Substantives, when Mnsc. and preceded by 
the Definite Article, have the same inflection as the Weak 

2. Names of languages from Adjectives are not declined 
when used without the article, as : 

^<x% i[t bie^ auf ^entft^ ? What is this in German ? 


3. Adjectives of colour used substantively are indeclinable 
or add 6 m the Gen. Sing, as: bae ©run, bc^ (s3riin(^). ' 

4. If the Substantive is not expressed, the Adjective 
shows by Its ending the gender, number and case, as : 

(5in tieincv mam unb ein ^ro^er, 
A little man and a tall one. 

-JgI'^J'''' '"^"^' '"^'^' '^ '"' '''- ^-- -^ *° ^^ translated 

5. if a Substantive is preceded by a succession of Adiec 
tives, they all follow the same form, as: fitter, alter, roter 
2Beiu : ber flutc, dtt, rote 2lknn ; cimi outeit, rotcn 2Beine^. 

6 Adjectives whose stem ends in -c(, -cil, -cr, as : ebel 
noble; flolben, golden; (jciK hoarse, drop -c of the stem 
when nifiected; those in -cl, -cr may drop -c of the Urmma- 
tion .nstead, unless the termination is -c -cr or -c§ as = 
M golbiic 33auer; bcr cblni or ebcln ;s-rau; bent ^eifrcn or 

V 7- The Adjective 60*, high, drops c when inflected, as- 
oer fjo^c ^aum, the high tree. 

8 Adjectives can generally be used without change as ad- 
verbs, as : luftio, nierry, merrily ; angeneN, agreeable, agree- 
ably ; gut, good, well. ^ 

^ 9. Adjectives (so-called) in -cr from names of places are 
mdeclmable, as : bie ^ouboncr Seitung, the London newspaper- 
^pambuvgcr Sdnffe, Han.burg ships; cin ^^arifcr ^anbfcf;ub' 
a Pans glove. / // 

Note. -These adjectives correspond to the English use of the 
Koper without inflection. They are really substantives in the 

Oen.Plur,thus:bie?oiiboiifr8citllimisstrictlvbirJ^eitn.i,.».-.o ..-;. 

the^newspaper of ,^e Londoners. Hence they are^pelV wiVh^Tpi;!; 







10. After personal pronouns, the Adjective follows the strong 
declension except in the Dat. Sinj;. and Noin. (and some- 
times Arc) IMur., as . 

(for) me, poor man ; you good people ; us little children, 
tniv armcn ^Viannc ; \i)x gutcn I'outc ; nm t'lcinci n) Minber. 

11. The Indelinite I'ronouns (sec Less. XXVII) ctlua^, 
uidU'J, Did, are Substantives, and therefor'' not determinative 
words, and the following adjective has the strong declension, 
as : cttuae (^hitC6, something good ; nicl>tv> 'Jlni^onchmcs, nothing 

Ohskrvk : The Adjective is here used as substantive, and 
therefore spelt with a capital. 

12. After the Indefinite Numerals in the Plural (see 
Less. XXIX) allc, all ; ciiuj]c (ctUcbo), some; mand)C, many; 
niclu-cio, several ; folcK\ such; Hide, many; iucuii'^c, few, the 
Adjective may have either the weak or the strong ending. 

13. After the interrogative iucUtc in the plural, the strong 
declension is also found in the adjective ; and the exclama- 
tory iucUt is generally uninflected before an adjective, which 
then always has the strong form, as : 

m^cld) iivofiCS ^lHn\^niii)cn ! W hat (a) grert pleasure ! 

123. Strong Verbs: }tl)ic^cn Model. 

Germ. Model : 
Efig/. Analogy. 

Ablaut : 

(ijer)bric^cn, vex 
flie^en (N.), flow 
gic^en, pour 








P. Part. 






sTK()N(i VKKiJs: fd;icf}cn modkl. 


ntimmeu, glow 

flimiiicn (VV.N.A.), dimh 

fvie(f)cii (N.), creep 

flCnicfuMi, enjoy 

ricduMi, s.nell (tr. and intr.^ 

(cr)[dmUcn ( W. N.\ sound, resoun 1 

faufcn, drink (of beasts) 

[rfucjicn, shoot 

fd^Ue^cn, lock, shut 

fiebcn (VV.), boil (intr.) 

fpriefK'n (N.), sprout 

triefcn (N.), drip 

Remarks _ i. Observe, as under the bci^en ModeI(.< i,8 
Keni. 12) the doubling of consonants and the interchan-.J 

2. ^Kiic^en/to avenge,' is weak but has also P. Part, c^.vodjm 

3. Saufcn has also foufft, fiiuft in the Pres. Indie. 2 "3 Sing" 

S- Jn fiebm the weak P. Part, (geficbct' is rare. 

















Strong Verbs : fcrf)tcn Model. 

2.3-S. pR. Tnd. 


2. S. I.MPER. 

Germ, Model: fcdUen fidUft fid)t fid^t 

Engl. Analogy .- wanting 

Ablaut .' c i 

Impf. p. Part. 

focf;t oefiid)ten 


fcd)tcn f!""ht 

flcdUon, weave, twine fliditft, flic^t, fli*t fIod>t cjer'IodUcn 





(er)HJfcI)cn (N.), be- (erlifd;e[t) erlifc^t erlofc^ erlofrfjen 

come extinguished (eviifd;) 
melfen (W.), milk (milfft, mil!t, mil!) mol! gemolfen 

(iiui(lft,quillt, quelle) quoH gequolten 
(fd^mil^eft) frfimiljt fdimolj gefcfjmoljen 

(fc^it)iaft) fd)lt)iat fcfihJoK gefdjhJoHen 

Rf:marks. — I. Rare forms are enclosed in ( ). 

quellen, gush forth 
fd;meljen (N.), melt 

|d)JueUen (N.), swell 

2. The simple verb lofd^en, 'to extinguish ' (ti.), is weak 
(lofd;te, geli3[d>t), as are also its separable compounds, e. g., 

3. '^dimeljen (intr.) has also the forms (fdjineljeft), fd)mel5t 

4. (Sd)mcl5en, 'to smelt' and fd)tt)ellen, 'to cause to swell' 
(trans.), are weak. 


extinguish, put out, aue'IbfdK'u snow, ber ^i^'^zt 

water (flowers, etc.), begie^eu eight, ^6::ji 

prescribe, Derfd)reibeu 

flow past, Dorii'bevflie^en 

close, shut, ju'fd)lief?en 

exhibition, bie Sdie'ftelhmg 

health, bie (*iiefuubf)eit 

drink, beverage, ba^ ©etrdn! 

cow, bie ilut^-''' 

maid, maid-servant,bie S^Jagb * thereon, baran 

raid-day, noon, ber 9JJittag past, by, boriiber 

pain, ber Sdnnevj 

Idioms : 1. To go past the house, am "^aufe eof ubefgel)tu. 
%, In German, <\y\i iT^eutfd) or im !X)eutfd)en. 

celebrated, famous, benit^mt 

blind, blinb 

healthy, healthful, gefiirtb 

dear, lieb 

Limburg (adj.), Siiuburger 

dead, tot 

Toronto (adj.), 3::orDntoer 


6 124] 

stkong: vekhs fcditcn model. 



2. ^* (.abe ,„c„un Uricf g^fc^toffcn u„b ,„erbc i(,„ "7" t 
5^ tO™<,e,, X Sc8 3Jio.flc„. ftcigc, Me Heine. Sogcl jum ©m 

P«u e .ovuber. 6. Xn Jug be. S,a„tc„ it cfl^ ( , b " 

« vWneben. ». Sie ^eitunaen ajaMen .id .on er lo J " 
3n.,teaung 10. Jer Sba^MuoK .„„ §i„^e[ unb (ofcfrba, 
8t.mmenbc S^er an«. ! I . Unfere Solbafen fcKoffon bi Stabt! 

b,e iiu^c fl n,o((e„ unb ,eiit beaiefjcn fie bie 4««n,en. 13. mt" 
f*ue.flt, ,^t gntcn Se.,tc, benn bie .ftvnnfcn (eiben jeM Zt 
ecf;majen. 14. SMrbe bev Scorer 66fe luciben, menn ber^S! 
feme Stufgabe ,«„ fe? ,5. ®er e*nfer ^nt ben Sieifenkn bm 
» 8 member g obt ge.mefen. 16. SSiirbe e« 3?,„e„ bie 3!eKe 
U^KMben, tocnn rd, suriicfbliebe ? 17. ,§a6en Sk bie t-ra^n 
arunien ge e^en, b,e luir ben. .fi.anfcn f<(ncfeny 18. ®et Scf, ,e" 
fi;...orM.„b ba« SBaffo.- troff i,„n ben .^nfern, ali bie Sol 
Seaeii 9Ji.ttag toavin fdnen. 16. a)er SJlinbe, ber ne6en ml 
too^,.t flocit jioei iJovbe f(ir .neine Wuttet. 20. ®et iiinge .mb ' 
« alte Su-mbe. bie in. a^albe jagto,., ^aben biele Tg " 

S'r";. ~\^'" '"'■'" f"'^ ^'^ *'"'"^» "^fl^ff^" toorben^ 
Sic fmb Bon. Giartnet bcgoffen loorben. 

-B. h The golden slipper ,va.s too smallfor Cinderella's 
sisters. ■>. Paris gloves and Li,nl,urg cheese are tamons every- 
where. ■). The huntsinan shot a hare and brought it ho,ne. 
4. Our neighbours are not at home, for their doors and 
windows aij closed. .5. I do not believe every story I hear 
(.. Please, dear mother, tell us little children something, new 
and pretty. 7. If Charles tears his new book, his ..rother 

/ / ■ > I 

U It ' ' .■ , . ■ ■ . . 




[§§ 124- 

Hi' »-■ 


will be very angry. S. He seemed not to hear what I said 
to him. 9. These flowers are for the patients in the hospitals. 

10. (The) green is agreeable for those who have weak eyes. 

11. The horse is drinking the water which we have brought 
him. [:L Pure fresh water is a healthful beverage. 13. A 
week ago I was at (in) a concert, where this singer (/.) sang. 
14. When the weather becomes cold, the dogs like to creep 
behind the stove. 1 5. The travellers enjoyed the beauty of 
the landscape, when they were ascending the high mountain. 
It). Please tell lue how this word is written in German. 


1. Haben Sie Ihren J3rief s ;hon geschlossen? 2. Wie 
lange ist Ihr geehrter Professor schon tot ? 3. Was hat der 
Doktor der Kranken verschrieben ? 4. Weshalb wurde der 
Lehrer bose .'' i^. Wer hat diese Vogel geschossen ? o. Was 
hat der Jager mit dem Hasen gemacht, welchen er im Walde 
geschossen hat ? 

m < 
1:1 i( 




fricrctt model. 
125. Comparison of Adjectives. 

In German, as in English, the degrees of comparison are 
formed by adding to the Positive : 

-Ct to form the Comparative, and 
-(e)ft " " " Superlative, as : 

mu, new neucr, newer neu(c)ft, newest 

reic^, rich vcidicr, richer reid^ft, richest 

angenehtit, .agreeable annc'-^chmcr, mor 
angvjue^mft, most agreeable 

^_- 1 1 CL r \. V ci 





Remarks. — I. Monosyllabic adjectives with a, 0, u (not 
ttu) generally take Umlaut (but with many exceptions, given 
in App. K.), as : 

lang linger langft 

!ut;j furjer furjcft 

2. The syllables -cr, (e)|i are added to every adjective, 
without regard to its length, as in the case of angeneijni (given 
above, but see § 16 1, note). 

3. Adjectives used attributively in the Comparative or 
Superlative degree are declined, and add the usual endings 
^/hr the syllables -er, -eft respectively, as : 

ber rcic^erc Wlam ein reic^ercr mam 

mein alteftcS ^leib liebfter ^reunb 

4. Participles are compared like adjectives, as : 

gcliebt, beloved geliebter geliebteft 

5. -c of the Superlative ending is retained only after b, t 
or a sibilant (f, f 1^, 3, J, y), as : alt, Superl. altcfi ; but grofe 
always has Superl. grij^t. 

5. Adjectives in -c, -cl, -en, -er drop e of the stem in the 
Comparative, as : trage, trdger, trdgft ; ebel, ebler, ebelft. 


The Comparative. 

1. ' Than ' =» aU after the Comparative. 

2. The compound form with mef>r (Engl. ' more ') is never 
(except with ^he adjectives given in § 161) used in German 
(as it is in Engl, with polysyllabic adjectives), unless when two 
adjectives (i. e., two qualities of the same object) are being 
compared, as : 

(Sr ift me|r fc^h)acl^ al^ franf. 

He is more (i. e., rather) weak than ill. 




3. Comparison of equality : 

I am (just) as rich as he, 
I^d) bin (eben) io reicf) mt er. 

4. ' The . . . the ' before comparatives = |e, htfio or um 
fo — JC (bcfto or um fo), as : 

The longer the nights, the shorter the days, 

^c (bcfto) Idnger bie 9idrf)te, jc (bcfto) fiirjcv bie Xage. 

5. When the comparative is declined, the omission of c of 
the stem takes place just as in Adjectives in — cr, as: 

ben reid)er(c)n 'DJiann, etc. 

Note. — The syllable -cr may occur three times successively at the 
end of the same adjective, viz. : i ° as part of the stem, e. g., l)t'ifcr, hoarse; 
2 ° as inflection of comparison, e. g., I^eif(e)rci', hoarser; 3° as ending of 
strong adjective declension, e. g., eiil ^eif(e)i-erer ^Sanger, a hoarser 


The Superlative. 

I. The Superlative is not used, even as Predicate^ in the 
undeclined form, but : 

{a) If the substantive is expressed, or if the substantive of 
the preceding clause can be supplied, the (weak) adjective 
form with definite article is used, as : 

This river is the broadest in America (i. e., the broad- 
est river), 2)tcier ?^lu^ ift bcr drcttcftc in ^itmerifa (bev 
breitefte ^lu^). 

The days in June are the longest (days) in the whole 
year, ^ie ^rage im ^uni ftnb bie liingftcn (^age, under- 
stood) im ganjcn 3«t,'i'c« 

This earthquake was the most severe that we have 
had. Tiii'foiS (Srbhehcn ift bn* ftrf^tnfl-r Vr»j4dfii>a vnti' 




jcfto or urn 


fCv bie Xage. 

)Sion of c of 
as : 

ssively at the 
[)eifcr, hoarse; 
° as ending of 
'X, a hoarser 

'caU, in the 

Dstantive of 
k) adjective 

, the broad- 
Imerifa (bev 

1 the whole 
L^age, under- 

lat we have 


r^) If no substantive can be supplied, the advert form 
pi"' ^eded by am is used, as : 

The lake is broader than the river, but the sea is the 
broadest (observe nof ^ the broadest /a^e, river or 
sea) per ®ee ift breiter a(# ber ^lu^, aber bie See ift am 

The days are longest (i. e., ^ at the longest,' not 'the 
ongest days') in June, :;^m ^uni finb bie STage an 

The earthquake was most severe on Monday »(m 
aVontag tuar bag Grbbcbcn am ^cftiaftcn (not' 'the 
severest earthquake '). 

./sT\7 T^-!-?^'""''''"' '"^^ ^" strengthened by prefixing aUct- 

2 In the preceding examples, the superlative ascribes a 
quality to the object in the highest degree /;. comparison 
(expressed or implied) with, or relatively to, a number of 
other objects, and is hence called the Relative Superlative 
but the English superlative with most often merely ascribes 
the quality in an eminently high degree, without instituting 
any comparison. When so used, it is called the Absolute 
Superlative, as: 

Your father was most kind (i. e. = 'exceedingly kind ' 
not = 'kind^.-/') ^^ ' 

The Absolute Superlative is rendered in German by an ad- 
verb of eminence, such as fcftr, very; U^, auBcrft, exceed- 
ingly, prehxed to the adjective in the positive as • 

%^x 'Mitx juar fcfjr (fjijj^ft, (iu^crft; 

Vour father 


was luost (very, exceedingly, extremely) 



[§§ «7- 

3. The superlative is commonly used in German of two ob- 
jects (which is not admissible in Engl.), as : 

2)er (gri)^ere or) griijtc Don biefen jtvei ^nabcn. 
The taller of these two boys. 


Comparison of Adverbs. 


Adverbs are compared like adjectives, the superlative form 
being that with am, as : 

angene^m, agreeably angenefimer, more agreeably 
am angene^mftcn, most agreeably 


gut, good 
^od), high 
na^(e), near 

Irregular Comparison. 

Bcfjer ht\t (different root) 
tjij^jer i?oct)ft (drops c in Compar.) 
naf)er nci^ft (nearest, next; in- 
serts t in Stiperl?) 
t)iel, much mc^r mcift (different root) 

n^enig, little (of quantity) mtltber minbeft (different root) 

Notes. — i . 9J?cl)r is used as adverb of quantity only. For the Subst. 
ttiel)rctc8, PI. mcl)rfte 'some, several,' see §§ 152, 175. 
2. SBentg also has the regular forms tueniflev, rociiigft. 


Defective Comparison. 

The following Comparatives and Superlatives are formed 
from adverbs, etc. (some of which are obsolete) : 

(au^en, without, adv^ au^er, outer ciufeevft, outermost 

utmost, extreme 

/ r 1. r -x / t. V ^ ( «^eft, soonest 

(c^e, before, conj:) (etjer, sooner, adv:) | ' ' ^^^^ 

(binten, behind, rtrt'z;.) l^'tUer, hinder (jinterft, hindmost 
(inncn, within, adv,) inner, inner innerft, innermost 




{la^, late, obsolete) 
(mittel, middle) 
(nib, below, obsolete) 
{iihiw., above, adv.) 
(unten, below, adv.) 

te^t, latest, last 

mittler, middle mil.aft, middle 
nieber, lower nieberft, lowest 

ober, upper 
unter, lower 

(born, before, adv.) Berber, fore 

oberft, uppermost 
unterft, lowest, 

Dorbeift, foremost 


Strong Verbs: fricrcil Model. 

Infin. Impf. p. Part. 

Germ. Model: frfer.n fror j^efroven 

Engl. Analogy: freeze froze frozen 

Ablaut: ic, etc. q j 

Modd7§^ )^' '°"^ ^ '' "*"''' ''^^^'"g"'«hes this Model from the ld)ie6eu 


A. (Infin. ic, ji.) 

biegen, bend fjog 

bieten, bid, offer t>ot 

fliegen (N.), fly (on wings) flocj 

flie^en (N.), flee (escape) f(ol; 

frieren (N. A.), freeze, be cold fror 

Ije^en, lift, raise ^ob, ^ub 

(er)!iefen, (er)fiiren, choose erfov 

liigen, lie (tell a falsehood) log 

(i)er)Iicren, lose berlor 

frf)ieben, shove, push [c^ob 
fd^iDoren, swear 
(be)triigen, deceive, cheat 
n)iegen, weigh, have weight (intr.) 
jie^en (N. A.), pull (tr.) ; move (intr.) §og 

Remarks. — i. ^ieaen, bteten. fnecren 











fd;)UDr, fcbtDuv ge[d)tt)oren 
betrog betrogen 

iuog geti'ogeu 


fliebcu, lichen, have 

also the forms (now used only in poetry) with cu for ic in th< 




2. and 3. Sinjjj. Pres. Ind. and 2. Sing. Imper., as: bcucjft, 
bcuv\t, bcug ; flcud^ft, flcucl) ; jeudjft, jcuc^. 

2. 2lsicneu, to rock, is weak (tmegte, geimegt). 

3. Observe the change of ^ into g in jie^en, jog, gejogen. 

i??. (Infin. c, 0.) 

fc^^eren, shear fc^or ge[rf)oren 

lueben (W.), weave toob geiuoben 

iudgcn, weigh (trans.) h)og geiuogen 

(be)U'cgcn, induce, persuade betuog bctuogen 

Remark. — 'iHluegcn, 'to move (set in motion)' is weak 
(benjcgtc, beiuegt). ' 


metal, ba^3 ^Jletafl' 

to offer, an'bictcn 

abolish, annul, cancel, aufs 

put off, delay, postpone, au^': 

remove (neut.), auc/giebeiv 
prefer, lu^i'^icbcu (dat. of pers.) 
fly away, iueg'flicgcn 
roof, biTg Tad) 
colour, bie '^•axbi 
hunger, ber ^linger 
cook, ber ^od) * 

red ' subst.), bag 9?^t 
sparrow, bev Sperling 
part, portion, bev ^eil 
shore, bank, bag Ufev 
on that account, therefore, 

yet, still (in spite of all), borf) 
straight, gerabe (adj.) 
exactly, just, gerab*: (^adv.) 
as soon as, fobalb 

Idioms : 1. I prefer gol«l to silver, 3d» ^jclu' tai Wolb bcin (Stlbcr oor. 

2. I like the winter in Canada, 3d) Ifabt ten Winter in 
@anaba gci'ii. 


A. 1. Sin ©perling in ber §anb ift beffer olg ^mi auf bem 
^arf)e. 2. gjiarie ift jitngev aU l^ouife, aber jie i|t bod; grijf;er. 


STRONG verbs: frictcn model. 


3. |>unger ift bcr 6efte ^od). 4. ^er jungc (^jeneral SB ift ein 
ta^frcver .^clb ala fein 58ater. 5. Tie Sieifcnben [cftoben ba« 
Soot Doni lifer unb ruberten iibcv ben m% H. ^Hufflejc^oben ift 
mc^t aufgefyofcen. 7. ilBeld>e^ Den biefen 3}Jabc^en ift ba^ gro^te ? 
8. ^e ^Df)er ein ^^^oget fliegt, je flciner f*eint er gu lucrbcn. 9. ^er 
^rembe l)at mir mel;r fiir mein ^:>au^ angebotcn aU ©ie, aber ic^ 
glaube uirf)t, bafe er fo gut hqai}Un iriirbe. 10. ^e flei^igcr tuir 
finb, befto mebv lernen W\x. 11. ^m ©ommer ^ahe ic^ ba^ Sanb 
ganj gem, aber im SBinter jie^c id; bie Stabt Dor. 12. ^TJir lln= 
glucfad)en ift ber ^-u^ erfrorcn, alg id; nad; .§aufc ritt. 13. 6os 
balb h)ir unfer *oau^ Devfauft l;atten, ^ogen Juir au^. 14. 211^ ic^ 
auf bcm Jiianbe ioar, luog id) mc^r aU id; je^t iuiege. 15. @g ift 
tDaf>r, ba^ bie reic^ften ^cnU nicbt tmmer bie glucflid;ften finb. 
16. ®er 9{egen, loeld^er un^ bie ?Reife Derleibet hat, Wat me^r 
nu^Iic^ al^ angene^m. 17. ^ie iWutter ^cb bie BiMi Don bem 
©lag auf, \vM)^§ ilir unartigeg Jlinb auf bie @rbe gefc^miffen 
l)atU. 18. liefer ^nabe Ijat feine GItern betrogen, unb be^ljalb 
ift er ungliidlicb. 19. ^rieren ©ie, §err ^>rofeffor? ^e^t 
nic^t, aber ic^ fror, alg ic^ auf ber ©tra^e ivar. 20. ®er ^ciger 
^at ben 35ogel gef^^offen, gerabe al§ er auf ben ^aum flog 
21. 2^on juem tourbe ^^r §aug gefauft? 22. $8on einem 
J^remben, ber feit Dierjeljn STagcn bei meinem ^Setter auf «e= 
fuc^ ift. 

B, 1. Lead is a heavy metal, but gold is the heaviest. 
2. This painter is not so famous as his father, but his pictures 
are just as fine. 3. George lost his parents when he was 
still very young. 4. Those students have lost a great deal of 
time, but now they are studying more industriously. ^5. l%e 
bird flew away, just as the huntsman was on the point of 
shooting it. • 6. When is the weather coldest in Canada ? In 
the month of January it is coldest. 7. Which bird flies 
fastest ? 8. The useiui is better than the beautiful. 9. What 
kind^of a dog has the huntsman lost.? 10. Iron is heavy, lead 



[§§ 13a- 

is heavier, but gold it, heaviest of all 11. Green is a more 
agreeable colour for the eyes than ret! 12. If the stick is 
too long, cut a piece of it off. 13. The upper part of the 
city of Quebec is much finer than the lower. 14. The 
weather seems to be warmer to-day, but it froze ^perf.) yester- 
day. 15. When I was younger, I weighed more than my 
brother, but now he weiglis more than I. i{y. The upper 
part of the city of Quebec was built earlier than the lower 


1. 1st der junge General ein tapferer Mann? 2. Ziehen 
Sie das Land der Stadt vor ? H. Weshalb ist der Kn^be so 
traurig? 4. Wann hat der Jager den Vogel geschossen? 
5. Welche Studenten lernen am meisten - b. Welches ist 
besser, reich und ungliicklich oder ?rm und gliicklich (zu) 
sein ? 




fingcn model. 

132. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns are : 

1. bet, bic, bo0, that 

2. biejcr, bicfe. bicjcs, this, that 

3. jcnet, jcnc, jcnci, that, yonder 

4 berjenige, bicjcnigc, baSjcnigc, that 

5 bcr namUr^c, bie namlir^c, bog niimHr^c, the same 
6. bcr|e(b(ig)c, biefelb(ig)c, bttg|clb(tge), the same 




7. ffll(^(er), foli^Ce), foIr^(e8), such, such a 

8. bcgglei^en, bcr ^Icic^eu, of t it Kind (of tijose kinds) 
Remark. — rhese may all be used either as Substantive 

or Adjective 1 'onouns, except beetle' i;cn see § 139, i, 

133. I. J)ii, bic, ilttg, used adjecvively (i. e., before a 
substantive), s declined lik^- the Definite Article (which is 
merely the demonstrative adjective weakened and un- 
emphasized), as : 

^er' manv that man. '^tx mann', the man'. 

2. When used substantiv ly it is declined thus : 


Nom. ber 

Gen. beffen 

Dat. bem 

Ace. beu 







bercr (bereit) 



Sin^ alar. 





Note. — The turm biren (Gen. PI.) is only used as = 'of them,' as : 
How many children have yo ? I have oven of them. 
93? ie t)ielc ^inber ()nlieit ate ? 3cf) {)abc tJrreit beu. 

134. :^tc|er and jcncr both follow the bt« ♦"er Model (see 
§ 6), but bic§ is used for biefc^ in the Neuter Nom. and Ace. 
Sing, when used substantively, as : 

^ic3 ift 1, .n 33ud», . (Sr batte bies nt*t ge^ort. 
This is my book. He h d not heard this. 

btefcr = this (the nearer of two obje^^ ^s, hence also =) 

the latter, as: 

jencr = that, yo^ 1er (the more remote of two objects, 
Hence also =) the former; 

._.-,.- _ .- ^. — ... .~,-,\- - jj-vp^.*, 

This treo is large, but that (oi ) is larger. 



[§§ 134- 

3ntcr 93aum, yonder tree (pointed out as remoiS). 

^arl unb ^Bilbclm finb "sHriibcv; bicfcr ift fleif^ii^ jcncr ift 
tvage, Charles and William are brothers ; the latter 
is diligent, the former is idle. 

1JI5. 1. ^Cl'jClliflC is declined in both parts, like the Defi- 
nite Article followed by the adjective form jenig with we-^k 
endings, thus : 

\ Singular. Plural. 






Nom. bcrjenigc bicjcnicjc tJoSjcmgc bicjcnigcn 
Gen. bcgjcnigcn bcrjcmgctt bcSjcnigen berjenigcn 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

2. %tx or bcrjcni(tc is used : 

{a) before a genitive case, as : 

^d; \)^\it 31}rcn .v)ut unb bciti jcnigen) v5§vcg 'SruberU, 
I have your hai and that of your brother (your 

Note. — The demonstrative may also be omitted in this construction, 
as in English ; or the simple bcr may be used. 

(^) before a relative clause, as : 

^cr(jcmfic), wcJr^cv gufrieben ift, ift glucfUc^, 
He who is contented, is happy. 

^tcCjcnigc) ?^rau ift am fd)Dnften, tucli^c gut ift, 
That woman is most beautiful, who is good. 

'^x §au§ unb ba0(|cnigc), movin unr iuofjnen, 
Your house and that in which we live. 

Note. — In sentences like the first, where bei(ient(io) is used substantively, 
the demonstrative and relative together may be replaced by the compound 
relative Wer, thus : . 

Ser jufrieben ift, ift qludltrf). 




tiU\. ^crfdbe (bcrfclbiflc") =» ' the same,' as : the same 
hat, bcrjclbc !o\\t ; and is declined like bcrjenige, \n two parts, 
written as one word, thus : 

Singular. Plural. 


Nom. bcrfclbc bicfclbc bogfclbc biciclbeit 
Gen. bcgfclbcn bcrfelbcu bcSfelbcn berfelben 
etc. etc. etc. etc. 

(For examples of its use see § 143, 2-4, below). 

Note. — (^elbig is sometimes used without article, with strong end- 
ings: felbigcr, -e, -e8. 

137. ^cr ttamltf^t sometimes replaces bcrfelbc. 

l.*J8. I. <Solr^, when used alone, follows thebicfcr Model, 
as : folc^cr Jijcin, such wine; foI*C& ^^rot, such bread. 

2. After cin, it follows the mixed declension ot adjectives, 
as : 

Nom. cin folc^cr 2Bein, such a wine 

Gen. eineg foId)cn 2Boine^3, cf such a wine, etc. 

3. Before ein, folt^ is always, and before an adjective, gen- 
erally, uninflected, as : 

Sol(^ cin ai>ein ; foli^ gutcr 2Bein, or folc^cr gutc 2Bein. 

Note. —The adjective has the J/rt;//^ endings when fold) is uninflected, 
otherwise it has the weak endings, except in the plur., where it some- 
times has the strong. 

2. @old^ with fin is often replaced by fo, as: 

(So ein ©cin ; cin fo guter Scin. 

139. I. ^c^gleic^en is used as an indeclinable neuter sub- 
stantive 1 never as adjective), thus : 

%i) batte bcggleic^en nie gebijrt, 

i had never heard that sort of thing (anything of 
that kind). 



[§§ 139- 

Note. — ©e^ll^ctt^en is also used adverbially, =« 'in the same way, 

2. ^crgleic^en is used both substantively (referring to a 
fern, or plur. noun) and adjectively. In the latter case it is 
invariable, standing before substantives of any gender and 
number, as : 

^crgleic^en ^ein, $)crgletc^cn SOBeinc, 

Wine of that sort. Wines of that sort. 

Note.- The phrase : iinb berflteid)en mc^v (abbrev. u. bgl. m.) is used 
forunb jo )uciter (11. f. ra.) = etccetera. 

General Remarks on Demonstrative Pronouns. 

140. The English ' that ' is rendered in German : 
x. As Demonstrative Pronoun : 

{a) Most generally by iJCr or bicfcr, when there is no 
contrast with any other object, thus : 
That man, bcr' 5!)ianu or btcfcr 9Jlann. 
(Jb) By bcr or bcrjcitige before a genitive case or a 

relative clause (see § 135, 2, above). 
{c) By fcilcr, when the object is distinctly pointed out 
as remote (== yor, yonder), or as m.ore remote 
than another, thus : 

^cncr ©ttum, That tree (over yonder). 
^iefc§ ^m^ unb jcncg. This house and that one. 

2. As Relative by bcr or tuclt^cr (see § 95), thus : 

The book that I have, :Da^ 33u4 bttg (luclc^eg) id} \:i(xU. 

3. As Conjunction by bttj, thus : 

I shall tell your father that you are diligent, 
^d^ hjcrbe beinem %aUx fagen, ba^ bu flei^ig bift. 

141. The neuter pronouns bo8, bicf(c8), jCttCS are used 
iKC cs^ sec 8 39, i> ii"*^ uitiu;t»/ i> «-> xvem. -/ i^^-tv/iv tnv, wii-- 




'to be/ representing ^he real subject, which follows the verb, 
and with which the verb agrees, as : 

^06 i[t mein SBruber, That is my brother. 
2)icf(f&) ift ^^re ©d;Jve[ter, This is your sister. 
^encg finb feine 33ttrf)cr, Those are his books. 

142. Xcr and jencr, when referring to inanimate objects, 
are often rephced by the adverb ba(r), 'there,' before pre- 
positions i^compare § 38, Rem. 5) and biefer by ^ier, as : 

^(ft l)aW \M^ bomit ^n ibun, 

I have nothing to do with that (f/ier^hh), 

^tcrmit mu^ ic^ fc^Uefeen, 

With this {/lerewith) I must close. 
Note. — This substitution is not made before a relative, as : 

3ii) bad)te an ta& [not bavaii), toag ®ic fasten, 

I was thinking of that which (what) you were saying. 

143. Use of Demonstratives to replace 
Personal Pronouns. 

1. The neuter gen. bcffcn replaces that of the neuter pers. 
pron. (feiner) referring to things, as : 

^c^ erinnre mic^ bcffcn nicfit, 

T do not recollect it (yeiucr = him, of him). 

2. The genitive of bfr and that of bfrjclde are frequently 
used to replace the possessive adjective of the 3. person, in 
order to avoid i mbiguity, as : 

2)er ©raf tt)ar mit feuicm (beg ©rafen) ^ager unb bcffen 
•(be-g pagers) ^uubcii (or mit ben .t)unben begfeldcn) auf 
ber ^agb. The Count was at the hunt with his (the 
Count's) huntsman and his (the huntsman's) dogs. 
Note. — a«it fcittcn .s)itiibeit would mean 'with the Count's dogs.' 
3- ^crfdbe is used in other cases also to prevent ambiguity 


so uiCfCj: in the same way;, as 



t§§ 143 

fDJein 33ruber ift bci mcinem ^rcuubc, unb berfelBe (or bicfcr) 
acfitet i^n febr ; or: ci-(intnn 'iirubev) ad)tet bcnfcit'en \ii)i', 
My brother is at my frier -'i, and he (the latter, the 
friend) esteems him ( iny brother) very much ; or : he 
(my brother) esteeniS him (my friend) very much. 
4. ^crfclbc also replaces the personal pronouns, to p/event 
repetitions like ibn — v>biien, 3ie — fie, etc as : 

Diefcr ^iln'tn ift c^xif, \d^ tarn ^sbncn iJenfclden (for i^n 
^^UCn) em^feblen, This wii e is good, / can recommend 
it to you. 

144. Strong Verbs : jtn(|cn Model. 

Germ. Model: 
Engl. Analogy: 





binben, bind 

briugcn (N.), press 

finben, find 

fliiujen, ring, sound 

(0e)(ingett (N.), succeed (impers., 

with dat. of pers.) 
ringen, wring (the hands, etc.) 
fd^Uingen, twine ; swallow 
fclnoinbeu (N.), vanish 
frf^mugen, swing 
fingen, sing 
finfen, sink 

fpringcn (N. A.), spring, leap 
ttinlfcn, drink (of human beings) 
ttjiitben, wind 
'tfiiTgcn^ force 



















P. Part. 




















STRONG verbs: fiitgcii model. 


to press in, penetrate, ein'= 
escape, entflie^en [tringen 
invent, evfinben 
remember, [idi erinnern (-}-gen. 

of thing) 
drown, be drowned, ertrinfen 
spring upon, Ioi^'|>ringen (auf 

-f- ace.) 
mean, suppose, meinen 
oblige, t)cri)mben 
vanisli, Uci-)d;i»ini)en 


on board, am ^.^orb 
grammar, bte Wramma'tif 

dealer, ber .SMnblev 
lion, ber ^bWi 
diver, ber ^auc^ier 
telephone, ba^ ^elep^on' 
clever, gcfdiidt 
prudent, cautious, lHn'[id)tig 
unfortunately, Icibev 
below, untcrbalb {-\- gen.) 
never yet, nod; nie 


^. 1. a)ieg ift mein ^^ettev au^ ^JJiontrcal ; feuuen ©ie if^n? 
'-i. 3alt)Df)I, biefcn fenne id; Qan^ c3ut, aber nid)t Wax, Wx mir (3c]tcvn 
ben ^i>rtef gebrad;t hat 3. din bijfcr ^inabe fdituancj fid) auf )>cn 
^p^dbaum UP, (Garten feiiuH5 ^l^ad^bare iinb fd^miji bte ^jt^fel auf 
bie @rbe. 4. ^u biefem ^elbe l;aben bic 33auevn fd^ou ba^ (sjrae 
Gefd;mtte«, «^x in jenem tucrDen fie e^ crft morgcn fc^neibeii 
5. ,^iebet t^., M€ md) baffon." 6. ^enee finb meine Munbe abev 
bie^ fmb biejenigen, MdK bev ^ager Dor acbt 4 agen Dcrloren bat 
unb bie t* gefunben I;abe. 7. evinncrn 2ic fid! beffcn, m<^ id; 
^bnen bout alien 2d)(of5 ain Ufcr be^ 2ee^ crgdhlt babe ? 8. ^ e m 
tDiirbe id) feinen ifjaler leiben; ber luiirbe nie be^ablcn. 9 I^ie 
©d)afer trieben i(;re .^erbcn iiber benfelben ^crg auf )oeld)en lt)ir 
ftiegen. 10. Tev lieifenbe ftieg Dom ^^ifcrbc unb banb ba^felbe an 
emeu fleuien i^auni 11. ^a^ ©duff ftief^ an einen ^-elfen, ba^ 
Saffer brang ein, unb ba^ Sd^ff fanf. U, .sd. babe tnid; be. 
fltffen, 2atcm ju lernen, aber e^ ift mix v'rd^t gelungen. 13.. ^Iier 




[§§ 144- 

F)at. IT). ®a^ ift au^ meincr beutfd)en ©rammatif gettorben? 
®ie fc^cint ganj i)erf(f;n)unben 311 feiu. 17. ®ag finb fc^onc 
(grbbeeren ; \vo ijaUn ®ie biefelben yetiuft ? 18. (Sie finb fd;on, 
nic^t iua()r? oold) ^rad;tige 33eeren finben Sie nicf»t bei jebem 
.t>dnblcr. 19. 3d fjeij^e^ 3Setter fjaben t»ir noc^ iv4t ge^abt. 
i2(). SSiaS iDurbc bir geantlx)Drtet, al^ bu nad) bem .tranfen frag* 
tcft? 91. Man fagte .lir, er fei ein mn\Q beffer. 

^. 1 , The patient is just as weak to-day as he was yester- 
day. 2, Such happy days I have never yet passed ! 3. Where 
do you generally pass the winter? 4. Where is my pen? 
Have you found it ? 5. This is my neighbour of whom you 
have already heard so much. (>. The ship has sunk, and 
the people who were on board have been drowned. 7. I 
was looking for my coat, but found my father's. H. I should 
be very much obliged to you, if you sang me a beautiful song. 
9. Which is poorer, he who has no money, or he who has no 
friends? 10. How should we escape if the boat sank? 
1 1. Charles has already finished (the) learning (of) his lesson ; 
he is cleverer than I thought. 1;2. The diver that jumped 
from the bridge has unfortunately been drowned. 13. It 
will have been a good lesson for us, if it makes us more 
prudent in future. 14. Is that a new song? No, it is the 
same that I sang a week ago at your house. 15. The St. 
Lawrence River is the broadest in Canada ; below the city of 
Quebec it is broadest. Ki. The patient is better to-day; he 
will be allowed to go out to-morrow. 


I . Was ist aus dem Taucher geworden ? 2. 1st Karl ge- 
schickter als Johann ? 3. Was hat der bose Knabe gemacht ? 
4. Ist der Reisende dem Lowen entflohen ? 5. Ist es Ihnen 
gelungen, Latein zu lernen ? 6. Wessen Hunde sind das? 






§Clfcn MODELS. 

■'*^* Indefinite Pronouns. 

The Indefinite Pronouns are : 

(d) Substantive-. 

1. jnan(indecl.),, they, people (Fr.^/i-) | 

2. jebcrmomi, everybody, everyone I 

3. jcmonb, j somebody, anybody | oi persons 

( some one, any one C only 

4. ntcmanb, | "o^^dy, no one, no person 

( not anybody, etc. 

5. dtuag, something, anything 

6. ni(^U, nothing, not anything 

7. ciltcr, one, some one 

8. fciner, no one, none 


) of things 

S only 

(fciefer Mod- 
el) persons 
and things 

if) Adjective {2\%o used substantively): 

1. Cinigc, ctltl^c (plur.), some, a few, 


2. ieb(llicb)cr iXt^Xx^tx), each (one), every 


3. mani^rr^ manv (a one) 

4. me^rcrc (pi.;, se -ral 

5. tiicf, much, pi. tiiere, many 

«. mettiH, little, pi. menigc, few 
7. ttJclt^cr, some 

u JwTt:.-P.\!"^^^-^^. ^~'-' Adjectives are also 
i~^^ «. .*.«.u«uc i.umerai Adjectives (see Less. XXIX). 

(biefer Mod- 
el) persons 
and things 







146. 9Won f spelt with small letter and one it, to distinguish 
it from ber ^Diann, the man, from which it is derived) is the 
Indefinite Personal Pronoun, and is used to make a state- 
ment without specifying any particular person. It is equivalent 
to Engl ' one, they, we, you (indef. ), people,' etc., (French on), 
or to the impersonal use of the passive voice, as : 

9Wan fagt. One says; they, people say; or it is said. 
^Jian fann CI unb Safjer nidit jiifammcn uti,fd;en. 
One (we> you) cannot uhx oil and water. 

Remarks. — I. Ones self (refl.) = fi(^ ; one's = fcin 
(poss. adj.), as • 

SWttit fcfiamt fi(^ fcincr ^et)lcr, 
One is ashamed of one's faults. 

2. 3Jian cannot be replaced by any other pronoun, as : 

9)?an toivb miibe, tucnu man (not er) ^u lange arbeitet, 
A man (one) gets tired, when he works too long. 

147. 3clDCtm«nn is used in the Sing, only; it takes -g in 
Gen., but is otherwise uninflected, as : 

^cbcrmonn^ Sacfie ift nicmanbe^ ®acf)c. 
Everybody's business is nobody's business. 

®ic ^ibel ift eiu ^i3ud) fiiv icbcvmanu (ace). 
The Bible is a book for everybody. 

148. 3cmanb and its negative nicmantl are used in the 
Sing, only, and are declined thus : 

Nom. jemanb niemanb 

Gen. jemanbcS niemanbe§ 

( jemanbcm < niemanbem 

I iemanb(ctt) ( niemanb(cn) 
Ace. temanb(cn') niemanb(cn) 





Note, - The uninflected forms are preferable for the Dat. and Ace, as : 
2Bir I)obeii nicmonU (ace.) gctabclt, We have blamed nobody. 
SBerbeu etc e.^ icmanD (dat.) fagcu ? Shall you tell it to anybody? 

149. I. (^itoai is sometimes abbreviated to hiag, as : 
^c^ Will bit ItJOg fagen, I will tell you something. 

2. After ctniO0 and itld^tg, an adjective has the strong 
neuter ending -c0 (see § 122, Rem. 1 1, above). 

3. ©ttHOS and ni(i)i& are also used as Indefinite Numerals 
(see Less. XXIX, § 168). 

160. (^incr (biefer Model)/ one, someone, anyone,' is used : 

In the Nom. Sing. Masc. = man. 

To supply the missing cases of man, as : 

@§ tf)ut cincm (dat.) leib, bon [einen ^-reunben gi^ fcfjeiben. 
One is sorry to part from one's friends. 

3. Before a substantive, as : 

filter mciner ^reunbe (tion meinen ^-reimben), 
One of my friends. 

@in(c)g i)on biefen ^ucBern, One of these books. 

4. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 

^aUn ©ie ein ^ucb ? ^a, ia^ hahc cin(c)0. 
Have you a book > Yes, I have one. 
Note. - The c maybe dropped in the ending of the Nom. and Ace. Neut. 

161. Mmv (biefer Model) is the negative of einer, and 
is used : 

1. As equivalent to niemanb. 

2. Before a substantive, as: 

«. Reiner t)on meinen ^reunbcn. 
None (not one) of my friends. 

3. To represent a preceding substantive, as : 
^ahm Bk cin '^ndj ? y^ein, ic^ habi fcm(c)«. 

-.OTE. — Like emcr, it may drop t in the Nom. and Ace. Neuter. 




152. ©Inige (tili^t), mc^rerc, = * some, a few, several,' as : 
^iniftC bon meinen ^reunbcn. Some (a few) of my friends. 
iSRc^rcre biefer 33u^er, Several of these books. 

153. ^ebcr, jebhjeber, iegU(i)er (b:efer Model) or etn jeber, 
etc. (def. art. -|- adj. with mixed declension) are used, 
especially in the Masc, for jebermann, as : 

^ie 33ibel tft ein SBurf) fur jcbcn. 

(^in) jcbcr tft fcine^ «Iu(fe§ 3c^mteb; 
Every man (one) is the architect ilit. smith) of his own 

154. SKmt^cr, * many a one, many a peison ' (bi; ;:i: Model), 
is used to express indefinite plurality, as : 

9JlotJ^cr bent't. Many a one (person) thinks. 

155. iBt\d)tX (biefer Model) is used for ' some,' referring 
to a preceding substantive, as : 

^ahw eie ^^rot ? ^a, id) f^abe mt^fi, 

156. For tJtcl and ttJCttig see Less. XXIX, § 176. 

157. When the Engl, 'anybody, anyone, anything,' = 
'anybody, etc., af alV (indefinite and general), they are 
rendered by irgcnb jemanb, irftciib einer, irgcnb ctiDa^, as : 

Anybody (at all) will tell you, where I live, 

^ygcnb jemanb (or einer) iuirb ^sl;nen fagcu, too ic^ troijnc. 

^rf> bin mit irftCttb cttwa§ sufrieben, 

I am contented with anything (at all). 

158. Strong Verbs: fpiniicn Model. 

Infin, Impf. p. Part. , 

Germ. Model: f^innett fpann gef^onncn 

Engl. Analogy: spin span (spun) 

Ablaut: i Q 


S"*RONG verbs: fi^innen model. 



(Note -The Impf. Subj. is also given, on account of variations 

(bc)flim.m, begin Uaam beQamt Begonnei. 

rtnnen (N.), flow rann ranne gctonnm 

f*uimme„ (N. A.), swim f4,n,am„, 1 1 J"™' Befd;Wommcn 

fmnen,tliink {ann ffiune gefonnen 

(fle)mi„„en, win, gain gewann .) 9;;^*-; fl„„„,„,„ 

Note. — Observe the subjunctive forms with vowel of P. Part + Urn 
laut, instead of vowel of Impf. Ind. 


159. Strong Verbs: ^clfctt Model. 

T Pr. Ind. 2. 1. Sine, i 


^«^/. Analogy : wanting. 

Ablaut: c i - .. .. 

a 0, Uoru 


(Note. -The 2. 3. sing. Pres. Ind., 2. sing. Imper.,and Impf. Subj. are 
also given.) 

Bergen, hide birgft, birgt, birg barg bavge geborgen 
''tlt'"'^' (birftef^,birft,6irfi) bavfl j^^Jj geborftcn 

(i)er)berben(N.), berbirbft, etc. uerbarb Derbur6e ijerborben 

spoil (intr.) 

( btafcf) brafc^e 
\ brofrf) brofc^e 
worth giltft, gilt, gilt gait gafte gegolten 

brefc^;n, thrash brifdjeft, etc. 

> gebrofc^en 

^*.*^ ■ -.*. 



{>eIK help ^ilfft, etc. ^alf 

fd(>elten, scold \d}\{t\t, fdnlt, fd)ilt fdmlt 

fterbcn, (N.), die ftivbft, etc. ftarb 

iDcrben, woo luirbft, etc. limvb 

Jucrbeu (N.), be- 

it)ivft, toivb, toeibc 



^tfc gcfjolfcn 

fdniltc ge)d;olteu 

ftiirbe gcftorben 

iuiirbc gciuorben 




come - - ^^ unube 

luerfcn, throw Unrfft, etc. iDuvf 

Remarks. — i. Most of these verbs have i) or ii in the 
Impf. Siibj. instead of ii, which cannot be distinguished in 
sound from the c of the Pres. Ind. ; thus ftcrbc and ftdrbe 
would sound alike. 

2. 'iscrbcrbcn, when trans., is both strong and weak (uers 

3. 5Berbcu has umvb or iourbe in the sing. ; luurbcu only in 
the plur. (see § 19). 

4. 'J'he imperative never has the final -c in these verbs, 
except iDcrbe. 

5. Observe the omission of (c)t of 3. sing. J' res. Ind. in 
the verbs with stem in -t, -&. 


to be or do (of health), fid) 

reflect, deliberate, fid; be= 

accomplish, leiften 
remain over, be left, ii'brig 

hide, conceal, bevbergen 
requite, reward, Dcrgelten 
complete, finish, uoKcn'bcn 
throw away, lucg'lucifcn 

run away, vanish, ;;crrtnnen 
the conduct, "oa^i ^etragen 
poet, bcv ^id^tcr 
barley, bic ©crfte 
oals, bcv .s)-ifcv 
sailor, bcr ')Jiatvofe 
musician, bev 'jJiufifcr 
need, necessity, bie 9?ot* 
dove, pigeon, bic laube 
phte, bcr iTcKcr 
loss, bcr 3Scrlult' * 


STRONG verbs: ^etfeii model. 


emb tassment, perplexity, thereto, baju' 
bi. Jcno'iicnbdt longer, ni*t me^r 

heat, bev ^I^^eijen as, luie 
evil, t>i)[c 

Jcii«,rt; I e the country. ;j(f, bht fin Srranb toom 8ttnJ>e. 

A. 1. 3Ser 311 i)icl vcbet, Iciftct Jucnig. 2. ^erjcnige, tvelcBer 
311 Did rcbct, Iciftct Jycniii. 3. -Die^ finb nieine 3d)ur)e, nber jenc^ 
finb (bie) %\)x<{\\). 4. ^^sjer i-manius ^rcunb ift, ift uienianbc^ 
Jreunb. 5. Gin ptcr (Shrift ijcvgilt m\i^ iiiit ©utcm. (J. ©^ 
ift fo ebcn jeinanb hicv i3CJuc|en. 7. !©c' beg Don bicfen 58an.- 
bernjicben 3ie Dor, bag rote obcr bag blaue? H. 3Ben fu*ft 
fcu? ll^c^ fuc^^e bie arme Jamilie, bercn ^Intter geftorben ift. 
0. .t)abeu 3ic fc^^on :3bren ill^cijen gebrofd^en ? ^Wan brifd;t I;eute 
ben <r)afer unb bie Werfte, aber vckk\\\ iuirb erft morcjen ben Seijen 
brefd;en. 10. Gg ift ein ^l^erluft fiir bag ganje Sanb, trenn ein 
Oro^ev unb tjuter m<\.m ftirbt. 11. 3rer grof?e ^Inabc fd;amt fid; 
fetneg 33etrai3eng unb begbalb Derbirgt er fein ©efid;t. 12. „W\t 
gemonnen, fo jerronnen," bag ift, man berliert leid^t, lyag man 
Ieid)t geioinnt. 18. ®ie Grbbeeren, loelc^^e id> geftern faufte, finb 
Derborben. 14. ^:))tan bilft gem einem, ber fid> felbft bilft. ' 15. 
CMermit fc^ide id; %Ui\\ bag (sjelb, mcUbeg eie fo freunblid; 
gelvefen finb, mir ju Iei{;en. IG. einb 3ie ein ^reunb Doni 
@d)lt)immen? ^eM nid)t inebr, aber id) fd)lt)ainm gern, alg id) 
junger n>ar. 17. ®er Unglitdliclie befann fief) Xo^wo^t, fc! att 
aber enblicl) ^x^ ben 3?anb beg 3!^ooteg unb fprang ing ':K?affer. 
18. 3ft er ertrunfen? 9Jein, er iDurbe oon ben ^:)J?atrofen gerettet! 
B. 1. Good morning, Mr. Bell, how are you to-day? 2. 
Have you any money .? Yes, to be sure, I have some, but not 
enough for my journey. 3. Where is the tree to which the 
traveller tied his horse.? 4. People take cold easily when they 
are tired. 5, Schiller and Beethoven were Germans the 









lif I4£ 12.0 


il 1116 


WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



- ^^ "^1% 



^ /> 



[§§ I60^ 

latter was a great musician, the former a great poet. 6. Mr. 
A. is a lazy ma'n ; he would not work at all, if necessity 
did not force him to it. 7. We found the money we lost a 
week ago. 8. Many a one begins what he will never finish. 
9. Mary, my child, throw that apple away; it is spoilt. 10. 
Have you shot many pigeons ? We have shot only a few. 
1 1. Except my brother and me nobody is at home. 1:>. The 
mother is scolding, because her naughty child h:>.s thrown a 
plate upon the ground. 1,3. Where is the River St. Lawrence 
broadest? 14. When the children had drunk, the cat drank 
the milk which remained over (was left). 15. The women 
OR (an) the shore screamed and wrung their hands, when the 
boat sank in which their husbands were. 16. Has the money 
which was lost been found ? 


1 . Wann w^rd man den Hafer dreschen ? 2. Warum ver- 
birgt der bose Knabe sein Gesicht ? 8. Wem hilft man gern ? 
4. Sind Sie ein Freund vom Jngen ? 5. Was fiir ein Mann 
ist Herr Bell? (j. Weshalb schilt die Frau.? 


160. Adjectives used as Attributes only. 

The following classes of adjectives are not used as predicates : 

1. Derivatives In -til, -Crtt (denoting material), as ; no(bcn, of gold, 
golden ; fillicm, of silver. These are replaced in the predicate by the 
substantive vi'ith coil, as: 

2)iefe Ul)r ift tion >iSilbei-, This watch is of silver. 

2. Many in -if^ and -U(^; as: biebifd), thievish; tierifd), bestial; l)cucl)= 
Icvifrf), hypocritical ; tiiglid), daily ; jaljrlirf), annual; Wivfltd), actual, real. 

3. Those in -jjj from adverbs of time and place, as: f)initip, of to-day; 
^tefig, of this place. 



161. Adjectives used as Predicates only. 

The following classes of adjectives are not used as attributes: 

1. Those that are really nouns (though spelt with a small letter) such 
as: nngit, afraid; feinb, hostile; freiinb, friendly ; leib, sorry; not, needful- 
nu<5e, useful ; fdjulb, guilty. 

2. The following among others: 

bereit, ready getroft, confident 

eiuciebeuf, mindful ^^^^Ij^, aware 

gor, cooked, done (of food) grom, averse 

gong unb gcibe, current (of money.etc.) irrc astray, wrong 
toilOaft, partaking 
Note - Both these classes of adjectives are incapable of comparison in the ordinary 
tTvel"''at ""^ "'"^^^^"'^^"'^'"^""'^''^^^^ '"■"^"'"^ ""^' ^"'•""» '"' Jften respec- 

er njurbc tneincm »ruber imnter titt(,r flrnm, He grew more and ,„ore averse to mv 

S5aS tf)at mtr am tneiptcil Ulb, I was most sorry for that (re/aUve superl.). 

162. Remarks on certain Pronouns. 

1. The pronouns \vn; h)a8 are frequently followed by the demonstrative 
kv m the qffer clause, and always so when the latter (the seeming ante- 
cedent) is in a diJerent case from that of the relative, as: 

9Bcr l)at, Urn mirb gcgebcn, To him that hath shall be (is) given. 

2. The neuter pronouns c.^ btU^ lun.% jcbrg, atleS are often used in the 
Norn, and Ace. Sing, in reference to a mwtier of persons or things, espe- 
cially if of different gender, as: 

a^aiiiier, 2Bcibcr, f inbcr, ailcs fifirie uin ^ilfe, fo laiit t» fonn^c 
Men, women, children, all cried for help as loud as they could; 
^viil) iibt fid), luo^ ciii iWciftcu uifi-bcii jdiK, 
Those practice early, who would become masters. 
Note. — Observe that the verb is singular. 

3. 35?a« is sometimes used for Uianim? ('why.?'), as: 
aBttStDeiiiftbu? Why dost thou weep .> 

4. The relative adverb lute ('as ') after fold) cill or fo elll ('such a') is 
usually followed by a personal pronoun, agreeing in gender and number 
with the antecedent, as : 

®old) 00) eiu mam, (or ein mmn) »t)ie mir tOn nie qefanut ()atten, 
auch a man as we had never known. ' 
NoTE.-The demonstrative fold; or f is often omitted, as indicated in the above example. 



l§§ 163- 



f|jrC(^Cn MODEL. 



1 63. Cardinals. 



1. ein^; cin 

(cr), -c, -(00) 


ber crftc 

2. jtuei 


„ iWiiit 

3. brei 


„ brhie 

4. mer 


„ i)ierte 

5. funf 


„ fiinfte 

6. fedjg 


„ fecb^te 

7. fieben 



„ fiebcnte 

8. ac^t 


„ arf)tc 

9. neun 


„ neunte 

10. jef^n 


„ jebnte 

11. elf 


„ elfte 

12. §tt)otf 


„ giDblfte' 

13. bveijc^n 

1 3th. 

„ breijcbnte 

14. mevjet^n 


„ Dicrjcbnte 

15. fiinfjel;!! 

or fimfjcbn 


„ fiinf= or fi'mfjel^nte 

16. fcf^jcf^n 


„ fed)5el}nte 

n. flc65el)n 


„ fiebsc^nte 

18. adUjc^n 


„ ad)t5el)nte 

19. nninjctjn 


„ neungcfjntc 

20. jtnatt'tg 


„ giuan^igftc 

21. c'ti nnb ju^anjig 


, eiu unb 3tt)an3ig)te 

22. 3H)ci unb 



„ gtuei imb ghjanjigfte 

30. 'brci^ig 


„ brcif5igfte 

40. Dienij^ 


. t)ier3ig[te 

50. funfjigoi 

• funfjig 


„ funfjigfte or funf= 

l§§ 163- 





>r fiinf: 

60. ferftjig 

70. fieb(en)5te 

80. ac^tjig 

90. neunjig 

100. ^unbert 

101. f^uubert (unb) eing 
123. l)unbert (unb) brei unb 






ber fedigigfte 
„ fieb(en)5igfte 
., ad;t^igfte 
„ neunjigfte 
„ ^unbertfte 
„ ^unbert unb crfte 
„ ^unbert (unb) brri 
unb amanjigftc 







jiuei ^unbert 

brei I;unbert 


taufcnb unb eing 

taufenb (unb) fed;^ unb brei§if 

j taufenb (unb) ac^t t)unbert (unb) fieben unb ac^tjig 

( or ad)tjef)nf)unberi fieben unb ac^tgig 

5ef)n taufenb 

f^unbert taufenb 

eine ^Jtillion' 

5iuei gjJiaionen, funf ^unbert (unb) fieben unb 

fedigig taufenb, a6:}t ^unbert (unb) neun unb 


Interrogative Ordinal : ber toicHiclftc ? which (in order) .? 

what day of the month ? (See § 166, 3, Note 2). 

165. Remarks on the Cardinal Numerals. 
■ I. @tn only is declined throughout, thus : 

{a) Before a substantive after the mein Model (§ 8), like 
the Indefinite Article, which is the same word un- 
emphasized, as : 

(k\W mam, one man ; ein ^Kann', a man. 

1 82 



Note. — The numeral eiii is sometimes printed with a capital, or spaced 
out (= Engl, italics) to distinguish it from the Article, as : 

SBtr Ijaben (fin' (e i n) 33iirf), We have one book. 
SBir {)abcu ctn 53ucf)', We ha^^e a book. 

(l) Used sul)stantively (see also § 150, above) without 
article, after bicfer Model (§ 6), as : 

®iner bon meincn ^reunben. One of my friends. 
Unfer eincr. One of us {of our sort). 

{c) After an article or other determinative word, like an 
adjective, as : 

2)er eine ^rubev. The one brother. 

3}iein eincr ©a)u(), (The) one of my shoes. 

Note. — With the definite article it may be used substantively 
also, as : 

Jier eine iiiib ber nnbcre, (The) one and the other 
and even in the plural (= some, one party), as* 

^tc cincn iaiiteii bieei, bic anbcrn jcncg, 

Some (the one party) said this, others (the othei party) that. 

(d) (Sing is the form used in counting. 

2. 3h>ci and brci may have -er in the Gen, and -t\\ in the 
Dat. when not accompanied by any article, etc., as • 

2lu0 glceicr ober breicr 3^ws^" 9Jfunb fommt bie 2Ba^r{>t:t, 
Out of the mouth of two or three witnesses cometh 
the truth. 

9)ian faun nicf>t ^toeicn ^erren bienen. 
One cannot serve two masters. 

Note. — The CJen. -tX is necessary to show the case, but may be re. 
placed by t)on; but the Dat. -Clt before a substantive is rare, the -n of 
the substantive sufficiently showing the case. 

3. ©cibc = 'both,' refers to two objects taken together, 
and is declined like an adjective in the Plur. ; N. beibc, 
G. beiber, etc. ; bic beibcn ; meine beibcn ^riiber. It often 




replaces jiuei after determinative words, as in the last example. 
The neuter sing, form beibcl is also found, as : 
33eibf0 tft \va ;t, Both (things) are true. 

Notes. - i. Both / us = wir bcibe(n) (we two). 

2. • Both * as conjunction = foluo!)t, etc. (See Less. XL.) 

4. Other cardinals are not declined unless used substan- 
tively (see next section). 

5. The numben 'rom 13 to zg are formed by adding -je^n 
(Engl, -teen) to units (but fecbje^n drops -8). 

6. The multiples of ten (20—90) add -jij^ to the units, 
itoongifl, brcigig being irregular, and fedijic^ dropping -g. 

7. The um'fs always i>f ecede the fens in compound numbers 
from 21 upwards, both being joined by the conjunction unb 
'and ' ; hence 25 = fiinf uilb Jiuangig (Engl. ' five and twenty '); 
156 == ^unbert fec^^ unb funfjtg, etc. 

8. '^unbert and 2au|ritb are generally used without ein be- 
fore them, and the conjunction unb may be omitted after 

9. 'One by one, two by two,' etc. = jc ciner, jc jtoei (or 
jc 5h)ei unb jmei) , etc. 

10. The Cardinals may be used as substantives : 

(a) With a substantive understood (as «w//,? numbers 
only), with -c in Nom. Ace, -en in Dat., as : 

Sltte mere. All fours. 

9)tit fecf)fen. With [a coach and] six [horses]. 

(d) As feminine substantives, of the spots on dice, etc., 
or of the figures i, 2, 3, etc., see § 80, 2, (0, with 
plur. in -en, as : 

2)ic ®in8, the one-spot, figure one, plur. ©nfen. 

1 84 


Ii^§ 165- 

(c) .'punbert and ^aufenb are used as collective sub' 
stantives, declined after the .'ounb Model, § 21, (<^), 

'^m erften .j^ttltbcrt, In the first hundred. 
^aufcnbc toon l^ccnfdien, Thousands of men. 
(^) gjiiniou is a fem. subst. of the weak declension. 

1«6. Remarks on Ordinal Numerals. 

1. The Ordinals are formed from the Cardinals by adding: 
(a) Up to 19, -U, except bcr crftc, britte, ad}tc. 

(l>) From 20 upwards, -ftc, which in compound numbers 
is added to the /asf cotnponent only. 
NoTK. — Xicr Qilterc is .the older ordinal for 'second ' 

2. The ordinals after proper names (of sovereigns, etc.) are 
spelt with a capital letter, and must i with the article) be de- 
clined throughout, the proper name being undeclined, as : 

5larl bcr (SvftC, Charles the First. 

©corg bed 3>tevtcn, Of George the Fourth, etc. 

Note. --The Roman Numerals I., II., etc., after names of sovereigns 
must always be read as def. art. + ord. num. in the proper case. Thus: 
.'ociuviii) iV. = .S>oiiuid) Dcr JKiCvtc (Norn.) ; or ^eiurid) Dm ©icrtClt 
(Ace. ) ; but. : bcv '3:f)rou C'^ciurid) IV^ --= bcr %\)xm >S)ciiirid) ilcS SicvtCtt 
(Gen.); Hitter .s;-)dnvid) IV. = iintcr ^einrid) Jjcm ©icrten. 

3. The ordinals are used adjectively before the names of 
the months, as : 

3^er a^tjei^ttte 3tuguft', The i8th [of] August. 

2tm 5n)ci iinb jitjansioftcn ^uni, On the 22d [of] June. 

Notes. — i. The figures i, 2, etc., before the months are to be read 
as ordinals, thus : 

9lm 1. 3auuar = am crftcii Souiiav. 

Xorouto, (b.) 25.(^011) ^^3vit = Toronto, Ben (ace. of time, see 
§ 184, i) fiinf uiib 5n:)au3igflcn 'itpfU. 

I?^§ 165 

ve sub' 
21, {b), 





adding : 


etc.) are 
) be de- 
, as : 


e. Thus: 

n ©icrtcn 
iS Stcrten 

lames of 

o be read 

time, see 

2. ' What day of the month is it i * 

Xcr hiicj:cr c ift l)oute ? or: ten mieoiflftcii \)ahtn mir beutc ? 

• It is the tifth,' 

G8 ift ()nue Jer fiinfte, or: mv l)alicn f)futc Hen fiinftcn. 

i67. Strong Verbs: f|ivc.';cit Model. 

T Pr. Ind. 2. 2. Sin<' ] 

l|t:l)Icn ftirhlft, ftu-blt, fticl^l imi o^ftiibrcn 
i^«^/. ^//^/c^r;^. .peak wanting • spake sp5ken 

LIST yl. (i, a, 0.) 

brcrfK'n (N. A.;, break bri^ft, etc. brac^ . gebvoAen 

ncl;mcn take „i,„„p-t, etc. naf,m genomn:en 

(er)|d.rcrfcu (N.), be cv[d;nrfft, etc. erfc^raf cr)d;i-orfm 

fpredHm, speak ipvid^ft, etc. f),rac^ gef^^vod^eu 

tc^HMi, stmg (trans.) ftichft, etc. ^tad) geftodu^n 

Mcujm triflft, trifft, tiiff tvaf getroffcn 

Remarks. - i. Grfdu-cdcn, to frighten , trans.), is weak (cr= 

2. Observe the dropping o( and doubling of in nd)\mn 
and the single consonant in the imperfect of crfducdcu 
and tveffen. 

LIST^ (ic, rt, 0.) 
(Tlie Imperf. Subj. is also given.) 

(0e)6arcn, bear, gebievft, etc. ^.hav gebare geboren 
bnng fortli 

(be)fei>kn, com- befie^lft, etc. befall befol;Ie befoblen 



1 86 




<:\ \ 

(nn^)fcl)lcn, re- . cmpfic^lft, etc. cmvfal;! cm^fot^lc em^foblcn 

ftct)lcn, steal ftiel)lft, etc. 



ftabl -j 



|!^"""[|'?^"""; tommfam fame fletomuKu 

Remarks. i. The simple verb fe(;leu, to be wanting, to 
make a mistake, is weak (fchltc, c^cf»^l)lt)« 

2. .Slommcn drops one m in Impf. 

3. All verbs of this Model (^A. and h.) drop the final -c of 
the 2. sing. Imper. 


to add, abbievcn 

luiniing, ba'o v^ac^en 

irrive (at), an'fommen (in 4" James, '^s^\h>b 

obtain, get, bctoiiunen 
divide, biuibiercu 
celebrate, fciern 
multiply, multi^licieven 
subtract, fubtrabicvon 
happen upon, meet with, 

care, attention, bic 3ld)t 
r;iilway-station, ber ^al;nt;Df 
holidays, bie ^^erten (pi.) 
fishing, ba§ ?^ifc^en 

f * 

mile (German), league, bic 

minute, bie llJJimitc 
government, reign, bie 5les 

Reformation, bie ^iefornuition' 
second (of time), bic 6efunbe 
voyage, bie Seereifc 
far, iueit 
about, imgefat)r 
twice, gtueimal 
as far as, bi^ 511 (dat.) 

prison, batS (^icfdngm^ 

Idioms: 1. He was born twenty-five years ago, (Sv if* oor fiinf unb 
{wan^iij 3ain'e*i n^t'i't'C"* 
a. Please take another apple (I.e., yet one more), Sittt, nc|^< 

men Zie nod) ciiieii ^pfel. 
3. Take care, 9lc^nien Zit ftd) in %A)U 


STRONG VLKBi.: fprccfjcn modi:l. 


1 8; 

A. \. sBic alt jmb 3ie '^ ^rf) bin in mcitiom neun unb Jioan. 
ai0 ten ^a() -e. :>. T^iefeg 3af,r bctamcn tuir am ad)t unb uoan. 
J'Gften ^;^uni ^erien. 3. ^eber gji-^nat auBcv bcm'.yekuar Ux 
cntn^ebcr breifjig obcr cin unb bveif^in ^aqe. 4. ^en mcr unb 
jlranjigftcn 9Jfai tuar id) bci incincni ^^atcr auf ^^kfud;, bpun an 
biefem ^age fcicvn tuir ben (>5cbuitvtag bcr Monigin. i Marl ber 
erftc I'on (Snglanb luar bcr ^^?ater Marl 11. unb ^atob 11 (5 :rao 
n)ar cmc [cf)lcd;te 5ffad>rid)t, nidU uui^r ? Unfcre 93hittcr crfdn-ae 
al. 3ic b.cfclbc (Hhtc. 7. ^cn fiinf unb :,)i>an3ig|tcn trafciMuir 
§errn lS<\k auf bem 33abnlun'c, gorabc ale cr iiu Sogriffc Juar ab= 
jurcfen. H. ^x^ ber Stabt bonbon finb nicbr al^ brci liDiiaionen 
Gnuuobner. <t. ^ie cincn cmpfablcii ibiii ^u bicibon, bic anbcrn 
ab5urcifen. 1 ( .. Sic lucit ift e^j bon bier bi^s juin ndd^ften CTorfe ^i 
Uncjcfabr fiinf unb 5U>an3ii3 cn(3lifd)c 5J>cilcn. II. (f-v nabm bie 
^yifcfic jc jiuei au^ bem .^orbc unb Icgtc biefclbcn auf ben'^rifd) 
12. Ta^ ei.5 bri*t, nobmcn 3ic fiit> in 5Xdit. ]H. .VSunberte bon 
^aiJenfdjcn \)<xU\\ Unibrcnb bee Grbbebcnc* bae^ £ebcn bcrloren 14 
Untcr ber ^Jiegicrung .s>cihrid) VIII. bcgann bic ^Reformation in 
Gnc3{anb. 15. gji'einc beiben ^Hilber reiften am fiinf unb gJuan^ 
5U3lten ^uni bon IHoerpool ^{^ unb famen crft am adU^el^nten \\x\\ 
in Quebec an. Ki. Sann fonunt ,^br (^ieburtotaa'^ ^m'ein 
unb stuanjigftcn ^)Jooember. 17. ^ic ^Kegicruncj .v>e'inrid> VIII 
loar cmc ber bcriibmteften in ber Ojefdudite Gnglanb^. 18 5(1^ 
loir einen epa^iergang nmd)tcn, l)aben ioir mebrcre unfcrer .^yreunbe 
angctroffen. 1!>. l\,n \vm ift ^^^bnen geraten uunbcn, cine 3ee= 
retfc 3u macfn^ny (5e ift mir bon mebrercn ^^'irsten gerdtcn loorben. 
B. 1. One general commands thousands (d:;t.) of soldiers 
•i. Mary has broken her pen, but she has taken Louisa's, li 
The ice is breaking ; take care, Fred. 4. This is my lead- 
pencil, not William's. 5. You have taken only one apple, please 
take another. H. When do we celebrate the Queen's Birthday ? 
On the 24th of May. 7. What day of the month is it to-day > 



1 88 


1§S 167- 

IM ' 




Today is the Hist of March, s. The thief was thrown Into 
(liie) prison, because he had stolen five hundred dollars. 
9. Which do you prefer, (the) hunting or (the) lishing? 
I like both. 10. A bee stings, but a dog or a cat bites. 
11. The d.iys are longest in the month of June, and shortest 
towards ( hristmas. 1 i. When our neighbours were at church, 
a thief went ( tonuncu) into the house and stole several hundreil 
dollars. 13. In the year eighteen hundred and eighty-seven 
Queen Victoria celebrated the fiftieth year of her reign. 14. 
The eldest son of the Queen of England was born the ninth of 
November one thousand eight hundred and forty-one. 15. Tell 
me how much thirty-two and eighty-eight make. IH. There 
are sixty seconds in a nunute, sixty minutes in an iiour. 
twenty-four hours in a day, seven days in a week, four weeks 
in a month, and twelve months in a year. 1 7. Would you make 
a voyage to FAirope if you were advised to do so? IH. Yes, 
I should like very much to make a voyage to Europe. 

Read in German: 2 nml 11 i|t 22, l) llhil 12 ift :5ti, 1 Uial H ift 32, 5 Uial 
9 ift 4.^ (5 nml 7 ift 42, TX 10 ift 7<», sX U ift ss, '1X12 ift 10^, lOX 10 ift 
100,-UXll ift 121, 12X12 ift 114. ^>U>bia-t 2,342, 2o,8yl mib 0Si>,34f.. 
@ubtral)icit 27,703 oou 3l,r.,-^l. lUhiltiplicicvt rm mit 478. Diuibicvt 
2,581,640 mit ()1. 


1. Wie weit ist es von Hamilton nach Toronto ? 2. Wann 
sind die Tage am kiirzesten ? 3 Wie viel macht das, wenn 
man :^37 mit ^> multipliciert ? 4. W le viele Tage sind in einem 
Jahre ? 5. Wann bekommt ihr Yenen ? 6. Wessen Bleistift 
haben Sie ? 

,i» \ ; 



1 89 



1 ««. I N I) K F I N I I |.; N U M K R A L ii. 

The Indefinite Numerals are : 
I. an, all 
■-• flnil}, whole, all 

'i. jcbrr, J 

i- jcbttJCbir, 1^ each (bicfcr Model) 

■>. jcfldrtjcr, ) 

'». fcill, none, not one 

7. ciniflc, / , 

fe. Ctlid)C, i '"'^"' '^ ^"^ 

^>. mondjC, many 

H). mc^rcrc, several 

M. t»icl, much (pi. many) 

1^. hJCnifl, little (pi. few) 

13. ctttia0, som3 \ 

14. gcmi0, enough Windeclinable) 

15. inc(|r, more ^) 

Remark. — All these, except aii and gang, are used as In- 
definite Pronouns (see Less. XXVII). 

169. I. M expresses number as well as quantity, and 
^'enotes that c'7'e/y individual part of a whole is present.' 

2. When declined, it follows the biefer Model, whether 
used with or without a substantive, as : 

affcr .^iife ; allc ^Hrbcit iuar bcrnebli* ; aUrg ^ruot ; 

all [the] cheese ; all labour was useless ; all [the] bread. 

3. Unless used substantivelv, it always precedes the deter- 
minative word, and then generally remains uniiiflected in the 
•smg., and often in the plur., as : 


m ' 



[§§ 169- 

mein t3klb, All my money. 
mat) iiiciuc ^n-cimbc, All my friends. 

4. When used substantively and preceded by a .leterniin 
ative word, it still follows the sfro?i^ declension, as : 

4:icf^5 (ba.^) aikB, All this (that). 
33ei bcm aUcm, With all that. 

5. It is not (as in English) followed by the definite article, 
but may be followed l>y the dc7notistrative bev; bic, ba^, as : 

911(00 Gklb, All [the] money. 

f«ia(c8) b tt 6 Wclb, All that money. 

9iac ^)}icnfclicn, A.l [the] men. 

3tfk bic ^Tl^ienfcbcn, All those men. 
170. I. (Mnil^ expresses quantity, not number, and repre- 
sents an object as complete and undivided, without reference 
to its parts. W'hen therefore the Engl. ' all' = ' whole ' it 
must be rendered by gau^, not by all, as : 

I have been working all (the whole) day long, 

%6> babe ben piqcu ^a^ gcarbcitet. 

2. rv^ttli^ is declined like an adjectwe, and always follows 
the determinative word, as : 

l^cr oanjc ^<^<^, The whole day. 

m^\\\ ganjCS eiccntum, [The] whole [of] my propeily. 

3. Before names of countries and places it may remain uu- 
intiected, if unaccompaniv_d by an article, etc., as: 

All (the whole of) America does not belong to the 
United States, l^^'au^ (or bo8 <^<^\\f) XH'mcrila gebbrt 
mcl)t 511 ben ^^scrciniittou 3taatcu. — But: 
%\t ganje adnucis, All Switzerland. 
171. I. C^f^f^ ^^^^^^"^ Model) is used to denote each indi- 
vidual beloiiging to a wh* 

)lc, aj 

.^cDcr iHUim bat ^(jtc. Every tiee has branches. 




2. It is sometimes preceded by eiii, and then follows the 
»//av^ adjective declension, ^cbiucbev and jeglicfcer are less 
common forms, used in the same way. 

172. Sitin is the negative of eiu. 

173. I. (Sinige (plur., bicfcr Model) = 'some, a few/ 
denotes a sma// number taken collectively, and is used with- 
out article, as : 

©iniflC %'ii<^,d fonncn nid;t fiiu^cu. Some birds cannot 

SSor ciniflCll ^aken, A few years a<,^r. 

2. It is used in the sin<j. only before name . of ma.erials to 
denote a limited quantity, as: 

^cf) f;a6e cinigcs ©elb, I have some money 'but not 

3. (^tlidjc is a less usual word with the same meanini,' and 

Note, —(fin ^Jaur-'a pair, couple ' (with small ^) is also used in the 
sense of 'a few,' the fin being then indeclinable, as: 

^yjit ciil poor 3:()a(eni, With a few dollars. 

17 J-. Wm^tX (biefcr Model\ ' many(a),' denotes indejimtc 
plurality, as : 

9)iniit^cr 'iUn^cI famt nirfit fiui^cn, 
Many a bird cannot sing. 

:^d> babe monrfjce Uiu^lud' jicbabt, 
I have had many a misfortune. 

9Jtonr^C locate cjlaubcn, Many people believe. 

It may remain uninHected, especially before an adj., as : 

lVand)cr gutr, or maud; i^utcr l)iann. 

175. 9Wcbrcre='se. oral a few,' taken !„di7'idua//y, as: 
9Wf^rcre Ignite u>uvbcii franf, Sf.veral people became ill. 





[§§ X76- 


ii ^ 

I -^ 

' \ 


17«. i^icl and ttJcnij^, in the sing., are inflected (^Diefer 
Model) when they denote number, and uninfiected when they 
denote quantity, as : 

2erne nid^t melce, fonbern tiic(, Do not learn many 
(a ^ycat number of; things, but much fa large 

They are usually, though not always, declined in the plural. 

TsjoTK. — The Engl. ' little ' = ' small ' is rendered by f Icill. 

177. ('^tlOtt? is used before names of material, etc., ir 
the sing., like einic^c^o (see ^ 173, 2, above), of a small quart 
tity, as: 

(ftttJttS 23rot, Some bread (but not much). 

178. Wcuug may precede or follow its substantive, as : 

C^klb gcnug, or gcnuj (^klb, money enough. 

Note. — As adverb, it always /^//^(yj- its adjective, as: 

3)08 9?anb tft nid)t \<x\\^ 8CnU;% The ribbon is not long enoug\.. 

170. 9WfT|r is the comparative of biel, and is inde 
clinable, as : 

^di babe mcTjr ^rcunbc aU5 er, 
I have more friends than he. 

180. The I'lngl. 'some, any' are generally omitted be 
fore substantives, \xw\Qi^-s,-d. small quantity {smnc, but not muc/i] 
is denoted (see § 157, above). In answer to a question, without 
a substantive, they are rendered by einigcvS (sing.), cini^ic 
(plur.) or UKicb (sing, or plur.), not by ettx^ae (which = ' soiiie- 
thing '), as: 

C-^aben Sie ©elb? '^d) ^i\U cimflcg (toeld^e^). 
^}aben ©ie ^-i^eunbc'^ :^d; {jaht txwi^t (U)elrf)e). 


STRONG verbs: effeu model. 
Strong Verbs: cffeu Model. 

Germ. Model: 

Efij^I. Analogy: 






Pres. Ind. 2. 3. Sing. ) 

Imper.2.Sinff. ^ ''"''■• 

tffeft, tfet, if3 



P. Part. 

1/ ic 


bitten, beg, ask bitteft, bittet, bitte ^qX 

cffcn, eat (of man) iffcft, if^t, ifj ^6 

frcffcn, eat(of beasts) fviffcft, fri^t, frt^ fra^ 

flcbeii, give gi(c)bft, cii(c)bt, gi(e)b ,^^,^\, 

(bcr) 9cf|cn, forget iHTj^iffeft, bergtf,t, ber= berga^ 

lc| en, gather; read Itefeft, Heft, lie^ ta§ 

liciien, lie down liec^ft, liegt, licgn lag 

nieffen, measure niiffoft, niifit, mifj mafj 

(i^')ne[eu (N.), re- oencfeft, gcncft, (^enefe genag 

cover (from illness) 

(ne))cbcbou (N.), gefcbiebt — 

happen (impers.) 

febcn, see. fiehft, fiebt, ficb 

W^\'^^^ fincft, fil3t,fil3(c) 




Oefcfmb gefc^eben 



trctcn (N. A.), tread trittft, tritt, tritt' 
(mefen,N., obsolete), — — _ 
to be 

Observe.-- I. The changes from ff to § ; also 
the Impf. IS retained tiirough that whole tense the 
ing long, as : jyir agon, irf) a^e. 


that ft of 
vowel be- 


2. That genefen does not ch. 

inge e mto ip. 





3. The change in fi^cn of t^ into ^ and ff. 

4. That the long c of the root is changed into ic, the short 
C into short i. 

5. The inserted ^ in tlie P. Part, of effen (gej^effen). 

6. The doubling of i in 2. sing., etc., of treten, and omission 
of final -t in 3. sing, (tritt). 


to experience, feel, empfiuben 
intend, contemplate, t)or'= 

absence, bic 3(bmefen(;eit 
Francis, ^^ranj 
century, ba^ ^/^t;i*^"»'fc*^vt 
cherry, bic .^ivfdK 
province, bie ':]LUol>in;^' 
romance, novel, ber ^Koman' 
swallow, bic 3dBtualbc 

telegraph, bev ^elegra^f)' 
misfortune, bag Ungliicf 
world, bie ^lUlt 
pardon, bie 39er^eiF)unii 
thin, bunn 

almost, nearly, bcina^e, faft 
immediately, (fo)i3leid) 
lately, not long ago, umlid; 
late, fpdt 
while, tinibrenb 

Idionm: 1. There Is, there wa», etc. (general statement), e* qiebt, t» flflb, 

etc. (obj. in ace. see Less. XXXVII). 

a. To «'iit one's hand, fid) in tit foant |■c^»nfi^cn Git., to rut 
one's si'l to the hand), 

:i. To bej; pardon, um iBcnicilnniii bitten. 

4. To speak to (with), (prcilun + ace. of jK-rson. 


A. 1 . ®a§ ganje ^anb cmpfinbet ben 'Iserdift cineg pteu unb 
nrofuMi 'Dfanncg. 2. G^ gicbt fd^bnc 'isijgel, Juclc^ie i^av nid)t fingcn. 
;<. '^^ittc, gebcn Sic mir nod^ ciucu 2:i;alcr ; ic^ ijahi iud)t ©e(b 
i^cnuiv 4. '3J3t ©corc^ ben ^Jtt^fet, ben er i^cfauft Kit, obcr bcn= 
jenii^cn, lueldKn id) ifim cjei^ebcn I)abc? 5, 1;ev ?yrcmbc tvat m'n 
iiuf ben /^-nf?, aber (\U\d) bat er micb urn 'i^er^^eibuna, 6. ^Xsiabrenb 
^brer 5Ibwefenbeit finb mebrere i'eutc ^^efommen, urn 6ic ;u 



f^re^en. 7. (S3eorg fa.te nnv neulicJ, ban er ^-n^ uor einiqen 
ilsod, „ oeleben babe. 8. ^intm bicb in ^fcbt, ba^' Gi., morauf 
bu rtttft, Mt tcr|r bunu. M. -,cb bittc u.n ^^crjci^ung, baf, id, fo 
|J)at Gebnnncu bin. 10. sjt^enn bu lucincn Onfcl [iefjft, fo fane 
t^m, bittc, ba^ icb Dorbabc, ibn ,^u bcfuc^HMi. 11. g^ Heat ein 
^cnan t>on Sir ^Vilter Scott auf bem ^tifdu' ; tcfcn Sic ben- 
febenV 12. ^Ba^ ift (^cfcbc^en? ^)^f cine Heine 3 cbmcftci- ift auf 
@Ia. getreten unb hai \xd) in b.n ."yuft BCidniitten. 18. ^iefel 
llinilitcf ge|d>a , m ben .>>rien, unb fie <s^r^a^ febr langiam, n>eil 
ba^2BeterfoI;eiBtDar. 14. (fine Sci^unilbe mad)t feinen Som^ 

tnnft. If,. Tuvd) ben ^ctegravben bort faft bic gan^e ®H>rt in 
bier unb jluansig etunbcn luMi bcm, lua^ in irgcnb'einem ganbe 
flc)dnebt. 17. 3(1. ein ^KcidHn- aue. feinc.n .s^aufe fan, bat ihn 
em 9lvnier uni em iuenig (sielb, aber er gab" bc.n Jlrnien feine 
IH. Da^o^^ferb beg ^Tfeifenben frafj ein Jocnig .v>eu unb ^afev" 
iMbrenb tern ^err bae mtageeffcn im (Maftbaufe a^ 19' 2)ai 
M.nb bat fd,on afle. ^^rob unb ^-{eifd; gegeffen, ee hat aud> alle 
^Mi> getrunfen, bie int Wlaie tuar. 20. Ginon. ^itgner'unrb 
ntdit g.\]laubt, fclbft ioenn er bie :il5ar)rbeit f^ridit. 

^. I. The wholej)f England is not so large as the Pro- 
vince of Manitoba. •>. Henry VI 11. of Enoland, Francis 1 
of Prance, and C'harles V. of Germany were the o-reatest 
monarchs of the i6th century. 3. WhcTC did von find the 
'iioney.? It lay in the grass. }. Kverv summer the birds 
eat the cherries in our garden. .^. 'I'he sick man lav seven 
weeks in the hospital, but he has now recovered "<i The 
rich (man) gave the poor(man),who sat before the house some 
money. 7. This youth has read all the books in the librarv 
of his father, but unfortunately h forgets just as fast a's 
lie reads. H. Nnr-'--- r ,- , . . . r" '^"^ 

53 years old. tl. Have vou forooi 

oleon I. died on the 5th May 182 r ; h 


•s ago.^ |(». Durin-- th 

ten what I told 

le was 

you twi 

'^ liie nun we sat under a tree and 




I i 
I I 

told stories. 1 1 . One forgets easily what one reads too quickly 
12. If you have more paper than you need, please give me 
some. i;j. Nineteen hundred years ago the Romans pos- 
sessed almost the whole world. 14. Many young people 
read hundreds of novels, and forget after some time almost 
all they have read. 1 5. Twenty-five years ago our neighbour 
possessed only a few hundred dollars, but now he is one oi 
the richest men in the city. Ui. Speak the truth, whether you 
are believed or not. 


1. Giebt es in Amerika Vogel, die nicht singen? *}. Tst 
jemand wahrend meiner Abwesenheit gekommen ? H. Was 
haben Sie meinem Onkel gesagt, als er hicr war? 4. Was 
sagen Sie vom Lesen d r Romnne ? 5. \\elcher Aifel iszt 
Georg? 6. 1st das Telephon cine neue Ertindung? 



VERBS: jrfjlnflCn MODEL. 


Derivative Numerals. 

I'rom the Cardinal and Indefinite Numerals are formed the 
tollowinir Derivative Numerals: 

(a) By a( ding -mo^ adverbs denoting 'so many times,' 
as : ciurml, once ; Dier^ml, four times ; einunt-- 
gtwansii^unl, twenty-one times ; luandjiiml, many a 

Notes. i. Dial is neuter, hence iot)C0mai, each time; and wi^ 
Indef. Numerals sometimes adds -£i, as: UiiimalW, mcljnitaU^. 





2. (iiii'iiial = ' oil out (single) uccasion,' as : 

3rf) l)abe il)n nuv cinma( ocfcfieu, I have seen him only once. 
(Siiimor (etiiemal^, einft) = 'once upon a time,' as : 

G« mv einmaV dn SloniQ, etc. (Grimm.) 
3. 9?irf)t ei;rma(, 'not once,' as: 

er ift nirf)t cin'maf f,iev neniefcit, He has not been here once. 
9?tcf)t cintnor (or nicf)t mnl'), 'not even,' as: 

er ift nirf,t (cin)mnl' fjicr grraefni, He has not even been here. 
(^) By adding -forf, or fiilt:^, a^/jec^/zrs denoting 'so 
many fold,' as: eiufn^ simple; gj.eifot^ Ouucfacf^ 
vv-ofold, double; incr|e!(^ (.faaig), quadruple; bieN 
ffldl, mannirfjfadv manifold. 
Note. Ciinfaltii] = "foolish, silly.' 

(d By adding -M to the gen. fem. sing, or plur., /«,/.,// 
nai^/c denoting 'of so man)- kinds,' as • 
cuicHci, of one kind; breicrrd, of three kinds' 
t)ielcr(ei, mnncfierlc^ of many kinds, etc. 

NOTK.-G.. ift mil- cinrrlci ^. 'It is (all; the same to me.' 

J 83. From the Ordinals are formed : 

(«)-By adding -\, the fractional Numerals, as : ein ^rit-- 
tel = h\ ba^. ^icitel, the quarter; brci 3liHin,vgfte( 
= ■^/2(), etc. 

Notes. - r. These are substantives formed from the ordinal + Tei( 
( part), and are therefore neuter, thus: 

Tox^ TriUo( = biKS britto ^fi(, «the third part,' etc. 

2. 'Half 'as substantive = Uic .^cilftc ; as adjective or adverb = (,«(', 
which is declined like gan^ (see § 170, 2), as : 

3cf) t)abe Uic ^'i\\{t mcinei^ eigciitnmo Derloveii, 
I have lost half (of) my property. 
Xer jinabe unii- ^ol6 tot, a(§ man \\)\\ fanb, 
The boy was half dead when he was found. 



l^i ih 

C'olb ^^ailjiiifiton, or linS fjolbe Snfoinnton, 

(The) half (of) Washington. 

•OnlO 01 bad \)aibt Jvvaiitifhl), half France; but 

XiC l)atlH' SdllUCiv half Switzerland. 

(/;) I3y adding -f)alll. Mixed Numbers with the Fraction 
'half.' as: biittc^olb =;il ; bicvtcf)olb '3Jicilcii, three 
miles and a half; fiiiiftctjfllb iSdtn, four and a halt 


Remarks. — i. Observe that the ordinal is one higher than 
the cardinal of the Engl, idiom; thus ' two and-a half ' is a 
number consisting of three parts, of which the first and second 
parts are wholes, but the third is only a half, hence drittc* 
f)alb. \ 

2. 1.] = nnbcrtbalb (not jItJcitcbalb ; see § 166, i. Note), as: 

^Ittiicdball) ^-lafcfKMi (pi.), A bottle and a half. 

3. These are invariable adjectives. 

{c) By adding cu^:, ordinal adverbs denoting in what 
place or order, as : 
crftens, firstly; jmeilcnS, secondly; britteu«, thirdly, 

1 5 


Expressions of Time. 

1. Both point and duration of time are expressed by the 
Accusative without a preposition, as : 

^cn erften :^anuar, (On) the first of January. 

©r fam leljtcn ^Dtontag an. He arrived last Monday. 

^d^ toar le^te 3©DC^>e fvan!, I was ill last week. 

:^c^ \Qc\x einc ganje 2Bocf)e fran!, 1 was ill (for) a whole 

2. Point of time is also expressed : 




{<V % tlie preposition nit with the Dat. (always contracted 
with the article), of ^afe, as : 

%m eiftcn ."^anuar. On the first of January. 
^Im 3onntag, On Sunday. 

«m gjJorgen biefe^ ^ageg. On the morninL^ of this 

(d) By the Gem/we case, with Infl, davs of the week or 
divisions of the day, when denoting indefinite time 
or habitual action, as : 

^C0 ^agcg. In the day time, by day. 
Sonntagg, On Sundays, 
(teg) 5((HMib0, In the evening. 

2 The Time of Day is thus expressed: 
(«) The quarters of the hour, with reference to the 
following hour (not the pas/ hour, as partly in 
English), thus: 

It is a quarter past twelve = Qi ift (ei„) ^Biertef auf 
Ctltg (1. e., o^if quarter towards, or on the ivay to 
one). ' 

It is half past twelve = (gg iff ^alfi dn§ (i. e., half 

It is a quarter to one = G^ ift brci 58ierter auf eing (i. e., 
three quarters toioards one). 

<P) The minutes past by „of^, as : ©g {ft ^ttjanjig 9}?iniiten 
nor!| 5it)ei, It is twenty minutes past two. 

The minutes to by bar, as : ^e^n 9Januten bar brei ten 
minutes to three. ' 


7 Sc 


o'clock == U^t, as 

Urn ein U§r, At one o'clock. 


i ! 






[§§ 184- 

tlm nn.3?iertcl auf fiinf \\\)x. At a quarter past four 

e« ift brci 33iertcl auf fiinf (Uf)r), It is a quarter to five 


Qi> fjttt f^t^g (lU;r) gcft^Iogcn, It has struck six Co'clock). 

Note. — The impersonal Verb 'to be,' in expressing the time of the 
'lay, is always singular, as in English. j 

185. Expressions of Quantity. 

1. A substantive expressing Quantity (Measure, Weight 
or Number), if Masculine or Neuter^ retains the form of 
the singular, as : 

SSier unb gioanjii^ ^ott madden ^rtjei guft, 24 inches make 

two feet. 
3tt)ci ^jlUlb, Two pounds. 
2:aufenb 9Wttun, A thousand men. — But: 
3tuei ^'lafcl^cn (fern.). Two bottles. 
3tyblf ©ttcil (fern.), Twelve yards. 

2. The substantive, the quantity of which is expressed, is 
generally put in apposition with that expressing the quan- 
tity, as : 

3U)ei 53ucf) ^n|jicr. Two quires of paper. 

S)reitaufcnb W.m\\ ^nfoutcric. Three thousand infantry 

^iinf ©la^ JBicr, Five glasses of beer. 
9Jiit jiuet ^aar ®4mf)Ctt (dat.), With two pairs of shoes. 

3. But if a determinative word precedes the substantive 
measured, etc., use the Gen. case, or tion with Dat., as: 

^c^ ^abe fec^§ ^funb biefcS guten 3uc!er8 (or : tioit biefem 
guten ^)xdix) gefauft. 



^Icfcr «rciftift ift nur eincn M lanc^^ 
This lead-pencil is only an inch long. 
^d) habc cine gan^c 9J?ei(e (ace.) marrcf)iert, 
I have been marching a whole mile, 
^^iefc^ ^afct' luie^^t ein bnlbca ^funb (ace). 
- This parcel weighs half-a-pound. 

186. Strong Verbs: |,^Iai)cii Model. 

INFIN. PR.lND.2.3.sing. Jmpf. 

Bng/.Ana/ogy:s\B^y wanting ^^^ 


Ablaut : » .. 



put in the 


P. Part. 


luirfcn(W.N.A). bake bacfft, bacft 
raOren (N.A.), ride (in fdbriX fa^rt 

a conveyance), drive ' 
orubcn, dig ^„....-, „., 

frfjaffen, create 
Uijftlc^en, strike 
tra(]cn, carry 

unut)fen(N.), grow 
rtJafdien, wash 

Also the irregular ; 
fte^en, stand 

and the usually weak : 
fragen^ ask 

tJ^OBft, trdgt 
h)arf)fcft, bac^ft 
l»afcf;eft, Judfd^t 





Iftonb i 











franft, fraat fn. 

14 Uragftjragt fragte/ 3^^^<^9* 






RFMARKS.--.I. i&adcw is usually weak in the Impf. (badU), 
but str >ng in the P. Part, (gebarfen). Observe also the single 
f in Impf. 

2. ^abrett is conjugated with fein when intr., with fjabcn 
when trans. 

3. Sd^affen 'to work' and (t)ei)|d)atfen 'to procure' are 
weak. Observe the single f in the Impf. 

to set out, depart, leave, ab'^ minute-hand, ber ^inutcn* 

rise, auf ftetjen 
invite, ein'laben 
understand, toerftet^en ' 
dine, ^u 'Hiittag cffcn 
go for a drive, fpajicicn fabren 
absence, bic "ittb'tuefcnbeit 
little tree, ba^ ^duircf)en 
dozen, bas^ ^u^'cnb 
yard, tic Cillc 
multiplication-table, ba© (Sin^ 

ma I cine 
thread, ber 'i^ahtn * 
driving, ba^ ^^nlifcn 
driver, coachman, ber .^utf Aer 
hole, bay I'od) 

pound, ba^ ^|^funb 
post-office, bie S^o\{ 
riding, bae ^teiten 
sentence, ber >2a^ * 
hour-hand, ber 3tunbenjeigcr 
cup, bie Sta[fe 
tea, ber Iljec 
clock, watch, bie \\\)X 
train, ber ^^ug * 
two weeks, a fortnight, oievs 

jc^n ^age 
then, bami 
early, fviib 

slow, slowly, langfam 
at least, UH'nigften^ 
tirst, first of all, juerft 

night, bie '^^ladjt* 

Idioms: 1. The BuHton train, X^or ,3uf) | ^^(^f^y Soflon. 

2. What time (o'clo«lt) is It ? W&ie oUl Ubr if* ei • 


A. 1. Gin bretfaa,!''* ^a^^" ^^-i^t nid^t kxd)t 2. ^^r^utfrfjei 
fa^rt fo langfam, V^v'; sm nxd^t lun* bvet SSiertel auf j^molf an* 
fommen ioerben. B. '^u bev eiuen ^al\ii bev ^eU \\i &v 2a^ 


bTKoNci viiKiii: \d)U\^m model. 


todhrcnb e« in ber anbern ^dlfte g?acht ift. 4. 2Ba« gicbt e8 f^eute 
9feue«y 5. ^iUwhalb babcn 3ic mid; cjcftcrn nic()t befud;t? 
er[ten« treil ee regnete, unb jiueiten^ lueil id; fclbft 33efud> fjaitc. 
6. SDu baft Gut gelcfen, lieo nod> eincn ea^j. 7. 2yie biel triegcn 
eiey ^^cfMuicge ungcfabr bunbert unb fiinf^ig ^ifunb. 8 ^er 
3ug fommt urn brei ^^ie^-tcl aiif minx m unb fiibrt urn fiebcn 
mmuUn jiacb 3ef)n ab. \k .<onbcn 3ie ^sfjrc llbv bci fid;V ^a 
akr bie ^^-cbcr ift (icbuHbcn. 10. ;^d; (;abe jmci Tu^cnb ©Idfer 
bejteKt, nber fie finb nod; nid^t angcfommen. 11. mx baben 
unfue 58.:ttorn cingclabcn, ludbrcnb bcr ,^crien bicqefju 2aai bci 
un^ jujubriitncn. 12. mit cffon im 3cmincr uni I;alb jiuei ju 
^itttag. 18. ^d) Jmiibc gcvn ntit ^>bnen fpajicrcn fabren, Juenn 
etc mid, euUiibcn. 14. ^er .s^imb bcrbarg ben ^nod)cn in ein 
Vodv n?cldic^? er ^intcr bem xHpfelbaum grub. 15. ®ie 5J^igb 
ftcf)t friib (Dce) ^iJJorgcn^j auf, imifc^it bie .HIcibcr unb bcidt 5l^rot 
16. ^obann ift cin fetjr cinfaltigcr Anabe ; cr bat nod; ni*t ba^ 
Gmmalctiu? golcrnt. 17. ^sjie bid m;r mx e^j, aU bcr ^JJiinuten- 
aeigcv auf ^cd)^ unb bcr Stunbcn.^cigcr j^uifcbcn brci unb Dicr 
ftanb? IK. Xcr ^^lucr frun bcu ^Hcifcnbcn, tine Did Ubr e^ fei 
(tuavc), unb bicfer jog fcinc Ubr an^ bcr 3:afd>c unb fagtc ibm c^ 
fei {;alb ciuc^. 19. iH^bicrc brci ^l^icrtcl, bier Sicbcntcl,' neun 
Xreijcbntcl unb elf -^tuan^igftcl; line mcl ift (mac^t) bae? 2u Xer 
^;>unb luiirbe ben iinahcn glci. ; beifjen, UHMin bcrfelbe i{;n fringe 
21. ©cf^en eie §ur OJefcIIfdunt bcr ,yrau IK ? 22. ^d) bin nid;t 
cmgelaben ; mem Srubcr nnirbe eingclaben, abcr icb nid^t. 

B. 1. In six days (Jod created Heaven and earth. 2. The 
patient drank two glasses of wine and three cups of tea yester- 
day.^ 3. This silly boy has not even understood what I said 
to h-m. 4. Here is good, strong cloth ; it costs two and a 
half dollars a (the) yard. 5. This tree grows quickly; it is 
at least four times as high as it was three years ago. 6.' This 
exercise is very easy; we shall have finished (with) it in half ' 

an hour. 7. The dealer showed 

us many kinds of ribbon, 




red blue, yellow, etc. 8. Which do you prefer, (the) riding 
or (the) driving? It is all the same to me. 9. Please tell 
me what time it is ? It is exactly tliirteen minutes after eleven. 
1 It is nine o'clock, for the hour-hand is (stands) at (auf) nine 
and the minute-hand at twelve. 11. These three school-boys 
bought themselves a melon, which weighed almost five 
pounds. 12. The coachman drove first to the post-office 
and then to the bank. 13. Between April and September 
the little tree grew a foot and a half. 14. Precisely at five 
o'clock the Boston train left.lin^ at 9.45 we arrived. 15 
Was this house built before you came here? 16. Add ^V 

%i and ''/09. 


1. Wie viel macht drittehalb, fiinftehalb und neuntehalb? 
2. Urn wie viel Uhr kommt der Zug von Boston an ? B. Was 
sagte der Reisende. als der Bauer ihn fragte, wie viel Uhr es 
set? 4. Wie viel Uhr ist es nach IhrerUhr? 5. Wie viele 
Satze hast du schon gelesen? 6. Ist jemand wahrend meiner 
Abwesenheit gekommen ? 




■|j^7^ Adverbs. 

Adverbs may be arranged according to their meaning as 
follows, with examples of the simpler and more commonly oc- 
curing ones under each class : 

I. Time. 

(a) rast: neiiltd^ the other day, lately 

bamaUS, at that time ijDv'neltorn, the 4av betor^ 

ebon, jusl, just now yesterd.ay 

Qc'jtcvu, yesterday toovl;cr', before 

I riding 
ise tell 
if) nine 
ist five 
it- office 
' at five 
d. 15. 

.dd ^740, 

tehalb ? 
8. Was 
Uhr es 

'ie viele 

amng as 
lonly oc- 

, lately 

« 187] 

{b) Present: 
^iwU, to-day 

^ ' ^ now 
nun. ) 

{c) Future: 

6a(b, soon 

l^ernad/, afterwards 

morgen, to-morrow 

narfiber', afterwards 

ninrmcr, nevermore 

u'bermornen, the day after to- 

{d) Interrogative : 
Irann? when? 



{a) Demonstrative 

bafelbft, i ^'^' '"^ ^^^^ P'-'^ce 
(ba)^in, thither, to that place 
bort, there, in that place 
(ba)ber, thence, from that 

^iev, here, in this place 
^ie(r)^er, hither, to this place 

(<?) General : 
bann, then (past or fut.) 
cinft, once upon a time fpast) ; 

some day (fut.) 
enblicfi, at last 
crft, only (not sooner than) 
(fo)gleidi, at once, directly 
inbeffcn, ) . , 
immer, always, at all times 
ic(mal^:?), ever, at any time 
nie(ma(e), never, at no time 
nod;, still, yet 
oft(ma(^o), often 
frf;on, already 
felten, seldom, rarely 

II. Place and Direction. 

{b) N'egntive: 
nirc3enbcv nowhere 

{c) Interrogative and 
Relative : 
tt)0, where, in tvhat place 
tooMii, whitiier, to what place 
iDpfnn-, whence, from what 

audfi, also, ever 

{d) General : 
ir'i]cubu>0, anywhere 
iiberair, everywhere 
III. Measure and Degree. 

^i'^Q., about, nearly 



nearly, almost 


! f 


II i* 


I. J ■!»' 

1 i 

i? ■ 





[ wholly, altogether ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

gar, at all, very 

genug, enough 

gerabe, just, exactly 

!aum, hardly, scarcely, no 

nodi, still, more 

fo, so 

ungcfd(;x, about 

uberbauVt', generally 

tuie? how? 

ju, too 

^^icmlid), tolerably 

IV. Affirmation. 

ja, yes ; to be sure 
jaVoot^l, certainly 
frcilidv to be sure, indeed 
furtual;r, truly, really 

gcU>if5, certainly 
nattir'licb, of course 
^nirfUdv to be sure, indeed 
p)ax, it is true, certainly 

nein, no 

'*^'^. \ perhaps 

V. Negation. 

uic^t, not 

VI. Possibility. 

iuabrfdHnulid^ probably 
Woijl, perhaps 

VII. Necessity, 
atterbingg, certainly buvduaue, absolutely, entirely 

baber, '^ 

VIII. Cause. 

tiHiniiu, ■) wherefore, why 

tueebalb, ) 

(interrog. or rel.j 

baium, r therefore 
bec>I}alb, ) 

Note. — These last, as well as many of the- others, are also used as 
Conjunctions. See Less. XL. 

)0 used as 


STRONG verbs: fallen model. 


Strong Verbs: foacii Model. 

INFIN. PR.lND.2.3.Sing. IMPK. p. p.^R-r. 

Gernt Mociei: fallen faafUdttt fid ^~2n 

EngLAnaogyji^W wanting fell \ZT 

Ablaut: n s 

(Note. -This is only a ^^^/«,V Ablaut; see § 192, Rem. 4.) 


blafen, blow biafeft, blaft 

bratcn, and intr.j briitft, bviit 

fflUcn (N.), fall 
fangen, catch 
fatten, hold 
(jangen, hang 
f)ttuen, hew 
^Ci^cn, bid ; be called 
laffen, let 

Ioufen(N. A.), run 
raten, advise (gov. dat.) vdtft^ rdt 
rufen, call ^ufft, ruft 

fcblafen, sleep Wm, fdiliift 

ftancn, push |to{,eft, ftofu 

Also the irregular : 

fdUft, fdllt 

fonflft, fcingt 
f)dl;!t, \-)'^\\ 
^angft, (ningt 
f;aucft, l)out 
f>eif}cft, bci^t 
Idffcft, Id^t 
Idufft, Iduft 



gc bra ten 

^i(<^)»n gebangen 
















fli(c)nn n^'floitflen 

ge^en (N.), go .^^hcft, gebt 

Remarks.- I. observe in braten, balten, ratcn thi con- 
tracted forms of the 3. sing. Pres. Ind. 

2- fangen is the strong verb (bicng, gebangen) and is proper- 
ly intr. (= 'to be suspended'); biinge,- i. weak . h-na*c 
gebcingt) and trans., but the distinction is not strictly ob- 
served. ^ 




3. Observe that ^ei^eu and fto^cn, having the root vowel 
long, retain ^ throughout ; whereas laffeu varies according to 
rule, thus : id; lajje, oclafjen, but er Id^t, licj, h)ir Ue^en. 


nian-of-all-work, (farm-) ser- 
vant, bcr kncdjt 
beef, bivS gflinbfloijd) 
skate, bcr Sc^Utt'i'dnib 
skating, bvi$ 2dUitt'fdmt>laufen 
bacon, bcr Sped 
language, bic opvadje 
study, biVo Stubium 
last, preceding, toortg 

to begin, commence, an'fangen 
receive, get, crl;alten 
please, gefaUen 
leave, leave behind, laffen 
skate, 8d}Utt'fdnib lau'feu 
kick, strike, bump, ftojjen 
cut down, uin'(;aucn 
butter, bie 33utter f 

play-mate, bcr ©efpicle 
mouse, bie ^kuy * 

Idioms: 1. What is th« name of? aSie beift*? 

3. What l« your name? 3aJic I)ci^cn <Sic? 
.3. My name is Henry, 3d) bcific ^leinrid). 

4. Ithinl( lilghly of him (i e., esteem, value him highly). 
Slit lirtltc oicl t)ou ihm. 

5. How do you <lo? (How are you?) 2Bi« gcftt e« SlHicii? 

6. He has ..ot been here for a long time, (Vr iff lanflc nidit 
I)ier flcwcfcn (C*r ift iiidjt laiiije hier derocfen = He has not 
been here loug). 


A. 1. Wit e^cd fcingt man lV{au[c. 2. ^er 51nabe ftel, al^ 
er SAUttfclnib lief, uub^ fticf^ fid) ben .«lo^f aufe (X\^. 3. (Bin 
fd)lafenber ^nicfH^ fiingt fcin §ubn. 4. :;:sin ,*oerbft blaft bcr ®inb 
fait, unb pfeift burd) ben ilnilb. 5. gffcn, lvin!cn unb fcl^lafen, 
beif^t (ift) bao lebcn ! (3. ^ni Sinter fc^laft man geluobnti* lan^s^x 
ale im Sommer. 7. man lajit jei^t bie ^enfter offcn, benn ba^ 
Setter ift luarm geiuovben. 8. ^d) lanfe nid)t gem 3d)littfd>u^, 
abix meine ©efpielen finb grofee greimbe bavcn. 9. '^k liiagb 
ping jum Sabeu unb faufte brei ''^funb ^l;ee, jnjei ^funb Gutter, 


STRONG verbs: faHcU MODEL, 


jefju ^^fimb 3ucfer unb gtoei ^lafc^en 33ier. 10. 3:)ort ftanb ber 
Saurn, ben ber Jlnec^it neulid; umgef)auen l^at 11. ©agen Sie 
miv, Wo{)in Sie bovgefteru gingen, al^ id; Sie in ber ^bniggftrajje 
traf. 12. ®er ©dmler liefj feme mdKx gu .<r)au[e, aber er ift 
gleid; md) Ir^an^i gelaufeu iinD bat bieielbcu gcbolt. 13. 33orige 
aKod)e erbielt mcine Sc^iuefter eiiieu ^rief mx ibrer ^-reunbin • 
faft jcbe SS^oc^e erbalt fie einen. 14. Piefelbe fc^meb, ba^ fie ben 
ganjen Sinter in 'i^ofton jubringen luiirbe, luenn e§ ibr bafelbft 
gefiele. 15. !Der 3Sinb blie^ b e n Jag fo beftig, baf, 0eorg^3 ^i^ater 
i^m rict, ni4)t auf^ Saffer gu ge^en. l(i. ^d; bitte lim ^T^er= 
5eibung, baf? id) Sie fo lange adcin gelaffcn balK. 17. Xa^i 
franfe ^inbtpiivbe beffer gefd^lafen hahcn, iiKMuibie anbern Jlinber 
meniger I'drm gemad^t I;dtten. 18, ^I^or -^luanjig :^ai)xtn bing bag 
53ilb meineg 33aterg an ber iBanb iiber bem .^{amin, unb ee bdngt 
nod; tmmer ba. 19. Senn er nid^t fo fru(; gegangen lodre; fo 
t)an^ id) i^n gum 9Jiittag^oeffen eingelaben. 20. (sjuten 9;)Jorgen, 
?yrau l^(U ; loie gebt e^ ^bnen ? 21. m gebt mir gang gut ; toie 
get)t e§ :3brer ^amilie? 22. ^riebric^ II. Don ^^reu^en tourbe 
^riebrid; ber OiJrofK genannt. 

B. 1. My speaks German almost as .well as English. 
2. Good evening, my little friend ; how do you do .? H. I have 
not seen you for a long time. 4. A cold, cutting wind blew 
through the open window. 5. When I was young, I liked 
to skate. (). Do you like (to eat) beef? 7. It was a quarter 
past eight when the concert began. 8. That horse kicks: 
take care. 0. At what o'clock will you be at home .? I shall 
not be at home before half past ten. 10. When we were 
going home, we met our friends, who were coming out of 
church. 1 J. What is^thejiame of the long street, which runs 
from King Street to\\^rds"(nadvrthe north ? 1 2. My friend, of 
whom I thought so highly, died in his nineteenth year. 13. In 
September we began to learn German, and the study of that 
language pleases us ver^much. 14. A lost child was crying 

t »• 




11 ^ 

' !! 

upon the street, 'and calling after its mother. 16. Somejjne 
asked it what its name was. 16. The poor child answered 
that its name v»ras William, and that it lived in Frederick- 
Street. 17. I wrote to my cousin a month ago, but I think 
he is angry, for the letter has not yet been answered. 


1. Was ist geschehen, wahrend die Knaben Schlittschuh 
liefen ? 2. Weshalb sind diese Fenster offen gelassen worden? 
3. Was kaufte die Magd auf dem Markte? 4. Weshalb ist 
der Schtiler so schnell nach Hause gelaufen ? 5. Wann haben 
Sie Nachricht von Ihrem Bruder erhalten ? ti. Sprechen 
Sie Deutsch? 




189. Formation of Adverbs. 

1. From At/jectives {induu'mg most adverbs of manner): 
{a) Most adjectives may be used without change as 
adverbs, as : 

@r lauft fc^nett. He runs quickly. 

(£) By adding -lirj (Engl, -ly), sometimes with Vm 
laut, as : 
frdlid), of course, to be sure neulit^, lately, the other day 
flOnsUf^, entirely fc^toerlil^, hardly, scarcely 

fiirjlir^, recently 

Also to participles, as : 
^Offemlii^, it is to be hoped wiffentli^, knowingly 




(r) By adding -fing8, as : 

blinbUngg, blindly 
(d) By adding -§, -cttS, as : 

anber0, otherwise Hnfe, to (on) the left 

bereitg, already remits, to (on) the right 

6efonbcr§, especially ubrigcne, moreover 

Also to participles, as : 

eilenbS, hastily 

a. From Substantives, by the use of the genitive case 
(sometimes with article), to express : 

{a) TimCy as ; 
abenbg (or bc0 Stbenbg), in the xK<x6:ji% (or bcl 9kc^tg), by 

moic-jeng (or beg ^orgeng), in 
iJie morning 

(^) Manner, as : 
flugg, in haste 

night (anomalous, l)tad;t 
being fern.) 
anfangS, in the beginning 

Icilg, in part 

3. From /'/r/tfi'///<7/z^, by adding -en, sometimes with b(a)r- 
pretixed, as: 

au^en, > 

outside, out of 

bovu(e), before 
obcu, above 
untcn, below 


inncn, ) .^, . . , 

. . V withm, m-doors , , 

orinnen, ) brixben, over there 

^inten, behind 

Note. — Prepositions in composition with verbs are really adverbs 
(also the particles ab, fin, eiupor, inetj, 3uvucf). 

4. By combination. For these see Part III. 

' * 




190. Comparison of Adverbs. 

I . Some adverbs are compared, as : 

It), I 

oft, often 
gem, willingly 


soon c^er am ef)eften 


oftcr am iiftei'teu 

lieber am licbftcn {different root) 

well fieffer am Iieflcn ( 



2. Adjectives are used as adverbs in the comparative^ as 
in the positive, without change, as : 

©r lauft jf^nctlci* al^ fein Srubcr, 

He runs more quickly than his brother. 

3. In the superlative degree, the form with nitl is used f(Jt 
the relative superlative (see §§ 127, 2, and 128), as: 

©r Idiift nm frfjiicllfteii you alien, 
He runs most quickly of all. 

4. The absolute superlative (see § 127, 2) is usually formed 
by prefixing an adverb of eminence (such as fe^r, f)i?cf)ft, 
du^erft, etc.), as: 

©r fcf)rei6t iiufjcrft fchon. 

He writes most (i. e., very) beautifully. 

5. Adverbs from adjectives in -ig, -lid), -jam use the un- 
inflected form for the superlative absolute, as : 

@r IcifU fvcunblid)ft flviiBen, 

He desires to be most kindly remembered. 

Also a few monosyllables, as : Iduijft, long ago ; ()0(^fl, 
most highly. 

6. The superlative absolute may also be expressed by auf 
iia0 (aufc) prefixed to the superlative adjective, to express 
the highest possible degree^ as : 




er 6eforc^t [cine Gcfcfmftc ouf bad (aufg) ©eiciffcndaftcfle 
He attends to his business in the most conscientious 
manner (possible). 

7. A few superlative adverbs end in -end, with special 
meanmgs, as: 

()i)*ftcil§, at most 
mei[tcil0, for the most part 
iJX'niiiftcre, at least 
nnd>ftcn?, shortly 
Also the ordinal adverbs, crften^, etc., see § 183, (r). 

191. Position of Adverbs. 

Adverbs generally precede the word they modifv (except 
gemig, see § 178, Note). 

For further particulars as to their position in the sentence 
see § 45, Rule 5. 

192. Table of Classification of Strong Verbs. 






— — : 






In FIN. 



2., 5. sing. 

2.S l.M!'. 

















XX la. 





to, etc. 









TTT i 


























C, etc. 




" — 



C, etc. 



" — 1 

















same as 








Remarks. — 'I. The Umlaut of classes VI., VII. does not 
occur in the Imperative. 

2. The varying vowels of the Imperf. Subj. are given in 
the lists, where necessary. 

3. The English Analogies printed in Italics are Incomplete. 

4. The vowel-change of class VII. is not an Ablaut, 
but the result of reduplication. 

5. The lists of the various classes contain only the verbs of 
common occurrence ; all others will be found in App. L. 

VJii. Distinguish between the verbs of the following 

groups : 

/ Httcn, beg, ask 
{a) } bctcn, pray ( intr.) 
( biftcn, bid, offer 



( liCi-^CH, lie (be recumbent, intr.) lag 
(d) -5 Icgcn, lay (trans.) U(\k 

I liigcn, lie, tell a falsehood log 

/ jicbcn, pull (trans. ), move (jntr.; jog 
(r) ■) jcibcn, accuse jic^ 

( 5cigcn, show geigtc 








194. Remember the irregularities of : 
effcn (r. Part, gcfleffcu) ftc^en, ftanb (or ftunb), gc= 

l^aucnilmpf. l)icb) ftauticn 

geJicn, giitfl, gogaitnen i\^\)in, m' m^%^^ 

Also the double forms in the Impf. of: 
^eben (imb, hob^ f*u>b>:en (fi-bmnr, fcbtDor) 

Note. — There are a few strong P. Parts, from verbs now otherwise 
weak, as: i(nnat)lCII, i'-om iual)lcu, to grind (Impf. mal)ltcr, fin'al,cn, 
from filf^cn, to salt (Impf. faUtc): iioipaitcil, from fpattnt, to split (Irnpf. 
jpattcte) ; also some strong participles nsed only as adjectives, viz.: 




Pii)Olifn (from fr()cbrin, exaltr d, sublime 
bcjcl)etbcn ( " befd)nbcii,), modest 
Ocrroorren ( '* DenPimu), confused 


examination, ba^ Gramen 

kitchen, bic S\ud}t 

place, spot, Mc 2Ulk 

employed, busy, be)c(>afti0t 

then fconj.), bcnn 

huii;;ry, lumgrig 

left, lint 

right, rcdit 

snit (adj.), iicfaljcn 

in spite of, tiol^ (+geii.) 

improbable, iinjuabr|d;cinlidi 

like, uiie 

to wind up (a clock, etc.), 

pass (an examination), be= 

greet, salute, grii^cn 
go (or bej too slow (of a 

clock, etc.), nad/gcbcn 
run after, nac(/laufcn (-]- dat.) 
cry, nifcn 
go (or be) too fast (of a 

clock, etc.), borVt)tm 
command, bcv ^^cfobl 
visit, visitors, bcr 33c|udi 

Idiomn: 1. I saw your friend to-day ; lu, wlnhes to be remembered 
to you, 3di (tnbe heiitf 3lircu Stunts flcfchcn ; er la^t <^it 

2. How do yon like Boston ? SBje fjefdlU ed 3l)nf n in JBofton ? 

A. i. ©e^t ^f)re Uf)r Dor, ober gebt fie nad;? ^. 6ie get)t 
^mi ricbtig. 3. ^abcn Sic ^brc Ul;r aufgqocjen? 4. gin 
fleiuce 5!}idbcben fragte, iuic bid Ut;r e§ fei. 5. Gin .-rierr joii 
fcine Uf;r aus ber ^afd'.e unb ^eigte fie bem flinbe mit ben 
2©Drten: ,,(2age bu mir fclbft, loie Diel Ubr e^ ift." 6. %s:-o finb 
beinc e^iJyeftcrn '? gD^arie iff obcn in ber ^i^ibliotbef unb Sopbie 
iff unten in ber Aiicbe. 7. 3lnfang^ luobnten iuir nic^it gem in 
biefer ©tra^e, aber je^t gefaflt une bicfelbe gang gut 8. ^6:, 

einen bciftcn 3oinm« 

6ie? 9. ^ 



ie meiften Seute effen lieber frifcbe^ ^-Ieifd> aU ge. 




fatjenca. 10. 'Xxol^ bc^ ^cfc(>(« bcS Abnig^ bctctc Daniel jcben 
aafl brcimal. 11. "Slmc ^antc, bic in ^ikuliu U)ot;nt unb bcren 
^^kuber 3ie tenncu, ift fcbr franf. 1l>, WriifKU <3ie frcimblid^ft 
^^()vc Gltcrn fiir )md\ ivenn 3ic nad) .'oaufc fommcu. IH. .s>L>ffcnt= 
lid} Juiib Avil) fcin (Syamon i^it beftchcn, bcnn cv bat aufv^ n'-'^^'))'*''"' 
bafteftc ftuticrt. 14. Ci'v tuirb ec fdnuerlid> bcftcbcn, ba cr crft 
fcit 5n)ei 15a(}rcn in bcr 3cl)ulc ift. 15. ^cr \uc\U wddjfv 
unffcntlid^ einc Umua(n(;cit fagt. 16. ^dj efjc (^crn nebratencS 
^){inbflcifdv bcfiMibcv^J iucuu id> rcdU buni^rii^ bin. 17. ^)(cd>ti? 
Don bcr ednilo ftcbt cine SWxdK, {\\\U ftcl;t bcv mavU. 18. ilUr 
l^abcn licbcr abcnbc^ 'iU'[ud;> al^? nun-qcne, bcnn nun\^cn<^ finb n>ir 
getrbbnlid) bci'cbaftigt. i9. ^ie[c^ .Slinb tuivb nadiften-s^ fvaii! 
ttjcrbtn, bcnn e^ bat fcit bvci ^agcn faft gar nicbt^ nci^cffcn. -M. 
G\^ [tanb fviibcv einc .Vlivcbc auf bcv StcUe uh> luiv jcl^t finb, abcr 
fie ift fd;on lani^jt lun-idmninbcn. 21. 5?on \vm murbe bie 
5livc^ie flcbaut, luoDDn eic fprccf)en? 2'>. ^sd) tocif^ c^S nicf^t, ee ift 
miv nie gcfacjt luorbcn. 

j9, 1. Please show me the way to the post-office. 'I. If 
George is up-stairs, tell him that I am down-stairs. 3. I do not 
like London ; I prefer to live in a smaller city. 4. The pen 
still lies on the book upon which I laid it. 5. Please tell me 
who lives over the way. (iT Tiiis boy has been stung by a 
bee. 7. Of ;dl animals the horse runs quickest. H. Give 
me what you have in your (tliei left hand. II. Lessing died 
on the fifteenth of February 1781. 10. The soldiers ran 
blindly into the battle and fought like lions. 11. The train 
for (nacb) Montreal leaves (ab'fabvcn) at twelve o'clock at 
night, and arrives in Montreal at ten o'clock in the morning. 
}2. A little beggar ran after a gentleman, and asked him for 
some money. 13. * My father is dead,' cried he, 'my mother 
is dead, and all her children are dead!' 14. 'Who are you 
then?' asked the gentleman. 15. What answpr was given to 
the beggar by the gentleman, when he was asked for money? 





1. Was warden Sie sagen, wenn ich Sie fragte, wie viel 
CJhi es sei? •>. Gefallt Ihnen die Str.tsze, worin Sie jetzt 
vv'ohnen ? 8. Hat Fritz sein Exa.nen gut bestanden ? 4 VVo 
1st meine Feder? 5. Was fiir Sprachen haben Sie studiert ;> 
0. Olauben Sie, dasz der Herr dein Pettier etvvas ee- 
geben hat ? ^ 


105, iDKJMATic Uses of Certain Adverbs. 

1. Mini, well. 
9J1111, ic^ ift mil- cincrlci, 
Well iyvhy), it is all the same to me. 

Note. 9JllH i. litre really an interjection, and hence does not throw 
Ihe subject after the verb. 

2 c6cii, just, exactly. 
^a^ ift ebcn bcvfelOc :\)iann, 
That is the very (exactly the) same man. 
2Civ finb (fo)cDcu aiu^«fomnicn. We have just arrived. 

^a^5 faim man c&cu nid^t f -jcn. One cannot exactly sav 
that. "^ ' 

3. ficrn, riebct, am licbftctt. 

^cf» e[[c flcrii A-ifcfi r am fond of (eating) fish. 

Sc^ effe lifbcr .^M't-^) aU ^id), I prefer (eating) tish to 

Qx }t)urbe 0^5 pern t^un. He would be glad to do it. 

would do it with pleasure. 
SBefdie ^pvadK fptcf^cn Sie om (icbftcn ? 
Which language do you prefer (^speaking)? 





4. cvft, fii*st» only, not before, etc. 
'^^lan mur, crft bcntcii; tann ]>ved;eu, 
One must think first and then speak. 

^Ijiein '^•^vubev tuirb cvft mDrcjeu tomnicn. 

My brother will not come before to-morrow. 

ilsiv batten cvft ,vuci ^3J(cilen maridncrt, 
We had only marched two miles. 

Dicin ^^U-ubcr ift crft jtuci Csnln-c alt. 

My brother is only (not more than) two years old. 

f). jucrft, tirst of all ; for the first time. 

^icfco Sdnff ijt ^ucrft {pox alien anbcrn) ini .s>afcn anc\t: 

fomnien, This ship arrived in the harbour first 

(i. e., before any other). 
^sd> iucvbc jucrft (or crft' sum ed)nciber, bann .^umSucb^ 

hdnbler aclH'ii, 1 shall go first (of all) to the tailor's, 

then to the bookseller's. 
3di babe ibn v-\citcvn \\mf f^uni cvftcn ^Alial) v^cfebcn, I 

saw liim for the first time yesterday. 

■>[oTK. — >Juerft refers to /////;• only, as above; crftfllC = 'firstly, in th-i 
first place,' refers to on/rr only, as in enumerations, thus: 

Mi) toiintc iud)t foiinucn, crflcn?, un-il i\^ veflurte, j^toeitcn^, luoil 

id) httllt Umr, I loukl not come, first (in the first place) be- 
cause it raineil. secondly, because I was ill, 

(i. fd)Oit, ahH'ady, as early as, etc. 
^inb Sic jjlum ba '< Are you there already ? 
3ft "sbr ^^U-nbcr jri)UU in A-vanhcid^ y^cu^cfcn'^ 
Has vour brother ever hecn in France? 

7sd^ bin jri)OU bvoi ^aiv' in bcv Stabt, 

I have been in the city for the last three days. 

T)ai-> Sdiiff ift \&}0n »V"ft>.'vu anv^^Cicnuiicn, 
The ship arrived (as early as) yesterday. 




Gr Unrb frfjon frmmen, He uill be sure to come (h-^ 
will come, no doubt). 

Note. ®cf)on is often, as in the fourth of the above sentences to h 
left untranslated in English. sentences, to be 

7. nod), yet, still, more. 
(a) Of Ttme: 

Sinb ©ie not^ {?ier ? Are you still here ? 
Scb bin iiof^ nie in O^eutfcl^Ianb ociucfen, 
I have never yet been in Germany. 
©V \v>ax m^ i)or eincr 3tunbe bier. 
He was here only an hour a^i;o.' 

md) bcutc. Even to-day (while it is yet to-day not 
later ihan to-day). ^' 

Note. -- Observe that no d^ precedes the negatives nie, nirfjt, etc. 
{/^) Of Number: 

tWorij ciite 3:affe !3:kc. Another cup of tea. 

9?orfj 5iuei, Two more. 

^^tsd) (ein)mar fo Did, As much again. 

8. bocf), yet, after all. 

{a) Adversative : 

©r triib borf,' fommcn. He will come after all (em- 
phasis on boc^). 

ev n)irb bod, foin.ncH', He will come, I hope - emphasis 
on tommeit). 

^abe id) <% -^bnen burfj gefagt ! I told you so (did I not 
tell you so .?). 

r/^) With Imperatives : 

i^ommen Sie borfi herein Pr^w come in {urgentX 





[§§ 195- 

;| m 


I! ' 


(c) In answer to a negative question or statement: 
§aben ©ic ibn tiirfjt c^efe^en? (^a), boj^. 
Have you not seen him? Yes, I have. 
^c^ f)abe e^ nic^t get^an. ©te t^aben e§ bo^ getf^an. 
I did not do it. Yes, you did. 

(For bod) and nocf) as Conjunctions, see Less. XL.) 
Note. — 2)od) gives an affirmative answer, where a negative one is 

9. tturf), also, even, etc. 
5(UI^ fcin 3sater njar gegen \\)\\, Even his father was 

against him. 

gUlein 33vubcr ioar ni*t miibe, unb id; trav oui^ nid)t miibe. 

My brother was not tired, and 1 was not tired either, 

§aben Sic nurf) bcba*t', Uh\^ Sie fatten. Are you sure 

you have considered, what you say ? (emphasis on 


10. twoI)(, indeed, etc. 
@r leunnet e§ \m\)\. <x^^-^ e^3 ift bod) iDafjr, He denies it 

indeed (to be sure) but yet it is true. 
©ie finb tuofjl cin gvcniber ? I suppose (presume) you 
are a stranger (no doubt you are, etc.). 
NoTK. — fthit, not niol)t, is tiie adv. of the adj. fliit, good, when modi- 
fying a transitive verb. 

11. irtr yes, to be sure, etc. 
2:^un Sic e§ jn'. Be sure to do it, do it by all means 

(emphasis on ja). 
Gr ift jo incin %<xi<ix\ He is my father, you know (em- 
phasis on ;i>atcr). 

12. nut. 

(With the Imperative.) 

^ommcn Sie nut l;cvcin, Just come in (reassuringly). 




Irregular Strong Verbs. 


I. 2:6un, to do, Impf. that, P. Part, getftan. 

Zf^tti, like Engl, 'did,' is a relic of the old Impf by re- 
duplication, the old form being it-ia, i. e., the stem tn- with 
reduplicating syll. fc- prefixed, then U-tt, tct, t\)ai. 2km 
rejects c of the termination throughout, except in i. Sini; 
Pres. hid., and in the Pres. Subj. 


^Dtjfen, know 
fiinnen, can 
nibcjen, may 
niiiffen, must 
foden, shall 

P. Part. 

tl. Imperfect- Present Verbs. 

Pres. Ind. Prrs. Imperfect 
I. Sing. i.Plur. Sunj. Ind. Suhj. 

ivci^ U)iffeu tuifie mi\]k miifite getuu^i 

barf biirfen biirfe burftc biirfte c3eburft 

fann fonnen !unne foinitc fiinntc gefonnt 

mag tnogeu miige moffjtc nmbU getnoc^t 

mu§ miiffen ttiufje inu^tc iiiii^te gemu^t 

fott foUcn folle foatc foUte gefoat 

III. Sorfeti, will, Pres. Ind. i. Sing, loia, i. Plur. Wolku 
Pres. Subj, VDoUe, i^pf. ind. v^oatc, Subj. it)oa(c, P. Part! 

Remarks. — i. Observe the following peculiarities in the 
verbs un^er II. and 111.; 

i^) All have the same vowel (mostly with Umlaut) in 
the Inf. and the mtr. of the Pres. Ind. ; but (except 
follen) a different vowel in the Sing, of the same 

{b) The Impf, Jfid. and P. Part, have the weak endings 
-<C, -t, but the vowel is without Umlaut; h)i|fcn 
changes i to u; mijgen changes g into ^. 


} liic ^OT^. o«^y. has Umlaut, except in [ott'en and 

il 'I 






{d) The Sing, of the Pres. Ind. of these Verbs is as 
follows, the Plural being regular : 

ic^ fttnn 
bu fonnft 
er fttnn 

( icf) fott 
-] bu foUji 
( er fott 

( ic^ n)ci^ ( icf) bnrf 

iuifjen ] bu njcifet burfen -j bu borf[t fonncn 
( er tov.i ( er barf 

/ id^ mag r ic^ mufe 

mbfleu •] bu magft mu[)eu -j ba tim^t foaen 
( er mag ' er mu^ 

n?oIIen^ bu ioiUft 
( er tinlt 

Observe here the different vowel of the Inf. and Indic. ("except 
joU); also the want of \\\^ person-ending m the i. and 3. Sing, 
(irf^, er Unnfj, barf, faun, etc., not lucifH, barf-t, fann-t ; com- 
pare Engl, can, may, etc., not can-s, may-s, etc.). 

2. The forms of the Present in the verbs under II. were 
originally Strong hnperfeets (hence their want of person-end- 
ings), which came to be used witli a Present meaning; the 
new (^weak) Imperfects were' formed from these, with vowel- 

3. The Present of \ue(fcu was originally a Pres. Subj., used 
as Indic, and therefore also without full person-endings. 

4. The Imperative is wanting in all under II., except 

Unfjcn, Imper. Unfjc. 

NoTKS. I. ii>inint (= Fr. savoir) is dsetl of knowledge, and of thinirs 

onlv; fcimctl (~-= Vx.roiinattrcA oi artj!i'iiiit,nir:,\o' pcrsf);-w///r/ things, thus: 

a^tffCli ^ii" ^^t 2i?cn? l'>o you know the road? (i. e., do you 

know which is the right road ?) 
^enitCU (5io t^on ^liV-flV Are you acquainted ^familiar) with the 

road ? 
ttl'iniClt eie ineiueu 5Bvu^el•? Do you know my brother? 

SBlffen 3io, luaij er gtiaflt ()ttt? Do you 

knr)\\ what he said ? 




3rf) bnrf flf^f », I am permitted to go. 

to put on (a hat), miffe^cn 
expression, ber Sdi^'bruc! * 
French (language \ g^rango'fifcf^ 
building, ba§ ©ebdiibe 
commandment, ba^ Ciebot' 

watch-key, ber UBrfcftliiffer 
dwelling-house, bag ^Xl>ohn. 

clearflyj, distinct! ly), beutlid; 
although, obgleirf^' ' 

ia'o,n. .. 1. ,v.ll you be «o kind an to le„<, „.e your p.n ? aB.„e„ 3,> 

3. What Is that in ii.rumn ? m, bcfftt ^a« nuf J^cutfrf, ? 

3. He knows French, i^v fatm ^raiMofifd). 

ol' ^-,^1^:'"" ^^^' "i^^^ ucrftcbcu; [prid; bocf; beutlicfter. 
^. ^lommen @ie nur Borcin, Jucnu eie miUn. H. ^,n e^ ^bnen 
[(^on gehuujen, Sransofiid) ju IciT.cnV i. ^d, iucrbe ,u>d. kute 
bieje ^ettion Icrnon nuiffcn, luib e. ift Hm M'oi i^icrtcl anf ;ebn 
0. ^)a^d) xmmx^.djn ^agca licfcu unv 5d,Utt)dnd), unb l;ciiie 'ifi 
^as, (vta ocfdniiolsen. H. ©a^^ cvitc (sjcbot bci^t (is): „^u loll t 
feme anbcrn ©otter neben mir (nibeii." 7. e^ tfnit mir feib baft 
trir erft morcjen a&reifen ; id) Jodre lienor k-ute aboereift' H 
^l)iiit^ ':simn nicbt and) Icib, bafj Sie bie inorc^en blcibeit nulffenv 
^'. aiMe beiBt ber engli[dK> 3ritgbriid ' Do you know my friend ?'• 
auf ®eut[d; V Mmncn eie incinen Aicunb V" lu. ^IJfein Cnfel unb 
meute 3:ante finb idwn oefterit angcfommcn, aber meine ^i^^ttern imb 
Goufmen tuevben erft iibermorgcu fonimen fonncn. ]) ^rs^^iftt 
b», bafe beine gjhitter annefommen ift? 12. ^^rf> mil biofe7^u* 
nicbt miffe^en, loeil er mir 511 tiein ift. 13. ^'eute barf i* (anger 


I? ■ ■ 1 




l^ier biciben ; ii'f* braurf^e nidjt oor je^n Uf^r gu §aufe 511 [ciu, 
14. 2KoUcM Bk i\(b nirfjt fel^m? 15. '^6) luerbc mel;r (5elb 
^abcn muffcu ; id> hah'i mdjt gcmu] §ur 9lcifc. Kn l^^st' inefjv man 
^at, befto melir iuiU man. 17. 'Dicje^^ unavtige Hinb luci^ mrf>t, 
tt)a§ e§ hJiH. 18. ^cf) hahz dtn gebbrt, baf^ meine 9J?utter fran! 
ift, aber id) tuerbe fie md;t Dor morgen bcfudjcn ' 1 9. Soden 

Sie gefaUigft mciuen Svtef gur ''^poft briugt ,0. ^I^ilbelm 
iuirb ben gangeu ^ag 511 §aufe bleiben miiffen, tyeil cr fid; eddltet 
'i^at 21. 5iJ?ein 33rubcr fpric^t gut ^cutfc^, obgleid) er erft in 
in feinem ficbjebnten !^abre i}a^ Stubium biefer (^ipvac^e angc= 
fangen l;at. 2:1. Solten Sie fo gut fcin unb mir fagen (mir ju 
fagen), loie mel U^ir e« ift '<'. 

B. 1. A stranger wants to speak to (f^rccben + ncc.) you. 
2. That building was first a bank, then a shop, but it is now 
a dwelling-house. ',\. How do you know that ? 1 know it be- 
cause I have heard it fr -ii my father, 4. What shall I do? 
1 have lost all my money, o. Do you know who has torn 
this book? 6. No, I do not know who has torn it. 7. Can 
you write the name of that stranger? 8. Do you know 
German? No, but T know French. 9. Do you know the 
difference between the words ' fcnnen ' and Muiffcn'? 10. I 
had already put on my hat, and was just on the point of going 
out, when the rain began. 11. These two ships set sail (ab= 
fafjren) at the same time, but the smaller arrived first. 12. I 
could not wind up my watch yesterday evening ; I had no 
watch-key about me. 11). I cannot remain now any longer; 
I must be at home at ten o'clock. 14. I know this street, but 
I do not know the name of it (say : how it is called). 15. A 
brave man is esteemed by everybody. 16. Of what is bread 


1. Wie heiszt 'I am sorry' auf Deutsch ? 2. Weshalb 
bleiben Sie heute niciit langer? W. Konnen bie Deutsch? 




4 Sollte man gegen jedermann freundlich sein ? 5. Wie ^e 
lallt Ihnen Pans> (i WiV v;«i tti, -. vviege- 



us go, IS really eqmvalent to an /„,/.eraf/z-e Mood\ Pi of 
Oc^m ; ,cf; fann Be^en, ■! can go,' to a Potential Moo,, etc 

198. These Modal Auxiliaries differ from ,l,e' En<.lish,es a.,, ,nay, ,„u,t, sM,, nnlt, in having an InfinU t 
and a Past Participie, and in the consequent ability ofo™ 

he f,nghsh Verbs, and must therefore be supplied in \Z 
lang^,ge by equivalent phrases, as shown in 'the fo loJ ng 
partia. paradigms (see also Less. XXXV). 

"id" '^ "^^ I '"Z; '° "^ ^-^'^ I -r ' " "^^- "^ 

^^^^f I allowed (may) 

Present Indicative. 

td^ barf, I am per- 
niitied, may 

tc^ burfc, I (may) 
be permitted, 

tc^ fann, I can, am 

icfi mag, I like, 

Present Subjunctive. 
ic^ fonne, I (may) 1 ic^ mogc, I (may) 

be able 





' Imperfect Indicative. 


\d) burftc, I was per- 

id) fonnte, I could, 
was able 

icf> morf>te, T liked, 

Imperfect Subjunctive. 

ic^ biirfte, I might 
be permitted 

icf) fbnntc, I could, 
might be able 

icb mbcfctc, I might 
' like 

xd) \:}aU flcburft, 
I have been per- 

Perfect Indicative. 

icf) IjaU gefonnt, 
I have been able 

id) f)a6e c^emocbt, 
I have liked 

tc^ t)a6e geburft, 
I (may) have been 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

id; l;abe get'onnt, 
I (may) have been 

id) \)ahi geniodit, 
I (may) have liked 

Pluperfeci' Indicative. 

id) fjatte gebuvft, 
I had been per- 

id) batte i-\cfonnt, 
1 had been able 

id^ battc c^emD(f>t, 
I h;ul liked 

Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

id» biittc gebuvft, 
1 miirht have been 

id> bdtte gefonnt, 
I might have been 

id> bcittc gcmodbt, 
[ might have liked 

Future Indicative and Subjunctive. 

tc^ tuerbc buvfcn, 
T shall be permitted 

id> tiievbe fbmten, 
I shall be able 

id> tDCvbe mbgen, 
I shall like ' 


ic^hjerbecjtburft (>a» 
Ben, 1 shall have 
been permitted 


Future Perfect. 

ic^ mcrbo oefoniit i ic^ h,erbe gemocf)t 
f'atH'n, I shall BaBcn, I shall 

have been able 

have liked 

tc^ toiirbe biirfen, I 
should be per- 

Simple Conditional. 
icB lyilvbe fonncn, I 
should be able 

ic(> iuurbe mojien, 1 
should like 

Compound Condition.* 


i(B triirbe c^eburft ba* 
ben, I should have 
been permitted 

tcf; luiirbe gcfonnt id; loiirbe 

brtben, T should 
have been able 

('^ibcn, r should 
<ave liked 

miiffcii, to be com- I faacil,tobeoblio-ed ii,nfrr« toK mi- 

pelled(must) | ^shalH «H)«cn to be wilhng 

Present Indicative. 
irf> foir, bu fofnx , ic^ i^id^ J ^ii,^ j,^_ 

lam rohliged) to, I tend to, am about 
thou Shalt I to 

ic^ mti^, I am com 
pelled, must 

Present Suhjunctive. 

i* miiffe, I (may ) be ^ UU, \ < mav) be 
compelled oblioed 

icO mu^tc, I was 

Imperfect Indicative. 

icfi foUte, J was 
(obljo-ed) to. 

t* irofle, I (may 
be willing 

icb luoate, I was 

wil lint: 










1 11 






[§§ 198 

\d} iim^tc, I might 
be compelled 

iMrERFECT Subjunctive. 

\d} folltc, I might i* \vo\Uc, I might 
be obliged bewilling,vvould 

id) babe flemiijst, 
I have been com- 

Perfect Indicative. 

id} babe gefollt, 
I have been 

id) \}aht gettJoUt, 
I have been wil 

Perfect Subjunctive. 

\d} ^ahz cjetDoKt, 
I (may) have hern 

icb babe flemu^t, 1 id) ^abi c^iollt, 
I (may) have been I (may) have been 
compelled I obliged 

Pluperfect Indicative. 

id; l)attc i-^cjoKt, I id> batte getuollt, 
I had been obliged 1 had been willing 

id) \)atii gemu^t, 
I had been com- 

Pluperfect Subjunctive. 

id) batte gemu^t, 
I might have been 

id) bcittc gcfottt, 

I niijiht have been 

obliged, ought 

to have 

id) (;dtte getPoUt, 
I might have been 

Future Indicative and Subjunctive. 

id) ttjerbe miifjcn, 
I shall be com- 

ic^ njerbc gemu^t 
^aben, I shall 
have been com- 

id) ioerbe foKcn, 
I shall be obliged 

Future Perfect. 

id) iuerbe gefollt Ija-- 
ben, I shall have 
been obliged 

id) U^erbe njoHen, 
I shall be willing 

\d) hjerbc ge^oUt 
Ifiaben, I shall 
have been wil 






i* ttJiirbe miiffen, 
I should be com- 

Simple Conditional. 

id) luiirbe foUcn, 
I should be 

ic^ h)urbe woilm, 
I should be wil- 

Compound Conditional. 
i^ tDiirbe cj^inuf^t 
^abcn, I should 
have been com- 

ben, I should have ijahn, I should 

been obliged 

have been wil- 

109. Further Peculiarities of Modal Auxiliaries. 
I. They govern an Infinitive without 311, as: 
Gr mu^ ac^cii, He must po. 

.i,'''^Vn^ compound tenses, when a governed Infin. occurs 
the weak P Part, is replaced by the Infinitive ^really the old 

irfh r rV'''^'""' P''^' 9'-'^^'^^'^^ ^^^"^ides inform 
witn the Infin.), as : 

^d) ^a&c flcmu^t I have been obliged ; — but 
^d) ^aU C0 i^iin miiffen, I have been obliged to do it. 
3. in subordinate sentences, their auxiliary of tense does 

not come last, but precedes both the governed infinitive and 

the participle of the Modal Auxiliary, as : 

@r fagte, ha^ er eg ^afie t^un muffen. He said, that he 
had been obliged to do it. 

Mf^r- ~" ^^'V'^'^Somg peculiarities are all shared by the verbs f)ei,u-n 
^e fen, joren, Um^ „,ad,civ leljeu ; for other verbs governing an nl 
Without gu, see Ler,s. XLV. vcrumg an mun. 

4. The ..>i^//.r (and older) forms of the Conditional (viz • 
impf. and Plupf. Subj.. see S tti^ nr^ ^r«ferr-^^ .„ .u_ ,_ ' 
^nes (^nh tourbe), thus : ^ 




i i 

■1? ! 




Simple Conditional. 

ic^ biirltc =- I should be permitted 
i* tbuntc - I " " ^^^^e 
ic^ moJ^tc = I " >il^^ 
id; muOtc = I " be compelled 
id; joflte - I " " obliged 
id; mi\it -= I " " willing 
CoMiouND Conditional. 


id; ^iittc 

I should have 


' geburft, biirfcn 

Qeh)unt, tlMmcu 

(^cmod;t, uibflcn 

gemuj3t, luiifjcu 

(^cfottt, foKcn 

^ ge\uoUt, \uoUcn 

Remarks.- I. The Engl, auxiliaries also use by prefer- 

ence shorter forms of the Comp. Condit., but differently 

constructed thus : 

'been permitted 
'* able 

been compv;lled 







= I 







> have dene it 

Observe that the Engl. Verbs have the Mo.M Auxihary 
C could," might,' etc.) in the 5m//. Tense (Impf.), and the 
governed verb ('have done') in the Compoimd Tense (Perf. 
Inf)- whereas the Germ. Verbs have the Modal Aux,hary 
(batte . . .fbmten, etc.) in the Compound "Y^x^s^ (Plupf. Subj.) 
and the governed verb (tf;uu) in the ^m/A' Tense (Pres. Inf.). 

2. Distinguish carefully between 'could,' Indir. {=^ ^^^ 
_ui. *..»,fA qnd 'roiild.' Conditional (= would be able, 
fonttte) ; and so with the other verbs, thus : 




^'t^T^/ft ?'" ^ ^'^ ""''' "-^ ^^^-^ '>-t able 
to) do It i/nilic.). 

er liinnte e« tt,.,.,, « lo.aic - He could (would 
be able to) do it, it he were willing (a,J.). 

to remain up,sit up, «uf'6Icibc» fellow creature, neighbour, 

go out, lui^'gcfjcn 
thank, banfen ( j- dat.) 
bowj(., greet, Qrii^en (trans.) 
depend, rely (upon), [id; ucr. 

moment, ber 2(ii'gcnb(icf 
railway, bie Gi'fcn&af;n 

ber i)idc^ftc 
disaster, bag Un^gfucf 
untruth, falsehood, bi*? \\\\', 

over again, noc^ (ein)inar 
whether, if, ob 
else, otherwise, [onft 

S. In Sub weather, S(| fd,5i,cm SBrttcr. 
8. I have heard (it) gaid eit «iA h^i.- / 


w^ f;e, gc agt at. I J. 5BiS,^tcn ©i. „id,t feci bicfen, fctonen 
Better frcjjtercn f„(,ren? 12. .§aft bu ben 3ug l>o„ SuffJlo at 

fcmmm fcben? 1.3. ;>a innM i,-r, (,.,1,5 ;<.» ,..- ,- - " 

e8 war „,e,„anb barauf, ben icf, fannte. 14. @t ^at oeburft, a6cv 



If 1' 




V ^ 






[§§ 199- 

er ^at nid^t gemollt. 15. ^^rf> tjabe in ber Stabt fagen ^bven, ba ] 
ein gvofjce Uncjliicf auf ber C^ifcuba^n gefcbe^en \\t 16. 0;r foU 
bon bicfem 33aiim gci^rimc-jen fcin, aber id; faun eg faum glaubem 
17 ^d} barf nid;t jo f^at aufbleibcn al^ meiu alterer 33rubcr ; td? 
mu^ iebcu 3(bcnb urn jebu Ubr ju 5Bette gcl;en. 18. :5rf^ i^il^ * 
tbun m^ id> faun; barauf fonnen 2ie fid} toevlaffcn. 19. ^>on 
iuem'nnirbc bag 33ud) gejdniebcn, bag ©ie focben lafcn? 20. @g 
that niiv Icib, bafi Sie fo lange auf mid) f;aben mvtm mulfen ; 
id; tonntc mciuo .s^anbfdnik uid;t finben. 

B. 1. By whom was this picture painted? 2. I should 

like to know what time it is. H. May you go out, if you 

want to? No, we are obliged to stay at home the whole day. 

4. I do not like (1 like no) tea ; I prefer (the) coffee. 5. Could 

you help me with my lesson ? (i. I should certainly help you 

with it, if I could. 7. He may say, what he will ; it is 

all the same to me. H. My father could have sold his house 

la^t year, but irow it is impossible, for nobody wants to buy it. 

«). Charles has beaten his dog with a stick ; he should not 

have done that. 10. May I offer you a piece of meat ? No, 

thank you. 11. Have (let) the messenger wait, till I write 

an answer. 1:2. I should like to read this I'rench book, but 

I do not know anv French. IH. 1 am sorry that I have not 

been able to come sooner. 14. He will be obliged to study 

another year, if he does not pass his examination. 15. Sophia 

should not have gone for^ajvalk, since the weather is so 

cold. Ki. The horse I warned to buy was already sold. - 


1 Wie heisx-t das erste Gebot ? :>. \\issen Sie, ob wii 
morgen zur Schule gehen miissen ? 3. Harf ich Ihnen eina 
Tass^e Thee anbioten? 1. Weshalb haben Sie mir mit meiner 
Auf-abe nicht helfen woUen ? 5. Wie lange werden vMr aut 
Fritz warten mussen ? (). Sollte man seinen Nachsten .leben? 







"OO. The followiiijj are the moaf imt.r^vf.>v,^. r ^i 

» ^ '•"'- "'ost important of the various 
meanings of the Modal Auxiliaries : 

I Surfeit denotes permission, as : 

Tax\ k% frajicrt 'c- Ma/ I ask. 

eie hurfcn m nac^ .f^aufe geOen, You may go home 

(£r i)at mm fa^qen burfcn, He has not been permitted 
* allowed) to say anything. 

2. ^iinttcn denotes: 

{a) abiiity {(^i pa-sous), as : 

Gv fonntc fd)on frt^reibcn, He could (was able to 
knew how to; wnte beautifully. 

%i) Wit nic^t fomiiuMi fbnnen, I could not have (would 
not have been able to) come. 
{^>) pOSSibilit/ {o(eve;ifs), as : 
G^ Urn fcin, It may b. so), it is possible. 
3. W^m denotes : 

('0 preference, likmg {oi persons), as : 

^i:!) mog ticfc^ (sH'Wctt uiAt, I do not like (care for) 
this poem. ' 

(5r mO(^tc uid)t arhntcrt, He did not like to work. 
3c^ b;ute 3l)rc« 33ruter fe(,en magcn, I should have 
liked to sea your brother. 

—^1. ^Miaic. and CtJiuiUj ihrou'^liout. 

(/^) concession, possibility (in 2. and 3. person only), 











i! i' 





(^r mofl ge'^em He may go (as far as T am concerned), 
or : Let him go. 

^a^ moft fciu, That may be (for all I know). 
NoTE.-The Kngl. ' muy ' denoting permissi.)n must be rendered by 
Dftrfcn in the first person, as : 

May I accompany you? ^arf id) 5ie beflleiteu? 

(c) Observe this idiom : 
^(^ tucrbc movi^cn au^et^en, mog e^ x^c^xwi obcr nid)t, I 
shall go out to-morrow, whether it rains or not. 
4. 9)lujfcn denotes necessity, as : 

mk ^0)ienfd>eu muijcu ftcrbeu, All men must die. 

Ge mu^ c^cftcrn flcfc&eben fcin, It must have happened 

2Qir \vcrbcu am^m miiflcn, We shall be compelled 
,or ' obliged; or ' shall have ') to go. 
Note. -'To be obliged, compelled' after a negative is rendered by 

briuidicn, as : 

I am not obliged to go, 3d) btoud)c uid)t ^u iiel)eu. 

5. SoUcn denotes duty or obligation, imposed on the 

subject ^y the will of another. 

(a) Imposed by the speaker, as: 

®u joUft lud^t ftcblcn, Thou shalt not steal. 

(/i) Imposed by some person other than, but recognised 

by, the speaker, as : 

'"scl> joU i^cbcu, I am to go. 
er batte .^'bcn joacil, He ought tc ^ave gone. 
^ii}a^? joU v-\cfd>eben '^ What is to be done? 
4i>vv:^ jolltc id' tbun'^ What was I to do ? 
(() It also denotes a statement on the part of another 
as to the sul)ject, as : 
(Sr foa fel;r rcid) jein, He is said to be very rich. 





J by 



It, I 



;d by 

1 the 




6. fBoUtn denotes 

ia) the exertion of the will on the part of the subject as • 
(^t miO ntd)t cichordH'tL He will not (refuses to) obey. 
i^) intention or impending action, as : 
Qv m morgcn abrci|cn, He intends (means) to depart 
^a^&^ m [n-ccfH«n, The ice is about to break 
(threatens to break). 

er rtioatc eben geben (= mv cben tm ^^cnriff ^u qebcn), 
He was just on the point of going. 

(0 a statement or claim on the part of the sul^jecr, as : 
(Sv \m in ^nbicn oeipcfcu fein, He asserts that he has 
been (pretends to have been) in India. 
7. Caffcu is used 
(a) as auxiHary of the Imperative Mood, as : 

Soffcu eie urn bkv blcibcii, Let us remain here. 
{^) to express permission, etc., as : 

man i)at bcii ^icb cntfpvinacn loffcil, The thief has been 
allowed to escape. 

(d to express the agency of another, as : 
3^er Cffi^icr Uc^ bcu edbatcn kftrafcn. The officer 
ordered the soldier to be punished. 

mm^niUU %,Uv tkfi ben ^^^anni umf)OUCll, Cinderella's 
father had the tree cut down. 

Note.- The tl,e former of these examples is rendered by 
.he/..... ,n LnKlish, the object of the verb hUIOU hein, under 

stood. Supply the ellipsis as follows : ^ 

^or CfR^icr Oat imant (obj. of lam), ben 3olb(Ucn (obi. of 
hntvmn), bcftrafcii (offcn, The officer has ordered so,M to 
punish the soldier. "^ 

.! 1 

Qf) reflexively, 








l§§ 260- 

(5v licfj fifi) Iciibt bctviii^'n, Mc suffered himself to he 

deceived easily. 
'^^d} lie)) cs> mir i^cfallcn, T submitted to it. 
(5-^^ liijjt fid) nidit Iciuvicn, It cannot be denied. 

201 . How to render shall and will.- 

1. I he Kn"l. ' shall ' and ' will ' must /><)/// be rendered by 
tUCrtlCU when they express ;?i<'rr futurity, as : 

I shall be drowned and nobody will save me, 
;"scb mvht cvtvintcu imt nicmaub luivti micl> rcttcu. 

2. -Ikit if they express more than mere futurity (e. g., 
oblii^ation or ,lrtrmination\ they must be rendered by foflcu 
and nioflcu respectively, as : 

1 will be drowned and nobody shall save me, 
ls6> Itiill crtrint'cn unb nicmanb joll mid^ vcttcn. 

202. (H)serve the followinj; parallel idioms: 

(iv f|nt cv uid^t tl)un fiiuucu, He has not been able 
, . to do it. 

^' '^ tiv fnnil c^> nid^t pt\)m fiodcit, He cannot ipossibly) 
have done it. 

(5v f)nt c^^ nidit t(}Un mogcn, He did not like to 

do it. 
Gv mo;', c^> {^ctfjon fiabcu, He may (possibly) have 

done it. 

I Civ ^nt c^^ tljuu miiffcn. He has been obliged to 
{(■) I do it. 

I Civ muji c^> gcttion ^nbcn. He must have done it. 

r Civ \)ai Cv5 t^Utt jotfcn, He should i;ought to) have 
j done it. 
" j Civ \o{i Co flctljan ^oku. He is said to have 
done it. 






^) ; 

(Sr ^nt cc^ tf)un luoMctL He intended to have 
done ii. 

Gr ni (I c<? flrt^it rjnlicu. Ho pretends (claims) 
to have done it. 


to put on, draw on (coat, etc.) Kn-iishman, bcv en^ldnbcr 

naught, cipher; zero, bic ^}\\\{\. 
shoemaker, bcr 3dnihiimdici- 
proverb, bivo '3prtc(Moort 
studying, biv? '3tubicrcn 
lesson, bic 3tuhbc 
bunch of grapes, bic QTraube 
thermometer, bcr or bas 3;l;crs 

overcoat, bcr llDcrsicfjcr 
as far as, \i\^ nad) 
dangerousriy), ^cfahrlirf) 
sour, faucr 

nil X'sax citictt %x\i holen 

expect, ciumrtcu 
chat, talk, plaiibcvn 
reap, [dMicibcn 
disturb, interrupt, ftorcu 
try, t)crf udi en 
last, continue, tDiibrcn 
American, bcr i^lntcrifancr 
physician, doctor, bcr i)li;^t* 
beggar-woman, bic '^^cttlcrin 
steam-engine, bic ^ainpf= 

Idioms: 1. A doctor has been sent for, 

8. Ev,rv other day (every alternate day), iSimn CTaq um 
cell iinbcrn. 

3. Kvery week, %{{( nd)t ^a<^s. 

4. I should think so! I<c,« yoXUt idj inciiicn! 

5. In the riffht «ay, "Jl.lf tit riditifle aScifc (ace). 


A. 1 . !3:cr Xclc(]ra|)b foU Don cincni iHincrifancr crfimben iuorben 
Kin. 2. ,/Bcr iin 3ommcv nid^t mag fd)ucibejL ntiif? tin ^Jsjintcr 
.•ounocr Icibcn/' hcif?t cin bcutfdH'e 3pridniunt. ;}. ^Xiodc nur, 
iua^ bii tannft, fo luirft bu toiniciL luae bu Hnaft. 4. ^Jiiid^ftc ^^^Jod^c 
lollcn Juiv eincu Acicvtacj habcn, lucnn Die 3oinia[KMib flciniq [tubicrt 
iiMvb. 5. mam luoUtc ibrc i!cftion in cincr bafbcn 3tunbc fn-nnt 

rtbcr jie bat cs nidit ncfonnt. G. ^Uir Jinivbcn allc cjliidlidicr Icbcn 
nienn U)ii- immcr tl;dten, m^ miv tbun [oUtcn. 7. ^di tr>crbe bie 






m 202- 

2ettion nie Icmcu fbnnen. K. ^u \mx\t fie lernen fbnnen, \mm 
bu e^ nuv auf bie vicbtiv^c ^Ahmk Dcvfucbft. 9. '•)J{an barf mrf)t m bcv 
Sdnile vlaubcvn ; bcv5 ftovt ben <?c(n-cv unb bic Srfuilcr. 1 0. iBee= 
balb hat 3(fchcn^uttcle l^atcr ben 33aum iimbaucn laffenV 11. 
SoUte .'oeiT ^:B. ^uabvcnb lucincr ^IbtucfouKnt fommcn, fo laffcn 
Sic ibu auf uticf) UHivtcn. I'-i. :scl; inbdUe mir Unifcn, mxiun 
e«eDrflauffid> luartcu UiBt! IH. ^^^d; mod^tc 3ic nid^t ftbrcn, 
ahix fac^en Sic miv qcfdUii^ft, Unc bicfcr 2al} auf ^mm l^eiBt. 
14 (s5cDVc3^ ^:isatcr foil a*^faln-licl} !vanf fciu ; man Imt jioei Slv^tc 
ftoicn lafien. 15. ^cv ^hv-^cI \w\iU cbcn Dom i^aumc flicgen, alo 
ber Sciger ibn fd^of^ 1<^. Wutcn ^Tamyn, A^crr ^Maun, mem 
iOatcr la^t >ncn fagen, baf^ cr 2ic Innitc ^tbcub crtuartet. 17. 
r^ak id) 8ie fagcn tun-on, bafj 3ic jcbcn lag cmc bcutfdK (Stunbc 
nebmen'? 18. ^3tcin, id) nctnnc cincn 2ag um ben anbern erne 
gtunbc H) ai^ac? mid) betvifft, h mbcbte icf) lieber afle brei ^age 
meine Stunben n:-Smcn. 20. ^a^i folltc id) meinen, benn 2te 
Unirbcn mebr ,Beit jum etubieven baben. 21. Gbrli* tvabvt am 
Idngften, unb Unved)t fdUdgt feinen eigenen .S>n-rn. 

B 1. Let us take a walk ; T cannot work any longer. ;i. 
The be<"-ar-woman, who has just asked us for nioi)ey, says 
that shHs (claims to be) a hundred years old. 8. She is not 
quite so old, but she is said to be at least above (iiber-l-acc.) 
ninety years old. 1. The fox said : ' The grapes are sour ; I 
do not like them.' 5. The fox said the grapes were sour, 
and that he did not like them. (i. Might 1 ask you how far 
vou are going ? As far as Montreal 7 . Should I put on my 
overcoat""^ H. I should tidnk so ! The thermometer is (stands) 
below zero !•. Is it true that this traveller knows three 
languages? U mav l)e [so], but I do not believe it. K). If 
you should see little Freddy up-stairs. let him come to me. 
1 1 Bv which shoemaker do you have your shoes made ? 12. 

The steam-engine is sau 

I to have been invenied by an Eng- 

lishman, bi. L^i^'^y 

boys le 

irn on 

Iv because they are obliged 




to learn. 14. He must have been very ill, as (ba) he is still 
so weak. 15. This house is said to have cost four thousand 
dollars, but I should not like to <,rive two thousand for it. lij. 
He has not l)cen able to come on account of tiie storm, 
otherwise he would be here alrcadv. 


1. Mochten Sie nichl cine Rcise nach Kuropa inachen .? 
± Gehen Sie allc 'I'age nach der Stadt, odcr nur alle zwei 
Tage.? .*{. Was machen Sie, wenn Sie niclit niehr studieren 
konnen .? 4. Wer soil das Telephon erfunden haben .? .-,. Hat 
man einen Arzt holen lassen ? (i. Haben Sie das (ieid be- 
zahlen miissen ? 



20.*?. 'i'he Prefixes of Compound Verbs may be either 
Inseparable or Separable. 

204. A. Inskparablk Prefixks. 

Remember: The omission of gc- in the P. Part. 

The prefixes (jc-, cr-, cm|i-, citt-, flc , ucr-, ^cv-, mifj-, 
UUDcr- are always inseparable and unaccented, the principal 
accent falling on the verb. 

Remarks.— i. '{'he particle mi^- varies in usage, as shown 
in the Supplementary Lesson E.. iJ 209, i, below. 

2. Remarks on the force and meaning of these particles 
are given in Part III. 

205. J3. Separahi^e Prefixes. 
Remember: i. The Prefix is separated from tlie Verb 

onlv in Simnl»i» T^rio, 


es and Principal (including Direct 



i- il 


rrogative and Imperative) Sentences. 


[§§ 205- 


2. The j^c- of the ?. Part, and ]H of the Infin. come between 
prefix and verb. < 

3. The principal accent is on the prefix. 
2<K5. The Separable Prefixes are : 

1. The simple prepositional and other adverbs, 06-, 
an-, ouf-, am-, etc. ; bo(r)-, fort-, cmpor-, ^cr-, ^in-, etc. 

2. The compound adverbs, such as: bfltiOU-, bn^ll, etc. ; 
tiorott , t)orou«-, etc. ; cntgcgcu-, cntjttjci-, ^uriirf-, etc. 

Ncni-.s. I. Observe that these compound adverbs are all accented 
on the xiroiti/ syllable. 

2. The use of the compound prefixes with Jjct and ^in - is defined 
in the Supplementary Lesson E., § 210, below. 

Examples of Verbs with Prefixes. 

{(i) Simple 

{Ii) Inseparable 

((■) Separable 

\ ou«(^ebcn, go out 

, ^ r \ oueaeneii, go out 

9d,n., go t.Ctacl,e«, pass away | ^^^^^^^^^l ^^ ^ack 

rci^cn, tear ^crrci^cn, tear to pieces 

fommcii, bcfomnicn, obtain cntj^Cflcnfontmcu, con.e 

come to meet 

fittbni, find crfinbcu, invent nusfinbcii, find out 

Other Separable Prefixes are : 
3. Substantives, forming one idea with the verb, 
(a) as objects of the verb, as : 

nrfltocbcn, pay attention (^attend); Boutfac^cn, return 

thanks (thank); ftttttfinbcn, take place (occur); 

tcifncbmeu, take part (interest one's self). 

Note. The substantives in these combinations are usually spelt 

with a small letter, and written in one word with the verb when they pre- 

cede it. 

(/;) with prepositions (= adverbial phrases), as 




)l* III «d|t nchmcii (reii), take care (be careful)- 
3U Untie tbm, injure, hurt ; ^u 3toil&c btuu^n] 
complete; ^U Stniibc fo.nmcn, be completed ;" im 
©tniibc fetn, be able ; j«m Jliorfrfjcin fonuncn, make 
one s appearance ^appear . ; ^,1 f^hltc fcin, feel 
Remark.- These substantives occupy the same position 
in the sentence as separable prefixes, thus : 
'M f)abe auf [cin iUtuv^n ndjtgegcbcu, 
I have observed his conduct. 
'M) ^cicsi^ ihni fiir fcine /rrcunblicf^fcit bnnf, 
I thanked him for his kindness. 
Note. -Observe that in the above sentences the simple obiects with 
out prepos.t.on (ad,t, ba„f) >/,.. the prepositional phras'es .. .^ ^ 
l«flen rav icmc ^rnn,Mid,tVit,, contrary to rule. In acco „u f Le r 
character as separalile prefixes. 

4. Adjectives as prefixes are usually separable, as : 

frcilaficn, set free (liberate); feftfmltcn, hold fast (de- 
tain) ; fic^ Io0fagcn (refl.), renounce. 

But many are inseparable, of which fuller particulars are 
given m ihe Supplementary Lesson E., § 212. 

For Uoa- as prefix see § 208, below. ' 

^^^' C. Double Prefixes. 

1. Separable + Separable prefix; these are compound 
adverbs, and both separable fsee § 206, 2, above). 

2. Separable + Inseparable; the former alone is se- 
parated, as : ' 

Oll'crfeimcn, acknowledge, id; crfenne ait yhm see Suppl 
Less. E., §213). ^^ ■ 

3. Inseparable + Separable ; both in.separable, as : 

koilf traocn, authorize, ic^ licoiif tragtc Hjn, I authoriz--^ 
"im; uernnftaltcn, arram 

ranged this. 

ige, id) iseronftaltete bics., I ar- 




[§§ 207- 

NoTE -These are really not c Mound h^x\ derivative verbs, from 
compound nouns cnilf'tran, ^^lu'l'talt; , hc.u r also the verb (as in the 
former example) is always weak, not strong - l.oauftvai]tf, bfOlUtlrtflt. 

208. -^. riU'.i'iXKS Separable and Inseparahik. 

The prefixes tjurri)-, fitter , iibct-, utitcr-, \m-, OoU- are 

sometimes separable, sometimes inseparable. They are : 
^a) Separable as long as both prefix and verb retain 

more or less of their literal or cone '.e meaning; 
{!>) Inseparable when both have lost this meaning, and 
form together one new idea. A compoimd of the 
same verb and prefix may therefore be both sepa- 
rable and inseparable according to its meaning, 
as in the following examples : 
{a) Separable and LiteraL ! (/' Inseparable and Figurative. 
(Accent on I'retix, Trans, and Intr.) ; (Accent on Verb, always Trans.) 

tmrdl'vctfcn, pass (travel) 
through, as : 

(vr ift flcftcvn bicv i)urd)S-\cvcift, 
He passed through here 

^itt'tcrgcbcu, go behind 

iVbcrf cl3cn t tr. or intr. i, cross ; 
jump over, ferry across, as: 

(Sr je^tc mit ciucin BpniUi^' 
iibcr, He jumped over at 
a bound. 

^•dbrmanu, bittc, jc^ctt2i. mich 
iioct, Ferryman,please ferry 
me across. 

bmdn'ci'jcit, traverse, travel 

over, as : 
(TV bat biv? i^in^c £anb biird^; 

vcift', He has traversed 

(^travelled over) the whole 


btntcvi^c'()cii, deceive, as: 

©r l;intciijiufl' fcincn ^reunt. 
He deceived his friend. 

iibcrjc^'cn, translate, as : 

^stb iiberjc^'e cin bcutidje^l^udj, 

I am translating a Cer^ 

man book. 



un'tctjdncibcn, write under, 
subscribe, as : 

<Sd)rcilicn 3ie ,Mucn ^Kamcn 
bier iintcr. Subscribe your 
name here. 

um'gelHMi, go round, as : 

Siemiiffcnum'tiebcn, Vou must 
go round. 

tinfl'ciicj^cn, pour full, as : 
(Sr {^of; bivN WUv? toU, He 
poured the «;lass full. 

my work. 

Notes. r. These separable prepositional prefixes are only rarely- 
used with the verbs given above, except :,^ prepositions proper, governinL. 
a case, as : ° 

Ci-i- flinn Winter ^n\ Cfcit (um bao s>mi), 

He went behind the stove (around the housei. 

2 The adverb ttJtcDcr is separable, except in tUicHcrho'loil, repeat (but 
lliie'ftcrl)o(en, fetch again). v \ < 

3. Many compounds with these prefixes are used as inseparable com- 
pounds only; others ar, separable only. 

uiitcridirri'ljcn, sign, as : 
;'scb \^K\U ben ^i^vief nodi nid>t 
untcrfrtiric'Dcil, I have not 
yet signed tlie letter. 

iimnc'f|Cll, evade, as : 

')Jian imij^iufl' bav (^)e|el3. The) 
evaded the hiw. 

DoUcn'dfii, complete, as : 
v3d) \)K\h'i nieine ^Jdboit i)ol(= 
cn'bct, 1 have completed 


to meet with, an'treffen 
give up, aufi^cbcn 
cease, stop, aufbi)rcn 
open, anf maduMi 
leave out, omit, au^yiaffen 
pronounce, aiho'ipiwbeu 
assist, aid, bei'fte(;eu 
go away, forfgebeu 
come out, bcraue'foiumeu 
come in, bevein'fomnieu 

set (of the sun, etc. i, un'ter^ 

read to, voi'Icfeu (+ dat. of 
leave, l>ci'Ia))en [pers.) 

promise, lHnl>redien 
present; introduce, iHn'fteUou 

(+ ace. and dat.) 
go past, pass by, Dovbei'gebeu 
close, shut, ;,u'iHadHMi 
come back, uiriid'toinnien 







collide, ;;aifam'mcnftofu'n 
send to, jn'fdnctcn (+ dat.) 
coffee, bcr Maf'fcc 
Nortiiern Railway, btc OcOib': 

slave, bcr 3tla»c 

marria<];e (-ceremony), bic 

pale, blcicf) 
by heart, aU'>ytucnbi(^ 
since, fcitbcm' (adv. and conj.) 
closed, shut (predicate), ju 

even if, mwv . . . aucb 

Jdioms: I. What U tlu' iiialtor with him' Uai t)Ot tr? 

a. H« feels 111, Jbm ift jrtitrrtit ]\i SJiitf; or: (»o ift ihm (Alrdit \xi 


;{. To traiisluto into (Jeriiiaii, ;\ii0 tcui|it)( ilbrrirlKii. 

4. !ii fine weather, iHei jdioitrut SOcttrr. 

5. If you please, SOtiiii iit) liittrit barf (lit., If I may ask). 


A. 1. 5.^crgif5 nid^t, bao ^^-cnftcr ^u.^imiadHMi, mmi bu ba'-S 
3immcr Dcvliif^t. i. '^iivJ man auffdncbt, tommt fcltcn 311 3tanbc. 
ij. .Vlbnncn 3ic mir fa{\cn, U>ic bicfcy 3."i3ort auf Dcutfd; aiiv<ac-- 
f^rod>cn u>irb? 4. ^3Jicinc 3dni>c[tern fanicn mir cuti^ci\cn, abcv 
kibcr babcn fie mid; nid^t ani^ctroffcn. 5. ^lUclc babcn licrfvrodH'n, 
im§ bcijuftcbcn, abcr mir iocniiic babcn nne mirtlid^ bcigcftanbcn. 
6. Sir finb jcM mit bcm erftcn 2:ci(c bc^S 5^ndH^> bcinabc fcrtig ; 
nacbftc Sod>e fani^'n unr an, ben ^mcitcn 2i\l jn nb^r[cl3cn. 7. 
3tiH'i Jugc finb auf bev ^iovbafcnbabn sutannncni^cftoficn. «. ^d^ 
bbrte auf ju fin^cn, mcil id> bcifcr unirbc. *J. llicin ^l^atcr madUc 
ben ^i^ricf auf unb Uv$ benfclbcn bcr 3'iii»ili^ ^^^^' 1<^- "^''^^ ^i"- 
mal \iu}t, bem i-\laubt man nid>t, unb n>cnn cr aud; bic ^Jinibrbcit 
fViidU. 1 1 . .s^abcn 3ic bie i^cituuv^ botiMumcn, bic id> v»bncn au^i 
bcr 3tabt jut^icbidt babe? 12. (rffen 3ie geuu^bnlid) in ber 3tabt 
3U 'lliittaiV? 13. :;>a n>ob(, id> i-\ebc jcben ^acT um neun llbr fort 
unb t'omme erft um fed>^ llbr juriid. 11 ^Uiancbcr bat anc\efanoen, 
tiHV5 er niclit uollenbet bat. 15. llnfere ^cacbbam mufjcn UH>bl 
fort fein, benn alle ^aben finb bei ibnen ju. U). ^lommen 3ie 
bod) berein; icl^ ioill 3ie i^evvn :-^>vaun uinftclicn. 17. '^sd) 
banfe melmal^, aber icb bin ibm fd^on lun-geftellt iT)orbcn. 18. il\'i 


coMPocxn vi:ki!s. 


i^bcv ubcrmorgcn ftattv 'Ml ^JsJoHcn .3ic cine :ra)ic 2M mm 
^le nur lictnn- cine 4 af[c .Uaffcc. 

^. 1. The Reformation took place in the sixteenth cenfury. 
•-. Have you closed all the doors and windows ? l] \Vh,t is 
the matter with you ? Vou look so pale. 4. I do not know'- 
since I have come back, I do not feel at all well, o In the 
year ,865 all slaves in the United States were set free (5 
Have you opened the letters which have just arrived > 7 The 
sun sets earlier now, and the -..eather bepns to .row colder. 
K Mary ,s learnmg a poem by heart ; she has alreadv repeated 
It ten ii. Have you found out at what o'clock the 
".eenn^. takes place .^ 10. Do you know the ^^-ntleman who 
has just gone past .Ml. When we were goin^,. past the church, 
the people were just coming out. I >. Pay attention to your 
work; you always leave otu words, when you are co^ Wn^. 
hi VVhy have you closed the window } I was beginnincr To 
catch cold. 14. I have tried to learn this poem, but it is 
too hard for me, and I have given it up at last. 15. (Joethe's 
l;aust has been translated into English by Bayard Tavlor. 
1>. The marriage of my brother takes place to-morrow at 
eleven o clock, 


1. In welchem Jahre wurden die Sklaven in den Ver- 
emtgten Staaten freigelassen .^ :>. Lernst du gern Gedichte 
auswendig ? ;}. (Jlauben Sie, dass unsere Nachbarn fort sind > 
4. Kennen Sie den Mann, deram Hause vorbeigeht ? r, Wer 
hat d,esen l]rief aufgemacht > (i. Wie sprechen Sie das Wort 
u-o-e-t-h-e aus ? 








The particle mi^- is inseparal)le, hut : 

(,,) With cclain vcrhs it takes the JJC- of the P. Part, and JU of the 
Iniin., as: 

miri)rt"^^"l"' act amiss niiiVflctianbelt mitAul)a^^.•(u 

Wuh other verbs llltft- either : 

{/>) Has {JC- ^h'/on- it, as: 

mifnion'bclu, ill-treat !'. Part. flcmilYllan^dt — or: 

(c) Drops flC^ altogether, as: 

mimaricn, displease P. Part, mimal'leu 

Note. — 01)serve that tliu principal accent: 

under («) is on the /re/ix throughout ; 

" (/,) is on the /'r<:/i.v in the 1'. Part, only, otherwise on the vfr/'', 
" (c) is on the vrr/' throughout. 

210. Use of the Prefixes ^cr- and J)i«- 

1. The particles Ijcv (' hither ') and |)in (' hence') are prefixed' • verhs, 
1,0th simple and compound, to indicate the directio:. towards or from 
the speaker respectively, as : 

Wommcn 2\C Ijcr, ("ome here (hither, to me). 
(Hcl^cn 2:K Ijilt, ('O (there) thither (hence, from meV 
Hence, a person standing L',^-s/<i/rs would say to one Mo7c> : 
Mommcn 2\( llCiailf, Come up h-^re (up-stairs) ; 
hu'i to ont^ u/stairs : 

(SSf()cu Z\( IlinuHtcv, Go down there ido\vii->tairs). 
2. The .simple prepositional adverbs ab , nil-, ttUf-, ilUi--, fin- 'l-'fter-, 

itbcr-, untcv ,Hm 

tint are only used with verbs of motion, whf'n the 


pound verb denotes motion in a general way, without spe 

cifie A 

direction, or when it has lost the idea of motion altogether 





J- i'r) V he,, w,th aui and bOl-, also with ah- in the sense of ' down ' 

ed In ; ' . u '° "•■ ''■°'" ^'" •^'^^^'^- •« ^"^^her indic- 

ated In prefixing (,cr- and (jir,- respectively. 

(/') When with the remaining prefixes („„-, „„f-, etc.), the place to the motion is directed is implied, ,u\ not secifi d ^ 
or Ijin- IS smularly prefixed. 
4. The following examples will serve to show more clearlv th. ,Uff 
ence between verhs with the simple prefixes and tho::^:;!^^- or t" :!; 

{a} With Simple Prefix.- 

UU8nel)0ii, go out (for a walk, on 
business, etc.) 

»or^icf)cii, prefer 

obfteii^eii, dismount 

onfiMnnii'tt, arrive 

U5ciiicf)fu, desert [perish 

UntcrflclKil, set (of the sun) ; sink ; 

{''') With (jcr- or (jilt- : 

IjmniicnclKn, go out (from the 

Oftuoi-5ir()i'ii, draw forth 

ftrrahftcii^cn, descend 

OfMllfoimiicil, come up to, ap- 

l)iniibornc()cii, go over, across 


.re^usl Us TSX '"" "''° "'"' --^P-tivdy is specified, these words 
a.e used as /.r/.../,.,,. y,,,^,,^ governing a substantive. !mt may be re- 
peated as adverbial prefixes with (jCr or ^tll, as : ^ 
^v niiui ou^ brm Himmrr djinoug). 

Notes. - ,. .Jlb-, .neaning ' off, away,' ,l„es no, r.quh-e these prefixes, as • 

abre.ten, abfle[;c„, to depart, go off; _ but : UiuaHcljcu, to go down 
acc^a^^';:: ^'^^'^"^''^^"^^" ^^^ -''-^ ^° -•"^>' - ^P-i.ied, „, t.... preposHio,, i„ .it,, „. 
Gf litt in bie atnbt hineiii. 

j^c^ t«erbc ,u,d. Gm-opa hii.ubcivid,OM, I shall go over to I-urone 
err ,ft oom ^ncf,e h.rab.efadcn, Ho h,.s fallen down from the Lf. 

Othkr Prefixes. 

suiiJ^Ver^t:''""' """ ""^°""' substantives are treated as 

^aSpviUrm, the breakfast, fnil)'ftu(fcn, to breakfast; irf, friifi' 
fti'cftc, gcfriifi'ftiicft. ' ^ 

I 1 











!Die ,^-^anb'l)alie, the handle, l)anb'()nbrn, to handle; l)onl)'liabtc, 

T)cr 3{at'jrf)lafl, the counsel, nit'idilacien, to take counsel; rol'= 

Wa^k, flcvat'fclilnflt. 

Note -Observe that all such verbs are weak, as in the case <.f the last two of th.' 
aboCe verbs, which arc not compounds of haben or fdilaflcn respectively. 

212. Adjective Prefixes ;ue frequently inseparable, but retain the 
principal accent and require flf h/ore them in the P. Part., as : 

ttJci^'uicion, to prophesy, ttJfi&'iantc, rcuuMfn'iint ; icdjt'fiTtiticn, 

to justity, vc(l)l'fcrtinte, 0cvori)t'fci-tint ; lict/loicn, to caress, Uth' 

to[ti\ jjclieb'ioft ; 
also the substantive compound : 

luft'ivanbdn, to walk for pleasure, fleluft'iuailbc'it. 
2i;j. Some verbs with Separable -f- Inseparable Prefi.K are used 
only m ('onstructions which do not require the separation of the former 
particle from the verb ; thus we may say : 

(£[)ViftUv^ ift OttCi'ftanbcn, Christ is risenjromjhejead,— or: 

"■m (Sl)l-iftUO ttUicn'taub, — but instead , of : 

(Si- cvftaub nuf, we say. (5v ftanb ucii tJcu tottn oiif. 

Similarly with OU^CrlolOU, ilOrcnUinltcn, and a few others. 


1 Have vou answered all the letters ? I have answered all except this 
one. ■>. I have asked my sister, if (whether) she is ready, but she has 
not answered. :5. She has gone up-stairs ; perhaps she h' ^ not heard. 
4 I et her come down, for I cannot wait for her any longer. .^ I should 
like to speak to vour father ; is he at home ? ♦'.. Yes, he is up-stairs in his 
studv: i>leasc oo up. 7. Some one is shouting in the street ; go <Hit and 
see what is the matter, s. Are you going oat to-day ? I am going out, as 
soon as ! have breakfasted. '.». George, go out of the room; you have 
been behaving badlv. 10. Many people say that Mr. 15. has acted amiss 
in this affair,^)ut he has justified himself. 11. We started so early yes- 
terday ntorning that we had no time to breakfast. 1 2. Several people were 
standing on (ailf ) the street before a burning house, and were looking up. 
13 A poor woman with her child was on the point of jumping down. U. At 
last a fireman vent up and saved [of them], l.".. The boy has abused 
his dog, and therefore he was punished by his father. I(i. The dog was 
howliiig in the street, but some one went out and brought him in. 






Reflexive Verbs. 

214. I. All Reflexive Verbs are conjugated with fiabcn 

For an example of their conjugation see § 41, and observe 

the use of ft(^ as special reflexive of the third person for all 

genders and both numbers. 

2. The reflexive pronoun is introduced as near to the 

beginnmg of the sentence as possible, sometimes even before 

the subject, when the latter follows the verb and is not a 

pronoun, and especially if the subject has adjuncts, as : 

(^5eftcm hat firf, mcin lieber, aha SCsakx 6efrf)abiflt 

My dear old father injured himself yesterday. ' 

215. I. Any transitive verb may be used reflexively when 
the action of the verb is on the subject ; but Reflexive Verbs 
proper are : 

(a) Those which are used o;i/j reflexively, especially such 
as indicate a sMe of mind ox feeling, as : 

[id; Bvaincn (gen., or iiOcr + 
ace), grieve 

ficft bef(ei^eu(gen.),| apply 

» bcfleijjitjcu, ) one's self 

„ begniigeu (init), be con- 

„ bcfinncn (gen.;, recollect 

» erbarmcn (gen.), take pity, 
have mercy 

t, erfcilten, catch cold 

ib) Those which, though used also as transitive verbs, 
have a special meaning as reflexives, as : 
,— -^_ij,.^, rejoicx. KU.), Fimfician(^gen.,oru6er+acc.^, 
^ ^"^^^ rejoice (intr.), be glad 


f4>amcn (gen., or ilber + 
acc), be ashamed 
[cbncu {\\a6>), long (for), 

luunbcrn (iibcr -f ace), be 






1: . 

furt()tc«, fear 



l^iitfn, protect 
ftcflcn, place 
ticrinfini, leave 

juttagcn, carry (to) 

fid) fiivcMcn (lun- + dat.), be 

„ butcn(lHn- + (Int. ), beware 
„ [tcUcn, pretend 
„ iH'i-lafjcu (auf + ace), 

rely (upon) 
„ gutvai-jcn (impers.) hap- 
pen, occur 

2. Transitive verbs are often used in English with the direct 
(personal) object unexpressed, e. g., 'change, turn, open, 
spread; etc.: such verbs have the object expressed in German 
as the reflexive pronoun, e. g. : 

The weather has changed, ^^ae Setter batfit^ geanbert. 
The wind is turning to the east, ^Dcv ®inb brebt fil^ 

nad> Cftcn. 
The door opened, Tic Ibiix offnctc ftrf). 
The disease was spreading over the whole towrn, Die 

.SU-aufbcit iH'rbvcitctc fl(^ iibcr bic (\a\^c Stabt. 

3. For the use of ReHexive Verbs for the Passive Voice, 
see § 1 1 4, {/>). 

4. From what has been said above, it will be evident that 
Reflexive Verbs are used to a much greater extent in German 
than in English, which indeed has no Reflexive Verbs in the 
strict sense defined above. 


I. All /r/zd- reflexives take the reflexive {personal) object 
in the accusative ; the remote object (the thing) is in the 
genitive, or is governed by a preposition, as shown in the 
examples given in § 215, i, above, thus : 




^c6 fd;amc tiiirf, mcincg mvac^m, l am ashamed of 
my behaviour. 

(S-rinncrft bu birfj bcffcn nid>ty 1 )<, you not remember it? 

2Bir febntcn un^ tmt^ unfcrcr Dhittcr, We lon-ed for 
our mother. 

^c^ erbarmtc iiiirf) fcincr, I had pitv upon him. 
2. Some spurious reHexives have the' reflexive (/.r.W) 
object m the dative, and the thing in the accusative, as • 
^5^ tann mix bao bciifcn, I can imagine that. 
M) bilbetc mir bic^o nur cin, I only imagined this 

as ^:^-obiS'^i:!:;''"" "^^^ '- ^^^^^^ °^ ^^^ ^-- -^^^ ^ '-- 

3clnd,n.eid,cltc mir, j,o§ ic^ e.^ tf,uu fbimtr, I flattered myself 
that I could do it. ' 

^^'^' Impersonal Verbs. 

Impersonal Verbs Proper are those used only in the 
third person sing., with the neuter pre .oun eg as subject. 

I. Those expressing Natural phenomena, as • 
C0 frf^neit, it snows eg blil3t, it lightens 

C0 regnet, it rains CS bonncrt, it thunders, etc. 

also with the verbs [cin or iuerbcn, as : 

0^« ift (iDirb) fort, luarm, bunfcl, etc., It is , grows) cold 
warm, dark, etc. ' 

^^ ift (]d}ldc^t) funf. It is (strikes) five. 
2 Those expressing bodily or mental affections 
(a) with accusath^e of person. 
(Sg friert mif^, I am (feel) cold. 
©^ Dei-rangt mid) {\m\6>), I am (feel) desir jus. 
m freut midft, I am glad (it rejoices me). 
e^? toimbert mirfv I wonder (it makes me wonder). 




[§§ 217- 


(B^ jainmert mid) (gen.), I pily (it moves me to pity). 

e^ vent mid) (gen.), I repent (it rues me), etc. 
(d) with Dative of person. 

e^ biinft (bcudit) mir, Methinks. 

(g§ gelingt mir, I succeed, etc. 
{/) with fein or iuerbcn {^Dative of person), as: 

(5g ift (tinvb) mir iibcl, luoM (511 9liutc), T feel ill, well 
(it is ill, well to or with me in spirit). 

e§ ift mir lieu, (eib, I am glad, sorry (it is dear, sad 

io me). 

Note. In this class of verhs the subject C8 is omitted when the per- 
sonal object precedes the verb, i^s- mid) uniubcit, etc. 

3. Verbs used impersonally with a special sense, as : 

2Bie ftc^t'g mit l^l^nen? How fares it with you.? 
@§ 9C§t il^m gut; He is prospering. 
2Ba^ flicbt'g? What is the matter.? 
2Ba§ fc^lt %^\\i\\'^ What ails you? 
Also fein and toerben, as under i and 2, (/•), above. 

4. For the impersonal use of the passive voice, see § 113. 

Note. ~ Of the above classes, those alone are strictly impersonal 
which admit only of ti as subject ; others, which are used with other sub- 
jects, but only in the third person (sometimes plur. as well as sing.) are 
properly called unipersonal. 

218. Conjugation of Impersonai, Verbs. 

1. Impersonal Verbs form their various tenses, moods, etc., 
in precisely the same way as other verbs, but are used only 
in the third person singular. 

2. Some are weak, others strong, as : 

frieven, to freeze, Impf. e^o fror, gefrorctt ; fifnteicn, to 
snow, Impf. ce ict)neitc, P. Part, gefdmeit. 


3. Most of them are conjugated with f)abm, as : 
@^ ^ai gefc^neit, gefrorcn, etc. ; 

but some take fein, e. g., geliiujen, gluctcn, to succeed ; gefc^e^en, 
to happen (compare § 53), as ; 

©^ ift gefdjcijen. It has happened. 

219. Cover: . VI ENT of Impersonal Verbs. 

1. Impersonal V^ rbs expressing bodily or mental affections, 
etc., take the immediate (personal) object (= Engl, subj.) in 
the I?afi7'e or Aca^ five (see § 217, 2, 3, above). 

2. Those under § 217, 2, {a\ denoting a mental affection 
may be used 

{a) impersonally, with the thing {cause of emotion) 
in the genitive, as : 

@l jammert mii^ fciitcr, I pity him (it moves me to 
pity of him). 

©^ reuet mid| meinet Sunben, I repent (it makes me 
repent) of my sins. 

ip) personally, with the thing (cause of emotion) as 
subject, as: 

%x iammertmin^, I pity him (he moves me to pity). 
3«einc ©iinben reucn (pi.) mif^, I repent of my sins 
(my sins move me to repentance). 

Remark. — Observe that the English subject is object 
in German, the verb remaining always in the third person, 

%i freut mic^, I am glad. 

®$ freut bil^. Thou art glad. 

%% freut t^n. He is glad. 


%% freut vm, We are glad, etc. 





There is, there a: ", etc. 

[S 220 

1. The English there is, there are {7£'as, iverc, has been, 
will be, etc.) must be rendered in ('.erman by C£( gicbt {<s^^, 
(mt . . . gegeben, Unrb . . . qebcn, etc), when an indefinite ex- 
istence is expressed, or in general assertions, as : 

\H (^oB fviikr mcle Scute, iuelcl;c cjtrtu&te"/ etc.. There 
were formerly many people who believed, etc. 

C«0 luirb biefe^^ ^"sabv Dicle ^-^stlaumcn flcbcn, There will 
be a great many plums this year. 

Remarks,— i. The English subject is object of giebt in 
German, and is in the accusatiie, as : 

^^% giebt einctt ^Itoman (ace.) i^ou Ticfeii^, S'^^XA'^tx ,,9ii!ola^ 
^Jiicflebtj" bci|V, There is a novel fnom.) by Dickens, 
called ' Nicholas Nickleby.' 

7.. The verb (gebcn) is always in the singular in German, 
being a true impersonal ; and cci is never omitted, as : 

^iefe§ %<x^x gicbt c^, etc. 

2. There is, etc., must be rendered into German by c8 fft, 
C6 finb (eC> iuav, etc), when definite existence is expressed, or 
m particular assertions, as : 

^8 ift ein 9.^Dgel in biefcm ^^auev. There is a bird in 

this cage. 
a^.^ fiiib jioei ^i^i3gel auf biefcin 33aumc, There are two 

birds on this tree. 

Remarks. — i. The English subject is also subject {nomt- 
fiative) in German, as : 

(S§ ift ciu 9lomttn (nom.) bou Tiden? auf bem 2:ifcb, 
There is a novel (nom.) by Dickens on the table. 

2. The verb ''feiu) agrees in number with the /-tv?/ subject, 
and c^ is omitted, unless it begins the sentence, as : 

§ 220] 



thirst, bcr ^iirft 
lemonade, bic l^imonabc 
caterpillar, bic %m).K 
slei^rhing, bie 3d^Iittcii6ahu 
way, mode, bic ::li;citc 
siiccessful(ly), i^lactUcf) 
now-a-days, bcut.^iitacic 
loii<r (adv.), Icingft 
past, uorbci 
in all ages, ,m aUcii ;^eitcn 

ein ^Bogel ift in biefem «aucv. There is a bird, etc. 

Note _ This shows that e.^ is the /«^.:/?«//. c.S replacing the real sub- 
ject (see § 39, I ), and »o^ the impersonal Cv\ 

to dress (trans.), an'fleiben lightning, bcr m^ 

dress (intr.), fic^ anflciben 
resolve, decide, ficft entfcbliefuMi 
explain, crflaren 
he mistaken, j'irf) irrcn 
turn around (intr.), fief) um'= 

get married, marry (intr.), fid; 

marry (trans.), ^ei'vatcn 
hurt (wound), berle^en 

Idioms: 1. I feel well, mh ift lopiii ,« m»tc. 

2. He has married the daughter of the doctor, (*r bat ftdi 

nut icv Zodyter ^c« ^ottovi ocrhciintct. 
.3. In this way, ?luf ticfe mdie (ace). 
4. I was hungry (thirsty), 3d) Ijattc *u„j,n' (tutfi). 


-'^. 1. Q^ bonnert, iinb id; fih-cf^tc, c^^ iuirb haVo regiicn ■> Um 
U>ie DielU^r h)irb bet ^hmn ^u TOtag gcoeffcn? 8. e^ ijat 
H)at)i-enb bcv md)t Q^fximn unb ^cutc iuerbcn luiv Bd^litmmij 
laufcn fonnen. 4. m^Ujalh bomtcrt e^, iuenn e^ bli^t'^ ®a^ 
lajit fid; md;t Icid;t erflaren. 5. ^d) habt mcincn bcftcn .^unb 
Un-Ioren ; fo em .v^unb finbct fid; nid^t IcidU Uncber. (i. (i.% freut 
un^ fct)r, ba^ .t^einric^) feiii eEmncn o{iidIid> bcftanbcu hat. 7 M) 
furcate, c§ Juirb biefee .^abr nur tDentose xHpfct qebcu ; bic ^Kaupen 
l;aben faft aUe inattcr mx bcu ^i^aumcn gcfreffcn. 8. (sjutcn 
^^^'-rgcn, i>rv 33raun; giebt'^ bcute i^tm^-, ^};cucv? <t. ^JJein 
.)iuucr t 


fid) Dci-[;eiiatct. JO. mt lucni bat er ficb t)cr= 

r;ciratct? 11. ^Wit bcv ^todjtcv bcc^ ^l^oftor i)^ 





cnnnern 3ic 




L§§ aao- 


nid>t i(^rcr ? 1 J. <3d>mcid)eln '^ie fifft, ba& e^ i^hneu auf bicj'e 
2SJcife gelingcn tt)irbV ^ie l>ab*;n iiid;t (^5elb gcnug. 13. ^d) 
l)ab<i Did i;:e^v Welb al'^ id) biaud^e ; id) ttJiirbe mid} mit bci .s^alftc 
begniiflt ijabcn. 14. G^ iwuibc mid) gar nidU luunbcrn, tucnn linr 
nod^ I;eutc ^Kcgcn bcfiimen. 15. 3(1'^ id; an bcm ,s)aufc Doriibcrs 
ging, offnctc fid) bie 2hur, imb cin alter .<^t'vr fain f;erau^. 
IH. 'I'id) friert; bu foKtcft bcincu Ubevjicbcr an5icl)cn. 17. Q^i 
Juarcn nod) Uielc l\Hitc auf bcr '3tva^o, ah id) nad> .s>aufc !am. 
18. C^'c. iuivb bid) balb bcinci^ :©etragen'5 'Cucn, Jycim id; mid) uidu 
irrc; bu foUteft bid) fd)amcn. 19. @v giebt bcutgutage *3:l)oren, 
imb Icibev ^at <6 ju aiUn ^^citcn!Xl)in-cn gcgcbcn. ;.^o. (Siefonnen 
fid) bcnfcn, baf^ cc> mid) tuunbcrtc, ah id) mid) r.mbrcbtc unb 
mciiicu Idngft Derlovucu ^reunb Dcv mir fab. 

J?. 1. Are you afraid when it lightens .' )L Yes, I am always 
afraid of tlie lightnin<;, :\. What is the matter with you ? 
You do not look at all well. 4. I do not know what ails me ; 
1 do not feel well, perhaps 1 have caught cold. 5. It has been 
snowing the whole night, and to-day we Iiave tine sleighing. 
H. Have you hurt yourself ? Yes, I have cut my finger. 

7. 4'here are two gentlemen at the door ; do you know them ? 

8. I know one of them, but I cannot remember his name. 

9. I must dress immediately, or else I shall not be ready at 
seven o'clock. 10. If you do, not dress more warmly, you will 
catch cold. 11.1 am thirsty ; please give me a glass of 
lemonade. l:i. I am glad that the thunder-storm is past; the 
lightning is dangerous. \',\. Do you remember whether he 
was here on the 15th or on the i6th of January ? 14. Have you 
decided to leave (the) town, and to pass the summer in the 
country? 15. I hear somebody shouting in the street ; what 
is the matter? 


1. Sollte man sich vor dem Donner fiirchten ? 2. Wie 
laniie wohnen Sle schon in dieser Strasze? 3. Stehen iSie 




gewohnhch fruh des Morgens auf > 4. Wcshalb hast du die 
Fenster zugeinacht ? 5. Wie ge- Ht es Ihnen in diesem 
Hause ? (i. Wird es dieses Jahr vi. !e i'flaunien geben ? 



221. The Prepositions with Uie Dative only have been 
given in §§46, 51; those with the Accusative only in 
555* 31, 50; those with Dative or Accusative in § 65. 


222 The Prepositions governing the Genitive are chieHy 
nouns used adverbially. The following lines contain tiie 
principal ones, and will aid the memory : 

Ihmcii, mittclft fro|t unb ma^rcnb, 
iimi, ticrmiific, unncor^tct, 
CDrr^aift unb unter^olb, 
Snncr^fl 6 unb oufrr^olft, 
^icsfcit jcnfcit ^alficn, incgcn, 
Stott, aud) liiiigg, jufolflc, tro^ 
<BU\)cn mit bcm ©rnititi ; 
X)od) ift bier nxdjt gu Dergc||en, 
3)af bei biefen le^ten brei 
Sluci; bei J^ntiti ri*tig fei, 

223. The meanings of these prepositions are as follows : 
^. ttlCgen, \ ' °" »ccoun( of 

Remarks.— I. <5albfen). (mlbcv, always >/^7.v,v the case • 

Juegcn may follow or precede 
a personal pronoun, 

a no' 1. but al 

ways follows 






2. .j^alb is used only in ilcebalb and mcdbalb ; halben after 
the prrsonal pronouns or substantives with a determinative 
or attributive word; l^albcr after a substantive used alone, as: 

'Xc6 Ai'icboU'ei balbfll. For the sake of peace. 
''I^cifpicl^ balbcr, For the sake of example. 

3. The personal pronouns have a special form endinjj; in -i 
before balbcu and UK'ocn, thus : 

mcinetbalbcn, for my sake 
unfcrhuci'^cn, on our account, etc, 

W. au^crl|0lb, (on the) outside a. obcrl}alD, above 
of , (1. uutcr^olb, below 

•I . tUltri'^alb, (on the ) inside of 

Examples : 

Unfcv Ojaitcu ift ou^cvljalb (^iuncr^nlb) bcr Stabt, 
Our garden is outside (inside) of tlie town. 

'Woutrcal lici^t iintcrljalb bc8 0ntario=3ece, 
Montreal lies below Lake Ontario. 

Remark. — ^suncrbalb in expressions of time may be fol- 
lowed by the dative of a substantive without article, as : 

OtUncrbalb §U)ei ^ai^cn. Within two days. 

9. (bcr)mtttclfi, ) by means 

10. Dmniigc, \ of 

11. JufolflC, in consequence of 

Rlmark.. — (-^ufoU^C governs the genitive when it precedes 
its case, but the dative when it follows, as : 

C5r tbat bie'o jiifotflc mcincs '^V'febls, or meincm '-IVfcblc 
jufoIc\c, He did this in consequence of my order. 

12. bte^fcit oi"! this side • 18. jcufcit, on that ('the olhcri 


7. frttft, by virtue of 

8. Iiiut, in accordance with 





Rkmakk - :Dice[cit and jcnteit are prepositions (governintr a 
r^oun,,; biceicu* and jcnfcit^ ../;../.. (without a case) as 

^scft^ n)of)nc birefcit cr jciifcit be. ^yluffe., I liv. on this 

he on that (the other) side of the river, - but • ' 

Sii iuo(;ncu bcibc nabc am ^•(uffc ; icb bie.fcite, or jcn. 

Cit«, \Ve both live near the river; [ on this, he on 

the other side. 

1-4. (Jotr, ailftatt, instead of 
REy-ARK.-i)(„ sometimes divided, thus: 

9(nftatt mcine^S ^i^rubcrc.. Instead of ,ny brother, - or- 
«n ineinc. ^^vubcro Stott, < In n.y hrother\s stead ). 

15. Ullflcariltct notwithstand- ].;. Jroj^ in spile of 

Remarks.- i. Uiu^cadUct may precede or follow its case 

of thn^ ''^^ g°^!^7« the ././/.. in the phrase trot^bcm, ' in spite 
of that, and with the meaning of ' as well as.' as : 

Tiefer .Unabe vcitct tio^ eincm mmnc. This boy rides 
as well as a man. 

ir. ma^rcnb, during jg. jj^,, ^ ^ 

Remarks.- r. i^cing. also governs the ././.;., and always 
precedes its case, as : ^ 

Scingvj bc6 llfci-0, or bcm Ufer, Along the shore. 
2.^ Gntlan.3 ooverns the genitive when it precedes its case • 
but It more commonly follows its case, and governs ,ho ..;..: 
iciiivCj as ; 

Gr iling ben m)^ cilt(nnj|. He went along the river. 
To these may be added : 

■-<». Onacfidlts, in presence of ■>■) iim »r-"— ^ ■ 1 
.,, . ■ .i , . , "" ""«••• wiui-ii, ior ine sake 

-M. mmittcn, in the midst of of 




I. Um . . . U)tl(en takes the case between um and 


toiUen, as : 

Um mctnei 95atcr8 iriffcn, For my father's sake. 
2. ^\iQ personal pronouns have the same forms with um . . . 
hjlHen as with f;albeu and iuegen, thus : 

um feinettuiHen, for his sake 

um ^brettuiUcn, for your sake, etc. 

23. unfcrit, ) ^^^ f^^^ f^^„^ 

24. UUtHCtt, ) 

224. General Remarks on Prepositfons. 

1. An Adverb of direction is frequently placed after an 
accusative, like a preposition after its case, as : 

^cn 'i^erg ^inauf. Up the mountain. 

2. {ii) Some prepositions may govern a substantive clause 

v^^ith bttj), as : 

e^rc ^i^atci- unb ^Otutter, auf bo^ e^ bir \m\}\ gebe. 
Honour father and mother, that it may go well with thee. 

Notes. — I. Such are auf, aullcr (also used with tocnn), bi\<, o(}nf, 
(oii)fttttt, uuncad}tet, maljmib. 

2. 331'?, ungead[)tet, Umljrcnb are also used as conjunctions without baf?. 

ijy) Um, ot)ue, and (an)ftatt may govern an infinitive 
v^ith ju, as : 

CSr \(\\\\ flcftcrn, um bidi ju ftefurf)cn. 

He came yesterday (in order) to visit you. 

^c^ fanu nic baran benfcn, o^nc 511 Itti^cn, 

I can never think of that without laughing, 

Diefcv ^)Jiann foUtc arbeitcn, nuftatt 511 bdtcin, 
This man ought to work, instead of begging. 

Remark. — Hut if the subject of the infinitive clause is 
different from that of the sentence on which it depends, ba^ 
must be used, as : 



^d)UmxU md)t Doibeigef;cn, o^ne bof cr mtd) fafi (not 
oBne iiuc^ 311 fcf)cu), I could not pass by without his 
seeing me. 

3. Preposnions may govern adverbs, as : md) ohn up- 
ward ; na* mntcn, to the rear; auf immer, forever; t,on fern 
from afar; and the compounds with ba(r)- and h)o(r)- (see 
§ 38, Rem. 5 ; 8^, 3 ; 96, 7). ^ 

4. A substantive governed by a preposition may be followed 
by an adverb, for nearer definition, as: 

9la(i^ eincr ^Cid^tung ^in. In one direction. 
95oit aaen Seiten ^cr. From all sides. 

©r ritt Winter bem ^einbe !)cr. He rode in pursuit of 
the foe. 

Urn ha^, Ir^aihi ^cnim. Round (about) the house. 
fSm nun on. From henceforth. 
aJait ^ugenb oiif. From youth up. 

to observe, remark, bemerfen (the) little Red (Riding) 

elect, erluaf;Ien (+ ju) 
permit, allow, erlauben 
inq^uire (about), fief) erfunbicjen 

(+ md)) 
go about, around, fjerum'gcfien 
ring (a small beli; flingeln 
go for a walk, fpajieren gefjen 
divide, teilcn 

let (of houses, etc.), bermictcn 
go away, loeggeb^'n 
the opposite, ba^ ©e'genteil 
custom, habit, bie ©ctt)obnf)cit 
microscope, ba^ liafroffo^' 

Hood, ba^ ^}i!Dtfd|)pd)en 
umbrella, ber 9tegeuf4)irm 
drop, bcr 2:ro|)fen 
drunkard, bcr ^Trunfcnbolb 
will, testament, bas Xeftamcnt' 
stairs, staircase, bie 3:reppe 

deceased, ber (bie) ^erftorbene 

warning, bie SBamung 

living, (eben'big 

loose, slack, lo^ 

in^time, punctually, rec^f* 

except that, au^er ba| 

! I 




Idioms: 1. Feu- all I care, WrhiriUirQrn. 

'1. ThiN lioiiHd Ik f(»r Nal(«, 1>iiird ^iau0 tfi jtr Herfjufett ;Ht., to bn 


:t. He MiiN <>l«>rt<>(l mayor, (ft- tuiirtir ]tim ^tirfltrtntifirr nrtuiiiilt (lit-, 
to or f«tr a, »'fc., - {iim - \\\ riiicm). 

4. I liav«> lu>(Mi Ix'r*' for a week, ^^ill tiiit jcit nif)t XaQCit ^irr. 

5. To laugh (at), make sport (of), «it(i luftifl mnrtirtt (jibfr + acc.). 
fi. What is tho matter? SUno ift kl.?'? 

7. There is a ring (at the iloor, etc.), {^i fliitflrlt. 


A. 1. ^a^5 .s?au$, luclcbcy ju Dcrfaufcn ift, ftcbt auf;cdialb bcr 
3tat>t, nidU lucit l^om 3cc. 2. 'An'nn ce nur inncrbalb bcr 3tabt 
ftitnbc, fo unirbe irfi flcvn taiifcnb I baler meEjr bafiir t^eben. 3. 
WcfaUt e« .Mmcn bcffcr biov^fcit fccc^ Abfie-j j^u iuobnen, ober jenfcit^? 

4. Iro^ bcc^ 3turmce. fain bay Sdnff rednjcititj in 'Jtotu ^J)orf an. 

5. liefer 2run!cnbolb bat uin feincr ^-amilie unUen ba-^ Xrinfcn 
aufi'\Ci-\cbcn. (>. (rr fiirdUctc, baf^ fcine 3obne bic fdilcd>tc ©eiuohiis 
bcit lerncn mod>tcn. 7. Tcr buni-\rii-\c 'iln'^If I'^iui^ mctinnal'^ uin bae 
.s>au''? unb fud>tc :-KottdppdH'n. H. 'l>crmittclft fcince flro^cn Ci'infhiffce 
bci ben ^KciduMi {}<\\ \\6> .v)crr %. :iUin ^Mri^crmciftcr eruniblen laffcn. 
9. (Scit luann iDobnen 3ic in bicfcr Straf^c? 2cit brci ^abrcn. 
](). Urn mcinetipitlcn luiU er ni*t mit mir j^ebcn ; uicUcid^t imirbc 
er urn ^^sbrctunKcn i^obcn. 1 1. ;^[t O^con^ obcn? ,^a, cr ift focbcn 
bie 2:revVH' binaufiv^Vi"i"it-'n- l"-- l^^ffcn Sic un^3 licbcr nacl^ pbcn 
tjcbcn ; ce iinrb um^ bcffcr i^cf alien cbcn ju fit^en al^5 untcn. 13. G^ 
bat lun- ciniijcn. lliinutcn cjcHini^clt; ivcr tpar ba? 14. (1^$ njar 
jcinanb, bcr fid^ crfunbic|cn lyoKtc, ob bicfce .s^amo ;u Dermicten 
fci. 15. Tern 2'cftamcntc jufoU^c imirbe ba§ (iii^'utum unter bic 
bcibcn 3bbnc bee ^U'rftorbencn i-\cteilt. IH. Hceinettuegen tnag 
er gebcn, fobalb e^5 ibm gcfdllt. 17. %\\\\<x baf^ Wcorg ein li^enic; 
grojjcr ift, bcmertt man cjar fcinen Unterfdneb ^^linfdien ben beiben 
^^riibern. 18. .*p err 2). ift cincr mcincr bcften (Vreunbe; er gebt 
faft nie am .'oaufc uoriiber iihnt l^ercinjufpmmen 19. Umoeit ber 
Stabt '-B. ftebt ba^S ^c(\\^, Uun-in id) gcboren bin. 





nion, ,he shore V in po7 ,?;:'; 'T™ T"'^'^ ""^ 
r " , , ' ^•^' '•! •^pilc ot the bad road. '{. Not fir 

OU, In, I hall ,„q„„.e. ,;, vVce yo„ nll.v.vcl pcf. .„ s,.v > 

^X :^TT "T """"'■>• '"^'" '-''>■ '«•■''" -■•-"- 

altly. ,. W e have l,ee„ here since yesterday. a„cl we „u,stwait 
ree cays ,no,e for .he ship. «. ,>„,. ,J„ ,„„ ,,^. ,. \ 

nol th,nk ,„uch of , his Ke„tle,na„ : he u„„ld ,lo a„y,hi„.. f," 
see,, ,n .idrop of water, n. in^consecp.ence of this had 

.-of „ her people? I:,. No, that is a bad habit 
1. Vonder ,s the ,iver. on this side stands „,v honse „„ 

ha, .s,de h,s. 1 5. Notwithstanding the warning of his fa her 
the youth ,^,en went on the water in bad weather. 1 ) " 
stead of t.k,„g the large boat he always ,00k the s.nall one. 


K Weshalb hat der Trunkenbold das Trinken at.fgegeben > 
'■ '^ ' "f '<= ^^''^'»« l"t -^ich Herr li. „„„ BUrgenneister 
rwablen lassen ? :, Haben Sie .lingeln horen ^ u::':: 

Tl- .. °/""^ •'^"= S'^''"'-^"- ""'• i" vvelehen, Jah,e' 
2 J'urchcen S,e, es konnte regnen > ,;. Kannst du ,„ir sagen 
was aiif der Straszt los war i * ' 



[§§ 225- 



225. Prepositions vary more, perhaps, as to idiomatic usage 
m different languages than any other part of speech. Their 
yiroper use must be acquired chiefly by practice and memory, 
out below ar given the German equivalents, in various 
idioms, of the most commonly occurring English Prepositions, 
■nore particularly in cases where the usage of the two lan- 
guages differs. 

220. About. 

(a) In the sense of ' around ' = um, as : 

©ie ncrfamineltcn \\d) urn ibn. They assembled about 
(/?) Of time = UUgefii^r urn (um alone = ' at ' ; see § 227, 
(If) I, below), as : 

Unjicfii^r um ^'bn Ubr, About ten o'clock. 
Uugcfii^r um 'Il^nbnacfitcn, About Christmas. 
, (c) In the sense of ' nearly ' (of number) ■-= cllUO, UUgCs 
fii^t (adverbs), as : 

(5r l)at ctmo (uttflcfii^r) taufcnb )thaUx iibrig. He has 
about a thousand dollars left. 

(,/) In the sense of ' with,' ' about' (the />i'rso/i) = hti, as: 
'^(b babe tcin (^c\^ hti mir, I have no money with 
me, about me. 
227. At. 

(a) Of locality : 

I. = iu, when the action, etc., is within a building, etc., 
as : 

^u ber Scbiile, \\\ ber ii^ircbe, im ^beater, Im ^lon^ert. 
At school, at church, at the theatre, at the concert. 





2. = an, when the nclion, etc., is ad^^a to the object 
ot the preposition, as : 

81m rt-ei>ft«v „„ Kt Zlm. nm Jifc(,e, At the window, at 
the door, at r/„ table (but be Iifrt,c, at table). 

3- - out wlien the action is on tl,e surface, or on an 
elevation^ as :[ttd:. nuf bcm ScMoffc, At market at the Lll 
at tne post-office, at the university, at the ensile. ' 
4^ - IXX or m with proper .ames of towns (also with 
^aii6, 'home'), etc, as: 
,^U (ill) ^^ari^^. At Paris. 
^U ioaufe. At home. 
C^) Of iime: 

I- = urn (most usually), as: 

llm f)aI6 uicr llfn-, At half past 3 o'clock 

Uitt Dftcrn, At Easter. 
2. = 311, with 3cit and Stuiibe, as : 

,^uv rccf)tcn 3cit, At the right time. 

^W biefei- eiiinbc, At this hour. 

Note. -U,„ with the ace. is also admissible witia these words. 
3- == ki, as : 

83ci ^ageSan&ruc^, At day-break: 
(c) Of price = 511, as : 

^icfcv 3urfo. n^irb 311 siuei ^fmrern bae, ^fi.nb t^evfauft 
This sug.r H .old at two dollars a pound. 

— '*• By. 

(«) Expressing the /.r..«.^/^.,„/ after the passive voice ^- 
It. as '. 

", ~ n-.K^j5}, .,jj-(^,j^ tltern 0eiui)t, The 

loved by its parents. 





[$^ 226- 

(p) Of a part of the body, etc. = bci, as : 

(Sr nat;m "i^ci^ ^inb bci ber ipanb, He took the child by 
the hand. 
(c) Unclassified : 

©Ci iiid^t. By candle-light. 

5Bci ^)iad^t. By night. 

aWit WcUHilt, By force, 

Mi ber Gifenbai?n, By the railway. 

3u 2anb, ,511 ^Kaffer, By land, by water. 

229. For. 

Rendered usually by \\IX, but : 

(a) Of purpose = ^U {n^ver fur), as : 

T)ic^i ift fduMUH^ 'isiottcr \\x\\\ S^ajicreniieben, This is fine 
weather for taking a walk. 

©r reift ^um i^crc^niu^cn, He travels for pleasure. 
(/; ) Of time : 

1. Past = jcit, as: 

.Beit cinem ')3ionatc. For a month (past). 

2. Future = nuf -j- ace, as : 

"sd> ircrbc nuf ciniv-^c 'Tat^c i^erreifen, I shall go away for 
a few days. 

3. Duration = ace. without preposition, as : 

(rr UHir eincn iV^n-iCU 9}^onat bier. He was here for a 
whole month. 
(r) Of cause = nu^, as : 

(in- tbat cv OU^ ^urd^t. He did it for fear. 
id) Unclassified : 

^Ifiit'g (2r[te, For the presept. 

gum crftcn (jtDciten, etc.) 9J?al, For the first (second, 
etc.) time. 




3«»t ©ebuit^taoc 511 Seifmad^tcn, For (as) a birth- 
day-present, for a Christmas-present. 
280. i„. 

Rendered usually by in, but : 
(«) = OUf, as : 

In the street, *i(uf bcr StrafK'. 

In the country, ^i(uf bcni 2anbc. 

In this manner, %\x\ bicfe ^ii^eife lacc). 

In German, %\x\ Tcutfc^. • 
(^) = untcr, as : 

Ulltcr Glifabetb^ ^icgieruno, In Elizabeth's reign. 
( '•) = gU, as : 

^M ^ilHii-jcn, In a carriage. 
231. Of. 

(a) By the genitive without preposition, to express the 
relat;on of the possessive case, as : 

:Dcr %^\{h m\\m ^'MUxi, The will of our father (i. e 
our father's will). ' 

H') = Hoii : 

1. After 7'crhs^ etc., as : 

"s* f).nccl)c tjoil ihm, 1 .speak of him. 

2. Between ///A'j- and names of phncs^ as : 

Tic .'i^bnioin tioii (iiinlanb, 11ie Queen of England. 

3. After numerals and other partitives, as : 
Giner Hon meiiicn ^rcunbcn. One of mv friends. 

2)ev adcftc tion mcincu ^Hnibcni, The eldest of my 

4. Replacing a genitive plural without article, as ; 

(St iff bcr 33ater Hon Dicr itnabcn. He is the father nf 
four bovs. 






5 the Alma. 

5. To avoid a succr^srion of several genitives, as : 
^ie ^-rau worn ^Setter mdne^ lOnUU, The wife of my 
uncle's cousin. 
(c) Of cause, when the caure is a disease == on, as : 
Gr ftarb on ber Gbolera, He died of the cholera. 
(a) Oi place, with names of battles: 

1. = (jci, if named after a town, village, etc., as : 
^ic 6cMadit bci SeiV^in, The battle of Leipzig. 

2. == on, if named after a rii^er, as : 
ODic (3d4acf)t on ber Stlma, The battle 

(e) Unclassified : 

^JJJangel on ©clb. Want of money. 

Sicbc jnm ©elbc. Love of money. 

2Baa foil oug miv h?erbeu ? What is to become of me ? 

232. On. 

Rendered usually by ouf, but : 

{a) Of fi?ne or date = Ace. without preposition, or = on 

4- Dat., as : 

2:cn (or om) jtuiJtftcn ^aniiar, On the twelfth of January. 

{b) Of modes of progression = ]n, as : 

^^tt "ipfcrbc. On horseback. 

3u Me, On foot. 
(c) Of situation, on a river, sea, etc. : 

1 . When it means on the untter = ouf, as : 

iUcle ecf)iffe fa()rcn nuf bcm §ubfon. Many ships ply on 
the Hudson; — but: 

2. When it means on the s/iore = on, as : 

Hamilton liegt om OutariosSec, Hamilton lies on Lake 




{d) Unclassified: 

"^^^ Jleife, On purpose. 

®ci biefer Gele^en^ett, On this occasion. 

Untcr (or mit) bicfcv 33cbinouno, On this condition. 

^m ^egriffe, On the point of. 

233. rp^ 

JSJ^^T^' ''- ''''''-' ^^^-^ = ^--e without 

Sc^ ^abc melner ecfnt)eftcr cin Su* nencbcn, I have given 
a book to my sister (i. e., my sister a book). 
C^) Of motion or direction to persons = 31,, as : 

^^ m in nicineni ^l^ater oc^eit, I will go 'to my father. 
U) Of motion to places : 

I. With proper names of countries, towns, etc. = „„,^ as • 

1 aris, to Germany. 

«.th the .A<;„sar,rr, in various icii„,„s, „.|,ere ,i,es'e 
prepositions witli the Dative = 'af (see §227 
(a), above), as: '' 

3n hie ^c(,„te, fiirdf,., i„« sweater, fionsert «. f. lo. q^fien 
To go to school, church, the theatre, concert, etc 
an» (^cnftn-, an bit I^iir gt.l;en. 
To go to the window, door. 
Wuf Oci. ^m,tt, SSaU, a„f bic m, UniuerfitSt ^ebcn 
To go to n,arket, to the ..all, post-office, university: 
(ii) Frequently = ju, which may usually replace the 
prepositions in the above idioms also as ■ 
er ift aur etflbt, ^ur .Sirctje u. f. .„. gcflangen. 
He has gone to town, church, etc. 


if, ' 




234. ' With. 

Observe the following Idioms: 

ICon ijanjcm .s^a^cn, With all my heart. 

Gr jittcrt Hur Mciltc, He trembles with cold {cause). 

!3^a^ ift 6ci uiuj nirfit 3itt»./rhai is not the custom with 

(= amoNg) us. 
,^tt bicfcr IHbfidU, With this intention. 

Remark. For the proper use of prepositions after partic- 
ular adjectives and verbs, see Less. XLIX. 


account, bill, bie ^){ccfmiinii 

to intend, c\cbcnfcn 
be^enough, suffice, binvciclHMi 
bring with (one\ mit'bviu(^cn 
sign, uutcr^cicfi'ncn 
bring back, ,^iiritcfbviniicn 
excursion, pleasure-trip, bcr 

harvesting, ba^o Grutcn 
favour, bcr Wcfaflcn 
Louis, Lewis, ViibUng 
measles, bic ?]cafcrn (f. pi.) 

dressing-gown, ber 3cblafrocf * 

evil, biv5 ilbcl 

relative, bcr ^iscvumubtc 

treaty, bcr '^iU'rtrai}* 

root, bic :^i>urscl 

this evening, bcutc 5(benb 

thorough(-ly), griinbUrf) 

fortunately, i-^liicflidH'rlucife 

possible, iiiLSilirf) 

absent (on a journey), Dcrreift 

Idioms: 1. To be aofustinned, 2ie Wctuohiilifit lloDrit (4-iiifin. with ^u). 

2. Ill the ini(i<llc of suiiiiiier, WiUtn im 3ommrr. 

3. To take a pltasuie-trii) (excursion), (?inru 9lui*flim mniftcn. 

4. It looks like rain, (*i? fitlit norf) Wcflcu ana. 

6, Two or three. ,'{luci biiJ Drci. 

6. He isprang out of the window, (vr fprniin nim ^til^itt Ijinnu^ 
(point of ingress or exit denoted by }U -f dnt.). 

Note : It is customary, in referring to the relatives of the person addressed, to prefix 
.'ocrr, T^xan or Ai'iiiitein, as the case may be. but this is not done ii; speaking of one's own 
relatives, thus: 

^ilUc c\el)t O'S ,^lircm innn inmn ? — lUit : Wciit i^iuer ift (\m^ u'ohl. 

? a.34^ 




. n^. laiuu ;^bv .^cn' t^ator nod, forty L^r Lnmt aft 
"^nnov^n 4 ^aufo. 4. ^i^a. ,cbcnt[t bu bcute ^(benb 1! 
tbiu ? ;^dMuc,n^o mdU; fiiV. (i-rftc mnn id, iHuf.^UuM, 
niacbcn. .•>. J, baft bu ben biibfdH'., 3d,lafrod bcfonnncny ^,d! 
^abc ibn 3unt (sKburt.ta.,0 bcfonuuon, unb ^icbe ibn bcutc sun. crj^'n 

bev bai ^errn [prod^en iK, abcr cr ift bci 2^ unb Lnt fidi 
nia> ftorcu. .. ^u |,ijcft am ^.-nftcr , ficb bod, cinnial Jun 
,>n)tcr bmaue, unb bu u>irft ibn uicU dU fcbcu tonncn s ^ -in 
rocld^cr 8cit Icbtc ^olierc V Cr. Icbtc untcv bcr .Hc,icrun, v,,,^ 
XIV. ^oP ,vrantro.d>. 9. ,^ft c. mo^ilid,, ^.u borfclbcn ;V>it .on 
erne r ^ad,e 3U fpredHMi unb an cine anbcrcau bcnfcn^ lo ^^ic 
Stcb. sum (sjclbc ift bic ^^ur^er aUe. llOcl.. 1 1 . Unfcr y>m,. 
f^ebt arn^J. Voren^M-Iun, unb Don bon ^cnftcrn ficbt niaii bic 
I)umpndnrrc Uorbci^Kbci. 1>. ^s^Hift bu ,nir bcinc Wranunatif 
I^'fHM,.^ ,,a loohl, bcr ^)3cbin.iuuo, baf; bu bicfclbc 001 
inin-iKii surudbrincift. i;;. ^sft .s^crr ^^^. ^n .s^aufc -y ^Vci„ ,, .ft 
m m .^ocbcn .crraft. 14. .^i ^a.c.anbvud, " b'c 
^^o^cf ant Kbo.Mtcn. l.>. ,){l(o ;s-cnftcr unb Ihlircn mcrbcn be. 
JJacbt^^auo ,vurd,t i>or ^icbcn bci une siuicfd^foffcn. 16. 2^\'§balb 
imb bic Mmbcr nid)t ^ur 3d)ulc mwwn? 17. ^c^ finb nicbvere 
^inbcv m bcr Sdnilc, bic an ben ^Jiafcrn ^dittcn babcn, unb bic 
^Wutter fitrtttct fid, Dor bicfor .SUantbcit. 18. ^)icifcn 3 . licbcr 
m Sanb obcr ^u Gaffer V ^m 3onuncr ^icbc i* ce Dor ]n ^v«affcr 
ju rcifen. H». Diciu ^^ater battc bic C^JclDobnbcit, un/.Stinbcr uut 
ficb su Dcrfaniuicln unb un^3 (N^cfd,id,tcn ju cr^ablcn. -^o. Witkn 
im Sonuncr, unb banu toicbcr um Ul>eibnad,tcn, ;>1,c id, auf^$ 
^anh, um mcinc i^crioanbtcn ju bcfud,cn. •>!. ^LUnijcn 3ommcr 
Kicb id, mcbr al. Dicvjcbn ^vxnc bci bcnfclbcn. 






V C^, 


t-r 4 

r ^ 









M 112,5 



III 1.8 

i4_ mil 1.6 














•0''-''.A ^■«'- 




(716) S72-4S03 






B. 1. Good morning ; you have come just at the right time ; 
I was on the point of going to your house (say : going to 
you). 2. There is a ring at the door ; go to the door and see 
who is there. 3. When you go to the market, do not forget 
to go to the post also. 4. Do you intend to take a pleasure- 
trip this summer ? Yes, I intend to leave the town for three 
or four weeks. 5. Last summer we stayed away only a week. 
6. Does it not look like rain t 7. Yes, I am afraid it might 
rain, but fortunately I have brought my umbrella with [me]. 
8. Have you any money about you ? I should like to pay 
this bill, and have left my purse at home. 9. I have about 
seven dollars and a half with me ; would that be enough (suf- 
fice) ? 10. Would you do me the favour to lend^'me the half 
of it (babon) for two or three days? 11. What magnificent 
weather for harvesting; it has not rained for two weeks 
[past]. 12. Is the servant going to (the) market?- No, she 
was at (the) market (already) two hours ago, 1*3. The battle 
of Waterloo took place on the i8th of June in the year 1815. 

14. Some months afterwards the treaty of Paris was signed. 

15. When (at what time) and in what war did the battle of 
the Alma take place ? 16. It took place in the year 1855, 
during the war between England and Russia. 


1. Wann gedenken Sie die Stadt zu verlassen ? 2. Wo 
steht das Haus Ihres Herrn Valers ? 3. Auf welche Weise 
gedenken Sie diesen Sommer zuzubringen ? 4. Wollen Sie 
einmal' zu mir kommen und den Nachmittag bei mir 
zubringen? 5. Es hat geklmgelt; wer ist da? 6. Was fur 
Wetter bekommen wir heute Abend ? 





235. Conjunctions are either • 


236. I. Conjunctions Prooer — 'I h« n- a- 
Conjuncions ,,.,.. .ere,, ^^.^senten rw^^t'^rf 
mg their structure. They are • wirnrut attect- 

UllD, and i^genera! connective) ^(jp|J, ' 

Obcr. or (^-^//^r^/ disjunctive) „.,rf, ' ) but (Wz;<?r.f«//e,,A 

^m\,iox (^causative) ,' I 

^ [on rem, j 

.nd^imL''''" '• ®'""'"'" '' "''" "/'""'gtUve sentences o^\y 
me„t^co,na,„ed .„ the preceding sen.ence, in w^ole or it 

3* bin nii^t IxmX, jimbtril nan; gefunb 

I am not ill but (on the contrary) q'nite well 

But if there is no inconsistency or contradiction between 
the two statements, aicr is used, as : ■ 

et ^at a nidit gctfwn, abcr cr loivb c« tbun 
He has not yet done it, but he will do it ' 

coif !Lf rrvLr "r '^ 'r" ""= ^^-^^^ ^-^ °f- 

tier ine verb. When all(r does not beein the spn 
tence, ,t has rather the sense of 'however,' as : 



[§§ 236 

T)a« bbfe 2Beib o6er ging toor ben Spiegel, 
The wicked woman, however, went to the mirror. 
Note. — When there is any other conjunction present, a'oer seldom 
begins the sentence. 

237. II. Adverbial Conjunctions. - Many adverbs and 
adverbial phrases have the function of conjunctions, when 
thev are used to express the relation between sentences, 
rather than to modify any particular member of the sentence 
in which they occur. 

The principal coordinating adverbial conjunctions are : 

and), also, too ] 

ttU^crbcm, besides [ connective (related to uitb) 

bttlllt, then 
jOflOr, even 


bo(^, ^ still 

iJCUn, unless 

tti^t^bcftowjcnigcr, \ 

inbcffcn, however 
fOttft, else, otherwise 
ttJ'^^i, indeed 
^ttjflt, it is true, to be sure 

. advefsati'T 
V nevertheless | (related »o 




fo(glill), [- accordingly 

causatirc ( related to bcittt) 




fa, SO 

alfd, so, thus 

eficnfo, just as 

it r'^ 


' compa*-ative 

tnfofcrii, ) . 

infoiueit I '"^^'^"^^ as, as far ^s -^ restrictive 

Mntcrbcffcn, ) -, 

Inbcffcit, ; "meanwhile I 
borouf, afterwards 
feltbcm, since then 


Remarks.- I. Unlike the conjunctions proper ".eseadver conjunctions, if they ..W.. a se^UeLe^ hrov the 
subject after the verb; but they n.ay also foll.v the ve^ 

^'yjTt' ^^^i"»»"9C0t^tct tuirb er fommcn (or- cr 
h)irb bcffnmn.qcnr^kt fommen), He is ill; neverthe- 
less he will come. 

@^3 regnete, biirum (ba^cr, be^^lucgcn) fonnte irf, Tor: irf, 
fonnte boru.11, etc.) nic^t au^gcben. ^ 

2. 9(U.^ and faflnr, when they refer speciallv to the subject 
or any other member of the clause precedi;g the verb do 
not throw the subject after the verb, as : ' 

^M^ fein i^ater mor gugegen. His father, too, was 
present. . ' 

eoflor [einen ^einben i^ai er i)ergeben, He has pardoned 
even his enemies. 

3. The verb often comes first in a sentence with bor6 to 
express a strong affirmation, as : 

C^nlic ic^> cv b0(^ gc)ac3t, Did I not sav sc. > 




238. III. Correlative Coniunctions. These are : 
entttjcbcr . . . ober, either ... or | ^.^j^^^^^i^,^ 

tticbcr . . . nO(^, neither ... nor ) 

Itil^t nur . . . fonbcru m^, V not only . . . ) connective 

fomo^l ... 0(8 m^. S but also S 

llij^t jonJO^l . . . aU, not so much ... as 

Balb . . . Bfllb, now . . . now (again), at one time . . . 

at another 
tcilS . . . ieilg, partly . . . partly 

eincrfcitS . . ^- onbcrjcitg, on the one hand ... on the 


Remark. — The last three are adverbial conjunctions, and 

either follow the verb, or throw the subject after it, unless 

they modify a particular member of the sentence (compare 

§ 237, Remarks i, 2, above). 

239. S. Subordinating Conjunctions. 

1. Sentences introduced by subordinating conjunctioiis 
are'always^C^^/^^/^/^A and therefore havt the verb last (see 

§ 32). 

2. Some of these also are adverbial, but, as this distinction, 
does not affect the construction, they are not separately 

3. The principal subordinating conjunctions are as follows 
{a) Introducing substantive clause : 

bttj, that 

oB, if, whether 

{b) Introducing adverbial clause : 

al«, ^ ) Bl8 (bo^), until \ 

btt, [ when [• time C^C (bafe), | before \ *''^' 

toennj ) betior, ) J 


ire : 

ime . . . 

. on the 

ons, and 
t, unless 

last (see 


s follows 




while, whilst 

toflfjrciib (bo§), 

fcit(bcm), since 
fo6u(b'^ as soon as 
fo fangc, as long as 
(fo)ioie, as soon as 
toic, how — manner 
benil, than 

tile, I ^^^"' ^s 

inmiefcril', inasmuch as 

\t nar^bcnr, according as 

bo, since 

bo§, that 

toci(, because 

ba§, that 

fluf ba§, ) . 

urn bo§, J '" ^'^^^ that 

bamit', in order that 

tticmi, if 
or§ ttjcim, j 

toofcrn, J 

ofiglelr^, hjcnn gleli^, 
obfdjiin, mcim fj^on, 
06 m^, tucim ou(^, 

unnear^tet (bo§), 

WCnn . . . vx^i, if not, Unless 


as if 

in case 

*■ time 





although I 

° > concessive 



[§§ 235 




Remarks. — I. aScun and oh take the subju7ictivc when 
the verb of the principal clause is in the impf., plupf., or 
conditional, as : 

%^ miirbc tommen, tuenn icb \m^\ ^enug Wore, I should 

come, if 1 were well enough. 
:^c^ tt!iifjtc iiivM, ob cv i^ctommcu ludrc (fci), I did not 

know, whether he had come. 

2. SBcim may be omitted in conditional sentences ; the 
verb then /^f'A'-''>/-^ the clause, as in the question order icompare 
§ 59 j. This construction is nuich more common than in 
English, and is generally used when the dependent clause, 
containing the coUiUtion, precedes the principal clause, con- 
taining the consequence, as : 

.^iitte ii^ (^5c(b, jo anivte icf) ^-rciinbe l;aben, If I had 
(had I) money, 1 should have friends. 
Note. The particle fo should not be omitted in the latter clause 
when the former is without UHMUl. 

3. In the compound conjunctions oDgid(^, o6frf)On, otJttJO^f, 
etc., the two parts may be separated, and the latter part 
placed after the subject, as : 

Oftfllcifl) (otlfj^OW/ etc.) cr trant wwx, etc. ; or : 
OB cr 9(ci(^ !ranf Univ, Although he was il'. 
Note. — With menu the partic'.es i^lcid), etc , always follow the subject. 

4. The ob or njemi may also be omitted in these conjunc- 
tions and in nl8 oB, o(g mm C as if ') ; the verb then degms 
the sentence, or immediately follows aU, as : 

^ft er glcit^ ixanl Although he is ill. 
@§ frficint mir, ol^ ob {}vmn) i* Sic ivgcnbluo gefef)Crt 
ffaiit ; or : a(§ f)atte id), etc., It seems to me, as if 
I had seen you somewhere. 


ho] „^^_._ 

^^' Interjections. 

^ers or:^n:r -- 2:^ 77 t'-- — 

either: ' °' *°"n<ls expressing 

W Independent outbursts of natural feeling .s • „ .S 

(<^) Intimations of will as- hft f* /. ux 

("'4 h-rah ; Brat,, bravo • fcb '' aT ,' f'/'"' ^'"'^''^ 
(-verbs); «„.„„, ,,,,„,,-,:2:'^;;;^^^;or,..^^^^ 

Illumes, splash. ^^^' ^"^' ^"^' "'^°'' ^0"3. fall; 

4- (a) The Interjections n nift ui„i 

lowed by a genitive as ■^' ^^ ' "" '"'"^""'^^ '"'■ 

^^dilgfacef'^'"®'*'"'*"' O'-UahlfieOwhat 
or by u6et + accusative, as : 

JPM! Ubn bid; geiacn ! Fie on thee for a coward - 
W The substantives used interjectionally ,, „„.,' 

4T/j\-";:reT"'°-^'^--^--" ' 

^eirbrmtomflci Hail to the king i 

to call for, ahholen 

■- • prv-pare, t)orueteiten 


f r 






lay up, lay by, juriicfUvisn 
old age, ba^ Sllter 
joy, delight, bic ^reube 
Lord, bcr .V)crr 
price, bcr X^xm 
tortoise, bie Scfjilbfrijtc 
guilt, debt, bie ©duilD 

to be to blame (for;, fd;ulb 

(adj.) fein (an + dat.) 
cheap, billig 
certainly, in any case, jebcn* 

in vain, Dcrgcben^ 

even if, although, hjenn ami) 

IiUhuim : 1. I am Htutlylng (preparing) for an examination, ^i^ brrtitr inii^ 
nuf till If I'.i .icii (ace ) ujr. 
2. Do you ronsider tiiat good! ^aitrn «it baS fiir pt? 
8. To nialie calls, *f t|itd)r tniii()rn. 
4. In the world, 9luf tin SBtlt. 


A. 1. 2Bir [ottten alk ^)JJen[cf)en lieben, U)enn fie m^ uuc^ 
Ijaffen. 2. 6ie berfpvad;en, mid; a63u(;olen; allein id> UHirtcte 
bergeben^, benn ©ie iamen uid)t. 3. 3Bcnn id; aw ^Ijxcm ^aufe 
t)oruberget}e, fo gel;e id? gelubbnlic^ f;inein. 4. 21 Iw id; aber geftern 
5lbenb boriiberging, fa(; id) fein 2id;t unb baher bin id) nic^t 
f^incingegangen. 5. ^e mel;r \mx lernen, befto mef^r finb iuir im 
©tanbe gu lernen. 6. Xie ©d;ulev befommen morgen ^evien, 
barv'.tn f^jringen unb fingen fie bor ?yreube. 7. 2Bie fefir id) mid; auc^ 
bemiil;c, e§ gelingt mir leiber bocb md;t, affe 3a^c biefer 3(ufgabe 
rid)tig ju fd)reiben. 8. ®u tabelft micf), aU ob id) fc^ulb baran 
h?are. 9. ©in borficf)tiger 5Jtann legt in feiner ^ugptb ©elb 
juviid, auf bafj cr in fcinem Sllter m(i)t Mangel Icibe. 10. Sfujjer 
^ucnn icf) fran! obev fe(;r befd)aftigt bin, gebe tcf) jeben 2:ag fpajic^ 
rcn. 11. eriftnid)t nur reid;, fonbern nuc^ freigebig, unb bee* 
balb f)at ev fo biele ^reunbe geluonnen. 12. fatten w'xx geixm^t, 
bafe ©ie {)eute ^efud; f)aben, fo irdren n)ir erft morgen gefommen. 
13. SBoIIen ©ie fic^ erfunbigen, ob %xan ©. noc^ in bemfelben 
§aufe tr>Df)nt'? 14. ©^ giebt nod; biele Seute auf ber ^Selt, bie 
h)eber lefen noc^ fc^reiben fonnen. 15. ©ie fatten mir ^elfen 
fbnnen, h)cnn ©ie e« aenjuEt batten, aHein ©ie toollten e§ nid»t. 



;, jcben* 

m aud^ 

brrrite iniit 




:m ^aufe 
;r geftern 
icf) nic^t 
b iuir im 
I ^erien, 
mid; and) 
lib barau 
>nb ©elb 
0. 2(uj3er 
[g fpajics 
unb be^s 
i: geixm^t, 
JBelt, bie 
lir ^elfen 

e§ nirf)t. 

[".". n- .etc. fl,u loicn no^'i'Vu^^'Ifl^.^ M't 
men. 19. .cat.; r* '.M> rl^ I" '"'* «""i' ''"8'f'>-= 

-ff. 1. We .sh.ill come, even if it nin, n <• 
the town, I must some c Is 'i%, „ °'' ' ''^^'^^ 
him, or shall we w.-i, ,11 he comes b., ok >;";::r7 """°"' 
away, a ,hief came and stole the n,„„ev' t "''"'' "'^"■"« 
lale when you are sturtvin.' n ZU' ? ^"" '" "^ 

When I . ,,.., .. m;,as;';.!:inT.;::i'-jnn- 

"P l.Ue. ,. ]Jo you consider this cloih de^r J -ru 
no. high ,0 be sure, but it wil, n wet , ,1 / k'" " 
cloth, which is dear, but I believe th-,t it ll /' "^ " 

not, on the contrarv, consider it le " i ' t , ^°°''- • "^ ' ''° 
good cloth. 10. since I havl I een M i'''' ""'' '' '^ 

to read much nor to urite „, d n U " ""'' ""*^^ 

colder to-day than yesterda • P. ' i a ""'he'" '"' '"'" ' '^ 
whether I travel by ,he steamer or n Vh '"'"' '°-""'' 

I had thought ouha,, I r . ; Lei:: 7- ''■ t"j 

14. The hare slept, and in^the me^ ,1,^ h toTt " '°"- 
nved. 15. If the hare had .Tot sfept he would h "' 

first. ^ ' ould have arrived 


1. Die Fenster sind alle auf, wer ist daran schuld > 9 T 

ate™ .^t ^Lt: I r- -en - .nic^^r 

vo,t hier der ^^Z^'^n^T Zr:::ZsT"'' 
bestanden? 6. Halten Sie diesen Hut fi" teuer? 


supri-r.>n.Nr\KV r.F.ssov F. 


241. 1. *MUcin follows and lim'.ls, or corrects, aprmativc statements, 

;is fouboni uocs lURative, thus: 

Gr 1ft n-irfi, nllrilt I'V ift niri)t flliirfliil), He is rich, but he is not 
1. XcflO f>i" Uni fo (hut not JC) may be used with a single coniparn- 

live, as : 

Gilcii eio, ^amit 2 to t)cfio mm io) jviil)iv aiifomnien, Make hastr, 
so that you may arrive all the sooner. 

3- Taft is the most gineral in meaning of all the conjunctions. It may 
be oi"ilted when it introduces a sithstanlirc clause, as in indirect state- 
ments. The sentence then has the construction of a principal clause 
(verb second; see §S7, 3). Hut \^<\\\ cannot be omitted when it expresses 
purpose or consequ<the. 

4. 'i'he l-'.ngl. if must be rendered by oi 'not Un'nu) when it ^ 
whether, as : 

1 asked him // he could come, 3iil t'vafltf il)li, d6 ov f-'UlliCll tiJimc. 

5. For the distinction between a(t\ UUMlll (as conjunctions of time) and 
U'anii, see § 5S. 

6. 'Than' should be rendered by ^\<i after an adjective in the com- 
parative degree, not by »Uir. 

-. XCJm - ' than ' is obsolete, except when used to prevent ihe re- 
l)etition of al{<, as : 

(5v in iifotVv al« Tirfitrr, Hcnn att^ aiirnicl), He is greater as a poet. 
than as a man. 
S. In comparisons of equality, as ... as = (CUfn)|o . . ttlie, or al«, toic 
being more common, as: 

He is as tall as I, CSr ift (c6cn)fo flvog ftiie i(t). 

After a negative, cbi'll is omitted, as : 
(5r ift iud)t fo ^ix^\s tvii^ irf). 

9. 80 ... fo are used with correlative clauses, containing adjectives 
compared together in the positive degree (compare the use of je or befto 
with the ccmpar. degree, § 1 26, 4), as : 



he is iiol 

ike hiistr, 

I. It may 
ect stdte- 
lal clause- 

len it - 

iicii tbii'.ic. 
time) and 

the com- 

nt the re- 
as a poet, 

or al«, tnie 

je or befto 


lor me (or : Cla.l as ( should be. etc.). 
,.;^*'' """" "=""''"« ""'« '= •--«•) ™-, be rendered by 

11. As, in the of •vvnile'= (nbcffcn, as: 

12. Distinguish carefully between the following uses of Engl, since : 
{a) Since ^. />n'/>os/i^u ^ ^^^ (.^^ frtt.v,,,), as: 

Since iast Tuesday, 3cir (cl3tciu Xiciifhig 

He was here the day before vestrrdnv K,,f t i 
(.) Sin« ^as «W/„.,/„^ conjunction of ,/„, = ,„„„„ „, 

(</) Since as conjunction of cause = tia as • 

13- After e^,, fieuor a„a todfivcn^, Ijflg may be omitted. 

M- SBctJOr expresses time only, ehe mav ais,. » 
'rather'), as: ^' ^ ^ ^'^" ^''I'^^ss preference (= 

e$e tc^ baS t^ue, miU ic^ fterbcn, Rather than do that. I will die. 





ill Ll 


Tj. Observe that the adverbial conjunctions intieffen, UntettJCJfcn are 

c-dordi7tating when they = 'meanwhile' (the pronoun t»cil>r. being 
demonst rathe), hwi subordmating- Vih^n they =' whilst, while ' (tue pron. 
being relative), as : 

®ie fprad)cu niit eiuaiibev; inbeffcn (nnterbeffen) g'ltfi i(f) aitf unh 
Qb, They were speaking to each otlier; (in the) meanwhile I 
was walking up and down ; but: 
(gte 1pra.-<)eu intt einnnber, iiibeffen (imterbeffen) i(f) onf imb ab 
pinr,, They were speaking to each other, while I was walking 
up and down. 
In the s. nse of 'however,' inbeffen is coor dip ating oVi\y. 

16. ^nu^m is subordinating only, and denotes cause as well as cime, as: 

'M) bvand)c md)v C^V>lb, i Hem ict) uicle 2cl)u(ben ^u be^aljhni babe, 
1 need more money, since I have many debts to pay (having 

many debts to pay). 
^iiH Mil rv ntir Mc >>anb anb, (iid)o(te er, As he gave me his hand 

(giving nie his hand), he smiled. 

17. SSeil must be used (not Xiix) in answer to the question why? or 
wherefore 'i as : 

Sienriim famm eie iiirfit? 93cil id) XxmX mat:, 
Why did you not come ? Because I was ill. 

18. ' Unless' is rendered by tueiHt • • • nid)t W - • • «<'^)» O"" ^y ^^^^ 
[coordinating Vid.\. conj.), as: 

Sir uicvOcii uidn aii^^nelic" fbiinen, hjcnn fid) ba§ :©etter nii^t 
(iUDint, We shall not be able to go out, unless the weathei 

3d) (affc bid) nid)f, bit fegiieft mid) tJCun- I will not let thee go, 
except (unless ; thou bless me. 
Note. — Xcim in Ihis sense always follows the verb. 

19. * But ' after a negative = k\U, as : 

M) battc iud)tv^ 0'? llniiliid: aiif meiufv 3teife, I had nothing but 
misfortune on my journey. 
Note. - yJtd)t§ roeiiificr do = ' anything but ' (not ' nothing less than '), as: 
Gr ift nirflfd tticuifitr al3 reicl), He is anything bui nch. 

20. Distinguish between; 

[a] Ta = ' there ' ; adverb of place, as: 
3d) mav Do, I was there. 


(d) ta — ' then ' : adverb of h-fne. as ; 

®[ntfttf '* ^'"s- ""? ' ^" ''''"'^^ ^* ^^"' 'T^^ ^hief sneaked 
into the house j then I seized him. 

(c) ^tt = 'since," as': subordinating conmncnon. as : 

cnnn ^';'^"S"ish between HcffcimnriPnff)tet, < «^...;5./,,, - Uoor^ ,^^, 
conj.) and ungead,tet, • .//^.«,.,.. «../«.//^.,.«^/„^ „.. ' (.«W conj.) 


tortoise crept ,„„!vly ,owa e ^oa ' RaXrif '=''''''=■ "•""" '"^ 

week, and r liave i,o( seen l,im since ■.% u ' """ '"*' 

I .must ei.„er ,o a„a see i.,,,';: l^ . ' H rorTri e^I! mJ; T", f - 
stder I,,,,, an ig„o,-a,u n,a„; he is anything b« la™ ,rHa„/ 
been at the ru-l way-station? Yes I wa, ,!,.„ , '■."»'=>"'"' 




242. Nominative. 

1. The Nominative is the case of the subject, or of a 
word in apposition to the subject, or of a predicate noun quali- 
fying it. The nominative is also used in address, there being 
no special form for the vocative. 

2. Neuter verbs indicating a state or transition, such as 
Y\\\, to be ; tuerbcu, to become ; bicibeu, to remain ; fcfocincn, 
to seem, appear ; beifjcn, to be called, take a predicate nomi- 
native, as : 

(Sr ift SolUnt octporbcn (c^cbliebeu). He has become (re- 
mained) a soldier. 

3. Verbs of caUin;>^ take a predicate nominative, verbs of 
considering ?i nominative with ato, in \\\& passive, as: 

M\\<x. ^>cinri6 I. tuuibc ticv %^\:^\tx ^cnannt. Emperor 

Henry was called the Fowler. 
■^Dlein %<xy<x luurbe hunter won inir ale mcin bejtcr ^reunb 

betvadnct, My father was always regarded by me (as) 

my best friend. 

Note. — Verbs of ckocsing generally take the preposition )u instead 

of the English nominative. 







243. GexMtive. 

The Genitive is used chieHy as the complement of sub- 
stantives, its usf, -'n this respect being much the same as the 
Enghsh objective with 'of,' and also covering that of the 
possessive. Thus we have : 

1. The Genitive of Origin, as: 

^ie ^riicbte iJcd :.Haui!icfi(, I'he fruits of the tree. 

2. The Subjective Genitive, indicating the ciKent or 
cause, as : 

I^er (sjlaubc cincs (Sbriftou, The faith of a Christian. 

3. The Objective Genitive, indicating the thing affected, as : 

2)ie entbectuuij Sriiievifag, The discovery of America. 
• 4. The Possessive Genitive, as : 

3)er ©arten beg .SUniigg, The garden of the king (the 
king's garden ). 

5- The Genitive of Quality, as : 

Sivci ilinber cinc0 ^llter^. Two children of one age. 

NoTi.. This genitive is frequently replaced by Uoit, as : 
CSiii a«aim tion I)o()Cin 3((tor, A man of great age. 

6. The Partitive Genitive, as : 

@iner mcinpr ?yrcunbe, One of my friends. 

Der jiingftc meincr iBviibcv, The youngest of my brothers. 

Note. - This genitive is commonly replaced by oon after numerals 
and other partitives. 

244. Genitive after Adjectives. 

Adjectives denoting posssession and interest, plenty, knoiv- 
ledge, desire,gnilt, or \.\\^\x opposites, govern the genitive, as; 
beburftig, needing, in need beluufu, conscious 

begierin (also + nad^, de- cingcbcnf, mindful 

•'^''^''^'^ fcibu-r ralso-j-,^u), capable 




frol^, glad 

0ett)i^, certain 

gctDoI^nt (also 4- an with ace), 

leer, empty 
lo^ (also + ace.;, rid 
mube (also + ace), tired 
fait (also + ace), satisfied 

fd;ulbig, guilty 
fid()er, certain 
u'berbruffig, weary 
i)erbac(itig, suspected 
boll (also 4- ace, or -H toon), 

hjert (also4- ace), worth 
triirbig, worthy 

Remarks. — i. The neuter pronoun 'ii ' after most of these 
adjectives may have the form CS, which is the old genitive, 
and is the origin of the later use of the accusative, first with 
the pronouns ba^, U)a^, and then, by analogy, with substan- 
tives, as : 

;3d; bin C«l (tia6) mitbc, I am tired of it (that). 

2. With W:>, miibe, lucrt the Accusative is more usual than 
the genitive. 

245. Genitive after Verbs. 

I. Verbs of meanings similar to those of the adjectives under 
the previous section take a genitive of the nearer object, as: 
ac^^tcn (also 4- ciuf with nr^.), benfcn (generally + <\\\ with 


(also + 

pay attention 
beburfcn, need 
bcgcl;rcn, desire 
brauc(K'n, want 
entbclnen, miss, 

do without 
ertiHihncn, mention 

Also the following : 

I^arren (also -\- auf with ace) 

toatten (also + ace), tend, 


ace, think 
gebenfcn, mention 
genicfjcn (generally + ace), 

Hergcffcn (generally + ace), 


Iarf)en, laugh at 

fpotten, mock 

frf^onen (also -|- ace >, spare 




2. Transitive Verbs of accus/n,. condemning, acquittaL 
deprtvatwn, emotion, take a genitive of the remoter ob^ 
ject, as: 

anflagen, accuse 
berauben, rob 
Befd^ulbigen, accuse 
cntbinben (also + bon), re 

entf(ct^en (also + Mm), dis- 

logf^rec^en, acquit 
u6erfuf)'ren, convict 
uber^eu'tjen (also + bon), con- 

berfic^ern, assure 

JDurbigen, deem worthy 
Sei^en, accuse 

3- Also many reflexive and impersonal verbs (see §§ 21c 
216, 219). ^' 

^*^» Adverbial Genitive. 

For the use of the genitive in forming adverbs from sub- 
stantives, see § 189, 2. The adverbial genitive may express 
place, time or maimer, as : 

2in!cr ^anb, On the left hand. 
Seiner 2Bege ge^en. To go one's way. 
3)iefcr 3:age, During these (last) days. 
5il6enb8, In the evenins;. 
^orgeug. In the morning, etc. 
Meg ©rnftcg. In all seriousness. 
STvocfncn g-ufecg. Dry-shod. 

^ And particularly with ^^etfe, 'manner,' after an adiec- 
tive, as . •' 

©IucfIirf)erU)ei[e, j mannerj 

247. For Interjections followed by a genitive, see 
§ 240, 4, (a). 

For the genitive after prepositions, see §§ 222, 223. 






A. 1. Guten Morgen, Karl; was hast du fiir Eile, mein 
Junge ? 2. Guten Morgen, Herr B. ; es ist bald neun Uhr 
und ich gehe jetzt in die Schule. 3. So, liast du noch wait 
zu gehen ? 4. Bis nach der Friedrichstrasze ; Herr G., 
unser Lelirer, besteht sehr auf Piinktlichkeit. 5. Steige nur 
ein, du knnnst mit mir fahren, da mein Weg durch die 
Friedrichstrasze fiihrt. H. Ich bin Ihnen sehr dankbar; das ist 
sehr freundlicli von Ihnen. 7. Sitzt du da bequem ? <S. Ja, 
aber sind nieine Biicher Ihnen nicht iinWege ? !>. Nicht im 
ireriniisten, aber was fiir eine Menge Hiicher hast du da ! ])u 
hast gewiss viel /u studieren. 10. Ich arbeite jet/l sehr 
rieissiir, da das Examen nachstens stalthndet. 11. Auf 
welches Examen bereitest du dich vor ^ I -L Auf das Ein- 
trittsexamen der Universitat. l.'i. Was fiir Sprachen stu- 
■ dierst du ? 14. Ich studiere Knglisch, Latein, Deutsch und 
Franzosisch. 15. Natiirlich studierst du audi die Mathe- 
matik? IH. Wir miissen Rechnen, Algebra und Geometric 
lernen. 17. Bist du ein Freund von der Mathematik, oder 
ziehst du die Sprachen vor? 18. Ich lerne sehr gern Ma- 
thematik, besonders Algebra ; mein Lehrer glaubt, ich 
habe nicht viel Sprachtalent. l!». Deshalb solltest du desto 
fleissiger die Sprachen studieren, l^auf) dass deine Bildung 
nicht einseitig werde. 'iO. Mein Valer ist auch derselben 
Meinung. "21. Hoffentlich wirst du deiii Examen gliicklich 
bestehen ; da sind wir aber schon bei der Schule. 'iL Ich 
danke Ihnen vielmals fiir den freundlichen Wunsch, vvie auch 
fiir die Fahrt. 

B. 1. "An honest man is the noblest work of God." 2. A 
pound of iron is about as large as two pounds of silver. 
H. Mr. Cleveland was elected president of the United States 
in the vear 1884. 4. I was to have taken (made^ a journev 
to Europe this summer, but my father needs me in his busi- 





ness and I shall be obliged to remain at home. 5. ] 
been offered five thousand dollars for my house, and [ shau ^c-u 
It, for I am glad of the opportunity of getting (to gfet) rid of it. 
<i. The Duke of Wellington, a great English general (';vclb= 
berr), was called the - Iron Duke," as Prince JJismarck, the 
great German statesman, is called the "Iron Chancellor." 
7. He (the former) has deserved that title not only as a soldier 
but as a man. 8. My neighbour, the merchant, has been 
accused of forgery, but 1 do not believe that he is capable 
of such a crime. 9. He was induced of money, and is 
said to have done it on that account. Ki. I hope that he 
will be acquitted of this accusation, for I am convinced of 
his innocence. II. The discovery of America by (burc^) 
Columbus was perhaps the greatest undertaking of any man 
or of any age (3eitaltcr). ]■>. Columbus was a man of great 
bodily, as well as mental power. i;{. His whole /leet con- 
sisted of three small ships, of which two were very old. 1 J. 
Have you seen your brother the lawyer ? ]n. Excuse [me] ; 
my brother is not a lawyer, but a doctor. I have not seen 
him since Christmas. Ki. As a student he always used (pflcqcn ) 
to say he meant^to be (luevbcn) a lawyer. J 7. We are tired 
of studying; let us go out. 18. Shall I send for (nad]) a 
carriage.? 19. No, it is not worth while (bcr ^IJaibciucrt) I 
would rather walk. :>0. Unfortunately it has rained and the 
roads are bad. 21, We can try (the) walking, and if we get 
tired of it, we can take the street-cars (^].Jfcrbe6a(;n, sing.). " 



248. Dativk. 

The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object. 

The Dative is used to denote the person for whose advan- 
tage or disadvantage a thing is or is done, as; 




@r f)at mix etn Suc^ gefauft. He has bought me a 

249. The Dative is very freely used in German to denote 
the person who has some interest in an action or tiling. This 
is called the ethical dative or dative of interest, and must 
usually be left untranslated in English, in which language its 
use is obsolete, thus : 

Scf) \j<xU mir bie Sac^c annefefien, I have considered the 
thing (for my own satisfaction;. 

X^u mir ba^ nid;t toieber. Don't do that again (I tell 

For the possessive dative replacing, with the -definite ar- 
ticle, a genitive case or (with pronouns) a possessive adjective, 
see § 44, 6. 

260. Dative after Verbs. 

1. The Dative stands as the Indirect Object of trafisitivc 
verbs, as : 

(gr giebt mir ba§ Surf), He gives me the book (the book 
to me). 

2. It stands as the sole object after verbs which expre«* a 
personal x&\?ii\on only, such as verbs of: 

{a) Approach or removal, etc., as : " 

begegnen, meet glcicficu, resemble 

entgefjen, escape nacftgebcn, follow 

enlfprec^en, correspond to nacf)ftei)en, be inferior 

fefjien, be wanting nat)en, approach 

folgen, follow sufe^en, watch 

ip) Pleasure or displeasure, as : 
Bebagen, please broben, threaten 

banten, thank fTu^en, curse 




gefaflen, please mi^fal'Ien, displease 

fleniigcn, suffice fc^meirf)c(n, flatter 

QroUen, be an-ry ^te^en, suit, become 

{c) Advantage or disadvantage, as : 

beiftc^en, assist mangern, be wanting 

bienen, serve n%n, be useful 

^elfen, help \^o.\i^\\, harm 

{d) Cofumand, resistance and their opposites, as : 
befeblen, command tro^en, defy 

Sebictcn, order h)eicl)en, yield 

0ebord;en, obey lDiberfte'(;en, oppose 

Derbieteu, forbid t»ibcr[tre'6en, resist 

{e) After verbs expressing possession, trust, and various 
other personal relations, as : 
antiDorten, answer glaubcn, believe 

beiftimmcu, ngree with frf;einen, seem 

erit)ibevn, reply trauen, tmst 

ge^oren, belong jm-eben, encourage 

Also with fcin and tucrben, expressing a state of feelin^r 
(with gu gjtute expressed or understood), as : "^ 

2Bie ift ^fjncn ? How do you feel ? 

Loserve also the idiom: JGenn bcill fo ift, * If that is the 
case,' in which bciu is dat. neut. 

(/) After many verbs expressing similar relations, com- 
pounded with the inseparable prefixes cr-, cut-, 
^er- luibcr ; with the separable prefixes on-' m\~ 
BcK enfgcflcn-, ita(^- tior- ju-, etc., and with 
adjectives, nouns or adverbial phrases, such as : 
(eib t^im, be^sorry gu c^^il it)erben, fall to one's 

h)Oi?Iii)oIlen, be vvcll-disposed share 

%^^ ©fatten fommen, be of use bag 2Bv.. reben, defend 


,!. ik 




Rkmarks. — I. The great majority (jf tliese verbs have 


of the loss of di 

become transitive 
tinction between the (hitive and accusative ; their construc- 
tion in (lerman swoulfl bo carefully observed. 

2. Many of the verbs under u/ ), (, ) above take a ^//m7 
object, particularly in the shape of a clause or of a neuter 
pronoun, as : 

(Jr i)at mir licrbotcn 311 flcfjClt, He has forbidden me 

to go. 
^d) crlinbcvtc, bttfj id) fommcu loaflc, I replied that I 

would come. 
Wdn )BaUx bat C0 mir bcfofjien, My father has ordered 

me (to do) it. 

For the Dative with RcfexiTe Y^rhs, see §§ 215, 216; with 
Impersonal Vi^rh'iy see §§ 217, 219. 

251. Dative after Adjectives. 

The Dative stands after adjectives similar in meaning to 
the Verbs given in the foregoing section, such as : 
(a) ApproacJty etc. : 

aijniicb, similar 
fremb, strange 
gleicl;, equal, like 

{b^ Pleasure^ etc. : 
angencbni, pleasant 
gndbicj, gracious 

(<r) Advantage, etc. 
fjeilfant, wholesome 
jc^ulbig, indebted 

(^) Command, etc. 

' " ' \ obedient 
gcborfam, ) 

ungreicf\ unequal, unlike 
nal;e (also -f- bci), near 
bevtuanbt, related 

licB, dear 
luiUfomnten, welcome 

treu, faithful 

ungeBorfam, disobedient 
toibrig, repulsive 




(e) J'osscssion, etc. : • 
dijcn, belonging iicnicin(fain), coninum 

N(»Ti;. Almost any adjective modified by ^ll or iiciiiiii may take a 
dative, as : 

Ticfc >>onC'iri)ul)f fiiib mir ^u fliof? (S[XO\\ gcnilfl), These gloves are 
too large (large enough) tor ine. 

For the Dative after Prepositions, see §§ 46, 51. 


The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object. Time 
and Measure. 

AU transitive 7>erh take the direct (;bjecl in the accusative. 
Rkmark. — Many verbs that are transitive in English are in- 
transitive in German (see § 250, Rem. i, above), and vice versa. 


The verb Iclncn, 'to teach,' governs two accusatives, one of 
the person and the other of the thing; the verb fiajion, 'to 
ask,' takes the latter accusative only when it is a neuter pro- 
noun, as : 

Sd; n^erbc bir^ bic bfut)i^c 3^rad)c Icbrcn, I shall teach 
you the German language. 

i^cb ivodte bid) c^cntc ctluos fragcn, I should like to ask 
you something. 

Verbs of calling, etc., have a second accusative as facti- 
tive predicate, as : 

%6> nannte t^n cincn '^^utch, I called him a fool. 
Of Verbs of considering, etc., some, such as : betrarfitcn, ' to 
regard ' ; nnfebcn, ' to look upon ' ; barftcUcn, ' to represent,' 
take ?i factitive accusative with al§, as : 

%6 febe ben :>)iC9cn oi& eine SSobhbat an, I regard the 
rain as a benefit. 




li •« 


) !, 

Other verbs of con.s^(le^in^^ with those of choosing, etc., 
which take a scjoiicl accusative of this sort in F.n^^lish, are 
followed by a preposition (Kir, ju) in Cerman (see Less. XLIX). 

254. Accusative aftkr Intkanshive Verhs. 

1. Intransitive Verbs may somctinies be followed by an 
accusative of a meaning akin to their own, called the cognate 
accusative, as : 

"sch babe eincn frf^bnctt Uroum getroumt T have dreamt 
a beautiful dream. 

2. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative of that which 
is effected or produced by the action they express, as : 

^V^ctru'^ mcintc bittcrc !tf|ri[ttci!, Peter wept bitter tears 

3. Intransitive Verbs may take an accusative followed by 
an adjective, etc., di"^ factitive predicate, as: 

^scf; l;abc mirf) fntt 9Ci]e)"fcii, I have eaten enough (lit., 

have eaten myself satisfied). 
^i>$ .Uinb iueintc firfj in bcu 3t^hif, The child has cried 

itself to sleep. 

Remark. The Accusative in all these constructions, ex- 
cept the last, which is not used in the passive, becomes a nom- 
inative in the passive construction ; that of the thing after 
lebren remains accusative ; with fraiicu and bitten, the ace. of 
the thing is not used in the passive. 

For the accusative after y?^/?<?.m'^ Verbs, see § 216; after 
Impersonal Verbs, see § 219 ; after Prepositions, see §§ 34, 50 ; 
after some Adjectives, it replaces the Genitive (see § 245, 
and Remarks). 

255. Ai' .^, .AT Accusative. 

I. The Accusative is used adverbially to express f^me (see 
§ 184, i) and measure (see § 185, 4) ; also distance and way after 
verbs of motion, as : 






M) bin ferfje f,ntt aWciU'ii rtcfalncn, I have driven six 
full miles. 

iiyclcf»cn m^ lucrbcn eie flebcn ? Which way will vou 
go? ^ 

Tho Accusative is used also in absolute constructions, 
•especially with participles, as : ' 

ev fam su mir, brn .^ut in bcr §anb. He came to me 
hat in hand. 

Grftanbba, bic m.nen in bic .soi>^c flcrit^tct. He stood 
there [with] eyes uplifted. 


^. 1. Also, Sie haben sich entschlossen, uns morgen fruh zu 
verlassen? :>. Ich nuiss wohl, da meine (ierchaft.angelegen- 
he.ten mir keinen langeren Aufenthalt erlauben. A Sie reisen 
naturhch mit dem zweiten Zug al^? 4. Wlssen Sie, urn wie viel 
Uhr dcrselbe in B. ankommt.? 5. Ic h kann es Ihnen nicht ^anz 
genau sagen, abcr er konmit gegen vier Uhr Cdes) Nachmit'tags 
an 6. Das 1st mir vicl /u spat. Man erwartet mich schon um 
halb zwolf auf meinem Burean. 7. In ./m Falle mus.en Sie 
wohl den Schnellxug nehmen, der schon um drei Viertel auf 
sieben abfahrt. H. Es lasst sich nicht iindern. 9. Gut ich 
werde Sie Punkt sechs Uhr wecken lassen. 10. Ich d'anke 
Thnen ; das wird durchM.,s nicht notig sein, da ich meine Weck- 
uhr bei mir habe. 11. v;.e viel Zeit brauchen Sie, sich anzu- 
kleiden? U. Zwanzig bis fiinfundzwanzig Minuten ; aber ich 
werde noch mehreies ein/.upacken haben. l;}. Dann ware es 
jedenfalls besser, die Weckuhr auf halb sechs zu stellen 14 
Bitte, sagen Sie mir genau, wie viel Uhr es jetzt ist ; ich furchte' 
meine Uhr geht nach. 1.5. Es ist gerade neun Minuten vor elf 
16. 1st es moglich ! Dann geht meine Uhr ja vor. anstatt nach. 
Sind Sie gewiss, dass Thre Uhr richtig geht? 17. Jawohl; ich 
Habe sie heute nach der Stadtuhr gestellt. 18. Es wird spat • 



IS§ 255- 

ich muss mich schlafcn Icgen. iiin morgcn friih auistchcii /u 
k()nncn. 1!». Also maclien wires auf dicse W'eise : Sie stchen 
uin hall) seclis auf, uni fiiuf Minuten nacli sechs friihstiicken Sie, 
uiTi fiinfundzwanzJL;- Minutcu nach serlis win! der Wagen vor- 
fahren und in zehn Minuten siiid Sie auf dem IJahnhofe. Dann 
liaben Sie noch zehn Minuten iibrig, uni Ihr Billet' zu losen. 
und Ihr (lepiick einschreiben zu lassen. Jetzt, gute Nacht ! 
'20. (xute Nacht, schlafcn Sie wohl ! 

/>'. I. Do not trust those who flatter you, •>. Do not be- 
lieve them, for flatterers are liars. ."). I always considered my 
father as my truest friend. I. The general c^ommands the sol- 
diers : the soldiers obey the general. .">, What is_the_name 
of the gentleman whom we have just met? His name has 
escaped me. »i. You should never forget to thank those who 
help you. 7. How does this hat, which I bought myself yester- 
day, please you? S. It docs not become you very well ; it is 
too large for you. H, When 1 was going to the railway-station, 
a boy met me and gave me a telegram. In. May 1 ask you if 
Mr. H. is related to you? 11. He resembles me very much, 
but he is not related to me. I'i. Mr. 15. has been ordered, on 
account of iil-he.ilth. to go to a warmer climate. He has been 
forbidden to pass the winter in the Nordi. ]'.\. How long does 
he remain absent ? I 1, He is to remain absent at least four 
months. 15. Last week I ordered (myself ) an overcoat at the 
tailor's, wliich he was to bring me to-day. \ (i. The Niagara 1^'alls 
are considered ( one considers, etc. ) as one of the greatest 
wonders^of^thc^ world. 17'. People say of one who sleeps 
very soundly that he sleeps the sleep of the righteous. 18. 
May I ask you to assist me, or at least to advise me? 19. I 
should be very glad to be able to help you. •>() I am in need 
of money, and should not like to ask any one else for it. 





25($. 'J^he Indicative is the mood of reality and direct 
statement. As the tenses are used with reference to time 
in the Indicative only, their proper use is given here. 

367. I'piE Present. 

The Present Tense answers to all tlie Engli:-h forms of 
that tense (e. g., icf> lobe = 1 praise, am praising, do praise), 
and is used : 

1. To denote action now going on, as : 

Tavj Minb fj^laft. The child "is sleeping (now). 

2. To state a general fact or custom, as : 

3)er 3d;ncc ift Unnf?, The snow is white, 
3)er Dd^fe frigt (^ka<^, Tiie ox eats grass, 

3. For the imperfect in /lisforical narrative, to give greater 
vividness, as : 

®e[diiuinb ^cdt cv ciiicn Stein auf unb mirft beufclbcn bcin 
.srMinbe, ber \^\\ bcifu^n mia, an bcu Mopf, Quickly he 
picks up a stone, and throws it at the dog, who is 
about to attack him. 

4. For the English perfect (as in French ), when the action 
or state continues in the present, the past being inferred and 
the present alone expressed, as : 

Sic Uingc ift cr fdion franf? How long has lie been 
ill .? (N. B. — He is sdll ill.) 

S* flC^C [cit acbt %<\,yi\\ luicbcr ^uv cdnilc, 1 have been 
going to school agai.i lor the last week (and am still 

Note. This construction is very common with ffit. 






1 1 

5. For the future very commonly, where no ambiguity 
would arise, particularly to replace the English form 'am 
going to,' as : 

^c^ fdircik morgen einen i&x'\q nn meinen SL^ater, I am 
going to write a letter to my father to-morrow. 

258. The Imperfect. 

The Imperfect is used : 

1. As the historical (narrative) preterite, when an event 
is told in connection with others, as : 

^m 3(nfaug j(^uf (^ott ^immcl iinb Cfrbe, unb 3tae§ ttJor 
hjitfte utib Iccr u. f. Id., And in the beginning God cre- 
ated heaven and earth, and all was waste and 
void, etc. 

2. To denote customary, continued or contempo- 
raneous action, replacing the English forms 'was doing,' 
'used to do,' as: 

@r fling jeben STag urn mer Ut^r au§. He used to go out 

every day at four o'clock. 
2Bir (u(jvcn an ber Slircbe toorbet, aU bie Ut?r elf f(^(ufl, 

We were driving past the church, as the clock 

struck eleven. 

259. The Perfect. 

1. The Perfect indicates a past event as complete and 
no longer continuing, thus : 

^d) ()obc flctcbt unb flcUcbct, I have lived and loved 
(and both my life and my love are ended). 

2. The Perfect is used of an event as a separate and 
independent fact, simply asserted as true without reference 
to any other, as : 

©ott ^ttt bie SBelt crjl^offcn, God created the world ; 




but in the sentence : 

©ott jdjuf bie 2Be(t in fed^^ ^agen unb ru^tc am 

fiebenten, God created the world in six days, and 

rested on the seventh, 
the imperfect is used, because the two events are connected. 

3. The Perfect is used (apart from historical narrative), in 
preference to the Imperfect, of an event which has not been 
witnessed or participated in by the speaker, as : 

©eftern ift ein Sltnb crtrunfcn iPerf), A child was 

drowned yesterday ; — but : 
©eftern crti auf \Impf.) ein ^inb, al^ ic^ am Ufer ftatib, 
A child was drowned yesterday, when I was stand- 
ing on the shore. 
Remark. — This distinction between the use of the Perfect 
and Imperfect is not accurately observed, but it is always 
better to render the English forms ' was doing,' ' used to do,' 
by the Imperfect. 

4. The Perfect replaces the Future-Perfect, as the Present 
does the Future, as : 

%^ toerbe fommen, fobalb id; meine ©efitdftc abgcmac^t 
\^t, I shall come, as soon as I have (i. e., shall 
have) finished my business. 

260. The Pluperfect. 

The Pluperfect is used, as in English, of a past action 
•mpleted before another was begun, thus : 

er \\\iit icine 3Iufgabe UoUcnbct, c()C 6ie famen. He had 
finished his exercise, before you came. 

261. The Future. 
The Future v; used: 

X. Of an action about to take place, as : 

Unfcr 3Satev mirb ung lokn. Our father will praise us. 





2. To denote probability or supposition, as : 

(2^ njirb mcin ^i^rut>cr fciii, bcv aihu'ti-^'iiincu i[t, It is 
probably my brother who has arrived. 

262. The Future-Perfect. 

The Future-Perfect is the Perfect in the Future, and 
expresses probahility even more frequently than the simple 
Future, as : 

3)cv ^^vief itJirh fc^ion i^eftcrn flcfommcn jcin. The letter 
probably arrived yesterday. 


A. 1. Diese Hitze ist unertriiglich ; ich glaube, nie einen so 
heissen Sommer erlebt zu haben. ;2. Und wie schwiil es ist! 
Sieht es nicht sehr nach Regeu aus ? .*;. Richtig, da sind 
schon die ersten Regentropfen, und ich meine, vor einigen • 
Minuten Donner in der Feme gehort zu haben. 4. Das macht 
mir einen Strich dnrch die Rechnung. l>ei diesem Wetter 
kann ich unmoglich zur Stadt gehen. 5. Fiir's Erste allerdings 
nicht, aber das Gevvitter wird nicht lange anhalten. (;. Das ist 
ein wahrer Platzregen ; so ein Regen ist dem Lande sei;r notig. 
7. Ja, wir haben diesen Sommer uberliaiii>t sehr v.enig Regen 
gehabt, aber vorigen Winter desto niehr Schnee. (S. Horen 
Sie, das war ein Knall ! <». Ja, und wie schnell der Donner 
auf den Phtz folgte ! Fiirchten Sie sich vor dem HHtze? 10. 
Seitdem es vorigcs Jahr in unserer Nahe eingeschlagen hat, bin 
ich ein wenig angstlich. 1 1. Das glaube ich schon, aber sehen 
Sie doch, jetzt hagelt es noch sogar ! l->. Das braucht das 
Land gewiss nicht, aber die Hagelkorner sind nicht grosz 
genug, urn viel Schaden anzurichten. l.i. Es fangt schon an, 
sich aufzuhellen ; {las schlimniste ist vorbci. 1 1. Wie sich die 
I.uft abgekiihlt hat! b"). Und '.vie srhnell ! Das ist oft der 
Fall hier zu Lande. I'.. Jawohl; orianern Sic sich nicht des 




wechselhaften Wetters, das wit* vorigen Friihling gehabt haben ? 
17. Besonders im Marz und Anfang April. IS. Einen Tag 
thaute es, den iiachsten fror es, und am dritten Tage regnete 
oder schneite es gar. 19. Dann gab es wiedtr eine Hitze 
wie mitten im Sommer; schon im April batten wir fast 
achtzig Grad Fahrenheit. 20. Da scheint die Sonne wieder ; 
ich sagte Ihnen ja, dass das Gewitter nicht lange anhalten 
wUrde. 2\. Da haben Sie Recht ; jetzt muss ich mich auf den 
Weg machen. 

B. 1 . A misfortune seldom comes alone. '2. Schlegel trans- 
lated Shakespeare's works into German. ?u Is your father at 
home ? No, he has been away for three weeks, but he is (prob- 
ably) coming back to-morrow morning. 4. As soon as [ have 
news of his arrival, I shall come again. '>. During my illness 
I used to go for a drive two hours every day. (i. Are you 
going (to go) to the concert this evening ? I do not think I 
shall go. 7. Have you an engagement elsewhere ? No, but I 
am going to bed immediately, as I start for Boston to-morrow 
morning at seven o'clock. H. People (man) are often con- 
scious of bad habits, which they cannot get rid of. 9. Have 
you been long in America? I have been here since my fifteenth 
year. 10. This is probably a letter from my mother, for that is 
her hand- writing. 1 1 . We had hardly been at home half an 
hour, when it began to rain. \:i. Shakespeare is considered 
the greatest poei of the English nation. 18. He was born at 
Stratford-on-Avon, and passed his youth in that place. 14. As 
a young man he went to London, became celebrated there, and 
died in the year 1616 in his native^town. 15. The sun was 
setting, and the long [and] desperate combat was not yet 
decided. Uj. For the third time our brave soldiers throw 
themselves upon the batteries of the enemy. 17. Nothing 
could resist this attack ; the enemy wavers, and the victory is 
ours. IH. But what a dearly-bought victory! 111. He, who 





led the soldiers into the combat, comes not back with them. 
20. Yonder he lies cold and silent, and our triumph becomes 
bitter mourning. 



The Conditwnal. 

1. The Conditional tenses are, in form, subjunctive p\A 
tenses, answering to the Future as a present. 

2. They indicate possible futurity^ and coincide with the 
Impf. and Plupf. Subj. in their use in conditional clauses, and 
will therefore be treated conjointly with them (see § 267, 

Note. — The Tenses of the Conditional are a new formation; the 
Tmpf. arid Plupf. Subj. having, in the older stages of the language, per- 
formed the function of the Conditional. 

2CJ4. The Subjunctive Mood is used much more fre- 
quently in German than i'^ English, the distinction between 
Indicative and Subjunctive being almost entirely obliterated 
in the latter language. 

265. The Subjunctive in Indirect Statements. 

The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Statements or 
Quotations (see also § 87), i, e., when the words used are 
quoted in substatice only, and not as they were spoken, espe- 
cially after a verb in the principal clause signifying : 

' {a) Imparting of information (statement, report, con-' 
fession, reminding, etc.), as: 

antlDDvten, answer 

yci/uupitJi, aSacrc 

berid^tcn, report 

er5af)(en, relate 
0eftcl;cn, confess 


en, say 





(b) Apprehension, as : 

benfen, think 

crinnern (refl.j> remember 

ful^Ien, feel 

^orcn, hear 

mctnen, be of opinion 
mer!en, observe 
fd^lie^en, conchide 
tuiffen, know 

(c) Contemplation with various emotions, as : 
fiird^ten, fear h)unbern (refi.), wonder 
freuen (refl.), rejoice h)untcf)en, wish 
glauben, believe jnjeifeln, doubt 
tjoffen, hope 

(d) Request, command ^ advice, etc., as : 
befel^ten, command raten, advise 
bitten, ask Derlangen, demand 
erma^nen, admonish 

2^6. The Tense in Indirect Statements. 

T' verb of the Indirect Statement is, as a rule, in the 
same tense as it would have, if the statement were made 
directly (see § 87, 2), i. e., the tense of the Indirect Statement 
is the same as that of the Direct. 

Remarks. — i. An Indirect Statement is always a subordi- 
nate clause. 

2. The conjunction ba^ may be omitted in such clauses, 
which will then have the construction of a principal sentence 
(i. e., verb second \ see § 87, 3). 

3. The Indicative may replace the Subjunctive in Indirect 
Statements, when the speaker wishes to represent his own 
belief in the correctness of the statement, as : 

^d) \ gebbrt, baj5 mein ^Bruber fran! ift, I have 
heard that my brother is ill {and he is ill). 

6te niu^tc, ba^ bcr ©piegel feine tlntDa^rtjdt j^rat^, unb 
mxlU, ba^ ber ^ciger fie betrogen Jottc, etc. (Grimm, 





t§§ 266. 

Sne.e7vittchen, p. 52, 1. i), wShe knew that the 
mirror did not tell a lie, and saw that the huntsman 
had deceived her {and he had deceived her). 

But the Subjunctive is used, when the truth of the state- 
ment is not vouched fo*-, or when any doubt is cast upon 
it, as : 

^<x^ bo^baftc Sctb <x\\ fte auf unb metntc, fie ^iittc 
Sneciuittdien'o i'ungc unb i^cber ii*^O^ff*-'" {jidd., p. 49, 
1. 8), The malicious woman devoured them, and 
thought she had eaten Sneewittchen's lung and 
liver (whereas she had not eaten them). 

4. The tense of the Indirect Statement does not depend on 
that of the principal clause, and the sequence of tenses ■w\\\z\i is 
observed in English is not found in German, as : 

(Engl.) He said he was not ill. 
{Germ.) (5r fttgtc, er fci nic^t franf. 

Notes. — i. The Subjunctive is unusual after the verbs under (b) and 
(c) in the previous section (except Ijcireil), if the principal clause has a 
present tense. 

2. The rule as to tense is not always strictly observed, the tense used 
being sometimes determined by the want of distinctive subjunctive forms. 
Thus in the following sentence two different tenses are used : 

9tuc^ frf)lofj er, es muffe bie eage oom @(a^mdttntelii nicf)t fef)r 
be!annt feiii, unb bcii (Sprud) miifetcit nitr luenige tuiffcn (Hauff, 
Das kaltc Herz, p. 8, 1. 7), Further, he concluded that the 
legend of the Glass-manikin could not be very well known, and 
only a few people could know the verse. 

3. After an Impf. in the principal clause, the Subjunctive is usual in 
the Indirect vStatement, except as in the second example under Remark 3, 

4. The verb of the principal sentence sometimes remains unexpressed, 
or is replaced by a noun of kindred meaning, as : 

Si" X\z% mid) abturifcn, lucil cr fvnnf fel, He refused to see me, 
because {as he asserted) he was ill. 






3cl) (icf fo fdjiicU »uic mlHiliri), aiio Jurdjt, id) mo(t)te jU jpiit rom= 
men, I ran as quickly as possible, fiom fear that I might come 
too late. 

2)0v< fjotte icf) nffaqt? (Do you mean to say that) I said that? 
This last construction is very frequent in German, to express empha- 
tically a doubt as to the ti nth of a statement. 

207. The Subjunctive and Conditional in 
Hypothltical Periods. 

Example of a Hypothetical Period: 

If I had followed your advice, I should have been 

1. The above sentence consists of two parts. Of these the 
one expresses a condition, conceived, in this instance, as unreal 
or impossible, viz. : 

If I had followed your advice {ivhich I did not); 
the other expresses a result, also unreal or unrealized, which 
2vould have io\\o\^Q.di, had the condition been realized, viz. : 

I should have been happy {which I am not). 

2. In both parts of the above period (in the condition and 
^n the result), the verb is in a past tense (Impf. or Plupf.) 
of the Subjunctive Mood, as : 

Senn id; ^l;i-cn '^U\i ficfolflt ^iittc (Plupf. Subj.), [y niiitc 
id; gliidlic(i flcttic|cn (Plupf. Subj.). 

Remarks.— i. Either of the two clauses may stand first; 
thus, the sentence given above may have the form : 

%i) lucirc oludlidi c^eiucfcn, iucnu it. f. iu. 

2. The conjunction Juenu may be omitted, especially when 
the condition precedes the result, in which case the verb v/ill 
begin the sentence, :ih: 

^iittc id) ^bi-ca ^Kat bcfol^t, fo luarc id» cjlildlid;. 





3. If the result clause follows the conditional clause, it is 
usually introduced by the particle fo, and ahvays when ttienn 
is omitted in the preceding conditional clause (see § 59, and 


4. The conditional tenses may replace the Impf. and Plupf. 
Subj. in the apodosis, result or conclusion only, as : 

2Benn ic^ ^^ren 5lat bcfolgt ^cittc, fo miirbc ic^ <ySU\\^ 
gemefcn fetn. 

5. If the condition is stated without its unreality being 
implied, the verb is in the Pres., Perf., or Fut. Indicative, as : 

SSenn er fommt, fo hjerbe id) fortge^en, If he comes, I 
shall go away. 

6. A condition may be introduced by a(g ttJClttt or alg ofi, 
* as if,' thus : 

@r fic^t auS, atS tncnn (ob) er franf hjiirc. He looks as 
if he were ill. 

Note. — In clauses of this kind, lucnn or ob may be omitted, and the 
construction is then inverted accordingly (see § 239, 4), as : 
(Sr fiel)t au«, al8 hjorc er fronf. 

268. Other Uses of the Subjunctive. 

1. The Pres. Subjunctive replaces the missing persons 
(i. and 3.) of the Imperative Mood, the subject being then 
put after the verb, except in the 3. person, where it may also 
precede, unless the pron. 3ie is used for the 2. person, as : 

%t%t er (or er gebe) nncft .^aufe, Let him go home. 

2. The Impf. and Plupf. Subjunctive are uiod to express 
a wish, as : 

2Bare td^ 6et ^fjnen ! Would that I were with you ! 

Note. — This is really an elliptical conditional clause, with the result 
unexpresscdj the fi'Il form may be supplied thus: 

Sore Id) bet 3^nen, (fo toare id) gmcftic^). 




3. The Subjunctive is used in clauses expressing purpose^ 
with the conjunctions bafj, auf ba^, bamit, as: 

@r eiltc, ba$ (auf bnj^, bamit) or iwx recbten 3«it onfamt. 
He hastened, (in order) that he might arrive in 
good time. 

4. It is also used after a negative or an indefinite relative^ as : 

§ier ift ttiemanb,- bev tnic^ nicf>t fenntc, There is nobody 
here, who does not know me. 

^cf> luerbe eg t^un, ttio0 au(^ babon !ommcn mbflf, I shall 
do it, no matter what may come of it. 
Note. — The Indicative is also admissible in these constructions. 

5. The Impf. Subjunctive is sometimes used to express 
possibility , as : 

3)ag gingc \QXi\j\, That might (possibly) do. 
^c^ bail)tc, bag ttjiirc gut, I should think that might 
be good ; 
and especially with the Modal Auxiliaries, as : 

^ag mor^te (fBimtc, biirftc) mat^r fein. That may (pos- 
sibly) be true. 

6. Observe the following idiom : 

iiCic bcm aurf) fei, However that may be. 


A. 1. Ich habe gehort, dass Sie Ihr Haus verkauft haben ; 
ist das wahr ? 2. Ja, meine alte Wohnung gefiel mir nicht 
niehr. 3. Wie kommt das ? Ihr Haus schien mir immer eine 
sehr elegante und bequeme Wohnung zu sein. 4. Ein besse- 
res lasst sich nicht leicht finden; allein, seit(dem) die vielen 
Fabriken in der Nahe gebaut worden sind, gefallt mir die 
Umge'bung nicht mehr. 5. Das kann ich mir schon denken. 
Der Rauch von den Fabriken muss sehr unangenehm sein. 
G. Das ist nicht das Schlimmste ; das fortwahrende Gerausch 






brinfj^t ciiuni oft zum Verzwfifcln. 7. Habon Sie ein andtTcs' 
Haus nekaufi ? h. Nein, vorlaiili^ liabe ich mir ein Haus in 
der Schillerstras/c ^aMiiietet, sohald ich aln-r einen passcnden 
Bauplatz rinden kann. wcrdc ich hauen. 'J. Haben Sic sich 
schon nacli cinem Hanphit/. iim^'eselien ? |o. Ich habe die 
gan/e Stadt durchsucht, abcr ohnc Krfolj;. II. Sie miissen 
sehr schvvcr /ii befriedigen scin. I >. Das gerade nicht, nur 
beslehc ich auf drei ]k'dingun<;eii : I'Vische Luft, cine ruhige 
Straszc und einc schone Aiissiclit. I;;. Warum baucn 
Sic nicht auf dcr Anhiihe in dcr Vorstadt. jenseit des 
Flusses? II. Daran habe ich schon gedacht, nur siud mir 
die Preise ein wcnig /u lioch. l,"). Das wiirde mich nicht 
abhalten, so iange ich nur bekanie, was ich wiinschte. lO. Es 
wird mir wohl niciits iibrig bleiben, als mich dort an/ukaufen. 
17. Beabsichtigen Sie, mil Backstein oder mit Quaderstein zu 
bauen? bs. Ich muss das erst mit meinem Architekten 
besprechen. l!». VVelc'ien Architekten haben Sie gewahlt .? 
^(». Merrn Kalk, der den TLan meines alten Hauses ent- 
worfen hat. 21. Dann bekommen Sie jedenfalls ein gutes 
Haus. Ich wiinsche llinen (iliick zu Ihrem Unternehmen. 
2"i. Danke vielmals. 

B. 1. An old beggar-man said: "When I was young, I 
could have worked if 1 had wished (uioUon), and now I should 
be glad to work, if I could, but I cannot. Alas ! had I only 
been more industrious." ;>. A certain French king is said to 
have died of hunger, for fear that he might be poisoned. 8. I 
wish my house were not so far from yours. 4. 1 too ; if the 
way were not so long, we could visit eafch other oftener. 
5. We were astonished to see Mr. V>. on the street this • 
morning, as we thought he was still in England. G. They 
say he intended to remain three months longer i. England, 
but that he was obliged i-j come home on account of business 
matters. 7. What did the gentleman whom we just met ask 




you ? He asked me how far it was to the town-hall. H, The 
mcssen^'cr asserted that he could not wait lon<;er because 
he had no time, hut I believe it was for (auvj -f- d^it.j 
another reason. !». A certain gtMitleman wanted to set his 
watch, and asked his servant what o'clock it was. jo. Tiie 
servant answered that he had no watch, but that he had 
seen a sun-dial in the neij^hbour's {garden. II. To^this 
the gentleman replied absent-mindedly: "(Jo immediately 
and ask him for permission to bring- it up here." 12. 
Do you believe that the derman language is as difficult 
as the French? i:{. When I began to study (Jerman, I 
thought it was not so difficult as h'rench, but now 1 believe 
otherwise. It. I should be very sorry, if the news were true 
which 1 heard this morning. I."). The boys must not skate 
to-day ; the ice is too thin, and they might break through 
and be drowned. U;. Please tell me who translated Shake- 
speare's works into German. 17. Would it be worth while to 
take a carriage to drive to the bank ? No, I do not think so. 
IH. He said that of us ! I should never have believed it. 
H). I asked the bookseller: "Have you Schiller's works.?" 
He answered : " I have not^a single copy of them left. 
20. I asked the bookseller if he had Schiller's works, and he 
answered that ht; had not^a single copy of them left. 




The Imperative expresses a commattd and correspciids 
precisely to the English Imperative. The Imperative proper 
occurs only in the 2. person, the other persons being supplied 
by the Pres. Subjunctive (see § 268, i, above). 




Remarks. — I. The pronoun of the 2. Ters. is only ex- 
pressed for the sake of emphasis or contrast, as : 
Singe bu. Do yoit sing. 
@ef)t i^r, irir Juerben blciben. You go, we shall remain. 

Note. — The pronoun, if expressed, always follo7vs the verb, as above. 

2. Where no definite person is addressed (e. g., when an 
author is address'ng his readers), mail should be used with 
the Pres. Subj., as : 

9Wan benfe fic^ meinen 8d;recfen, Imagine my fright. 

3. The Modal Auxiliaries foffcn, miiffen, laffeii are used with 
imperative force, as : 

SDu fottft nicf)t toten. Thou shalt not k 

@r mvS^ [c^ircibcn. He must write. 

fitt§ (la^t, (affen 3ic) un^ gc^cn. Let us go. 

4. The Present and Future Indicative are sometimes used 
with emphatic imperative force, as : 

2)u bJcf.lift bier ! You are to stay here ! 

Sic tticrbcn bie (sjiite ^olscn, inorgen fruf;cr gu fommen. 
You will have the goodness to come earlier to-morrow. 

5. The Past Participle and Infinitive are also used in ex- 
clamatory clauses with the force of an Imperative, as : 

^ugeWtcn, Mut|d;ci- ! Drive on, coachman! 
etill ftc^cn ! Stand still ! 
^tltftciflCn ! All aboard ! 

6. In elliptical and exclamatory clauses a command is fre- 
quently expressed by an adverbial prefix or prepositional 
phrase, without a verb, as : 

l^n\^ auf ! ^amerabcn, m\<i '^fcrb ' aufl ^fcrb ! 

Up ! comrades, to horse ! to horse ! (Schiller.) 

S)rauf unb bran ! Up and at them ! 

^cr iw mil* ! (Come) hither to me ! (Goethe, Fmist) 





270. The Infinitive AS Substaniive. 

The Infinitive is a verbal substantive, and any infinitive 
may be used as a substantive of the neuter gender, declined 
after the :l);'aler Model (§ i6). 

Remarks.— I. The Inlln. as Subst. indicates ^ah/i,ar> 
^a$i\M*CH, '(theact of; reading,' — but: gute £ecture, 'good 
reading, good literature.' 

2. Some Infinitives have become substantives entirely, as : 
ba^ Sebcn, life ; ba^J (vntfd^en, horror. 

3. The Infinitive, either with or without 511, is often used as 
subject of a veio, and as such may have an object by virtue 
of its verbal character, as : 

&uU ^-reunbe (ju) ^o6ctt ift befjer aU reic^ (gu) fein. 

271. The Infinitive without m. 

The Infinitive without 311 follows : 

{a) The Modal Auxiliaries (see Lesson XXXIV); also 
toerbcn in the formation of the future tense. 

{U) The following verbs : 

blcibcn, remain laffen, let, allow, permit 

finben, find lelncn, teach 

f;eiBen, order, bid lerncn, learn 

l^elfon, help mac^^en, make 

t)i>ren, hear fef)en, see 

and, in certain phrases, ^(x\)Zx^, as : 

^d; \)<xU \\\&ii biel Wclb auf ber 33an! Hcgcn, I have not 
much money lying in the bank. 
(c) After get)cn and other verbs of motion in su^i phrases 
as fpagieren geben, reiten, fa^reu, ' to go for a walk, ride, drive '; 



f§§ *n- 


frf^lafcn gef^en, ' to go to bed ' (not = ' go to sleep,' which is 
einfcfilafeit), etc. 

{d) As predicative subject, with ^ei^en, and as object with 
uennen, f^ei^en, as : 

®ag fjei^t fcf)neK fasten, That is quick driving. 
2)ag nennc (f)eifee) icb f(t)Ied)t anfongcn, I call that be- 
ginning badly. 

Note. The Past Participle is also admissible in this construction; 

see § 281, 6, below. 

Remarks. — I. After baben, bkiben, finben, l^oren, fe^en, 
i-jebcn, in the constructions given above, the German Infin. 
corresponds to a Present Participle in English, as : 
(Sr blicb ftcl)cn, He remained standing, etc. 

2. The verbs under (/^), except blciben and bei^en, also 
admit of a llfl^ clause after them, as : 

• Xs^) ^^^^ getjort (gefeben), btt^ er angefommen fei, I have 
heard that he is come. 

3. The verbs t^elfen, le^ren, lemen also take an Infin. with 
jU after them, as : 

3rf? \i(x\it gelernt, \\x gcf^orrfjcn, I have learnt to obey. 

4. For the use of the Infin. for the P. Part, with these 
verbs, see § 199. 

Xj-jtj, _ 7iie verbs l)o(fcit, lef)iTn, (crnen do not substitute the Infin. for 
the P. Part, when followed by an Infin. with jit (see Rem. 3, above, and 

5. For the Infin. with passive sense after laffcn, see § 200, 
7 (<-), Note. 

272. The Infinitive with i^Vi. 

The Infinitive with ju is used after other verbs, such as : 
(a) These implying something to be attained^ done or left 
undone^ as : 








[• begin 





unternel/irten, undertake 
tJerbtetcn, forbid 
U)a(]en, venture 
irarnen, warn 
h)un)d)en, wish 

befe^Ien, command 
Bitten, beg 
eriauben, allow 
fiirc^ten, fear 
l(>offen, hope 
taten, advise 

(^) Those implying a suspension of judgment, as : 
befdjulbigen, accuse frf^einen, seem 

einbilben, (refl.), imagine fc^meirf)eln (refl.), flatter one's 

giauben, believe self. 

Icugnen, deny 

{c) Those indicating various states of mind, as : 

bereueu, repent Xxih [ein, be acceptable (be 

frcuen (impers.), | ^^ gU^d) 

freuen (refl.), I Jeib )cin (tF)un), be unaccept- 

able (be sorry) 
Remarks.— I. With most of these verbs the Infinitive may 
be replaced by a baf) clause, and ;;///./ be so replaced unless 
the subject of the action in the dependent clause is either 
subject or direct object of the principal clause, as : 

(Sr glaubt, [cbr gcfc-(nc!t 311 fcin, He believes himself to 
be very clever ; — or : 

Gr glaubt, tin^ er [e^r gofrfncft ift. 
®»^ ^offte, 3U fomincn. He hoped to come ; -- but ; 
(Sr F»Dfftc, bn^ fein 3?ater fommen it^erbe, (see § 265, c\ 
He hoped that his father would come. 

@a t^at mir Icib, (5ic nirf^t gefeben nt finfim 


not to have seen 




n t^at mir teib, bag ic^ Sie nic^t gefe^en \)<x\iz ; — but; 




U i 


i. I 

(S§ ift mir l\d\ baf} 2ie gefommcn fmb, I am glad that 
you have come. 
2. The Infinitive clause as direct object is often represented 
in the principal clause by the neut. pron. eg (with prepositions 
by bn, see § 277, below), as : 

^c() ioac^e C0 nic{)t, attein ju fommen, I do not venture to 
come alone. 
Observe the idiomatic use of the Infinitive with 511 after 
\j0S)^x\., fdn, ftct;cu, in the following examples : 

%A) Dak ibm eincn 93ricf gu iibergeben, I have a letter 

to deliver to him. 
(!.g ift (ftcbt) 311 criDarten, It is to he expected. 

Note. — In the latter example, tlie infin. has a passive signification. 

A. 1. Guten Morgen, alter Freund ; nichts konnte mir gele- 
gener sein, als dich anzutreffen. 2. Ich freue mich herzlich, 
dich zu sehen ; ich habe schon lange einen Besuch von dir 
erwartet. 3. Du soUtest doch wissen, dass man wenig Zeit 
hat, Besuche zu machen, wenn man sich auf ein Examen vor- 
bereitet. 4. Das ist wahr, aber lass dir gratulieren ; du hast ja 
ein glanzendes Examen bestanden. 5. Es ist mir freilich viel 
besscr gelungen, als ich erwartete. (i. Was gedenkst du jetzt 
zu thun, da du promoviert hast ? 7. Gerade das wollte ich mit 
dir besprechen ; du kannst mir vielleicht mit gutem Rate bei- 
stehen. 8. Ich habe mich entschlossen, auf ein Jahr nach 
Europa zu gehen ; ware es nicht auch flir dich sehr vorteilhaft, 
ein Jahr dort zuzubringen ? 0. Sehr vorteilhaft, besonders 
wegen meines Sprachstudiums, aber ich furchte meine Verhalt- 
nisse erlauben es mir nicht. 10. Das sehe ich nicht ein, es 
wird nur wenig mehr kosten dort zu leben als hier. 11. Bist 
du deiner Sache gewiss ? 12. Ja vvohl, weisst du, ein Vetter von 
mir ist kiirzlich von Europa zurlickgekommen, ui.d ich habe 




mich bei ihm genau nach Allem erkundigt. 13. \^'o liat er die 
Zeit zugebracht? 14. Teils in England, teils in Frankreich 
(unci) tells in Deutschland, und er behanptet, dass man in Eu- 
ropa wenigstens ebenso billig lebcn kann wie in Amerika. 15. 
Aber du hast die Reisekosten nicht mit eingerechnet. IG. Na- 
turlich nicht, aber man reist jetzt viel billiger als man fruher 
reiste. 17. Hast du dein Billet schon gelost? 18. Noch nicht, 
aber ich habe mich darnach erkundigt und finde, dass man fiir 
hundert Thaler oder weniger liber New York nach Liverpool 
reisen kann. 19. Zweite Klasse natiirlich. 20. O nein, erste 
Klasse, und mit einer sehr guten Dampferlinie. 21. 1st es' mog- 
lich ? Du hast mich fast iiberredet, die Reise zu unternehmen. 
22. Komm nur heute Abend zu mir und wir werden die Sache 
weiter besprechen. 23. Gut ; also bis Abend. 

B. 1. Have the goodness to read this letter for me ; I have 
left my spectacles up-stairs, and cannot see very well. 2. Please 
read pretty loud, for my hearing is bad. :>,. Help me to do my 
work, and I will help you to learn your lessons. 4. When you 
(man) do not know what to say (what you shall say), say nothing. 
5. You will now close your books ; we have read enough for 
the present. 6. "To err is human; to forgive, divine," is a 
verse from a poem by the English poefPope. 7. I have so 
much work to do that I do not know where to begin. 8. Show 
the child how it is to learn its lesson. 9. 1 am tired of read- 
ing, and must now retire to rest. 10. " Eat, little^bird, eat," 
said a child to her bird. 11. " Thou shalt not stear is (called) 
the eighth commandment. 12. The habit of rising early is oJ 
great importance when one has a_greaf_deal_of work to do. 

13. If one wants to rise early, one should go to bed early. 

14. An old, well-known proverb says : " Man does not live to 
eat, but eats to live." 15. Another proverb says : " Speaking 
is silver; silence is gold.' 16. When I arrived at the railway'^ 
station I found that I had no money with me ; imagine my 




[§§ 273- 


embarrassment. 17. The art of making glass was already 
known to the ancients. 18. Are there any houses to sell or to 
rent in your neighbourhood? l!i. 1 wish to speak to Mr. 
Bell, 20. Have ((affcn) John black my shoes, for I am in a 
hurry. '21. I have heard say that the celebrat 'lOp of G. 

is coming ; would you not like to hear him pre.' • 22. Yes. 
I should like very much to hear him ])reach ; when is (loflen) 
he to come here? 2'.). We have h.ul the good^fortune to 
shoot three hares. 24. Some peoj>le would rather die than beg. 


273. Infinit e of Purpose. 

The Infinitive with ^u is used to express purpose., as: 

SOiein 3'vcunb {'am, inid^ ^u tuanint. My friend came to 
warn me. 

Remarks. — i. The Infin. expressing purpose is generally 
governed by the preposition U1U (see § 276, i, below), which 
begins the clause, as : 

^d) f'oinmc, iim Ste nad^i A^aufe 5U 6rini3cn, 1 come to fetch 
you home. 

2. An Infin. clause with }u is always preceded by a comma 
in German. 

3. This Infin. is also used, with or without ju, after adjec- 
tives preceded by \\\, ' too,' or {|Cnug, ' enough,' as : 

%6> iimr \\\ miibc, [liWiC) au^get^eu ju fiinttcu, 1 was too 
tired to be able to go out. 

(Ev ift vcicf) flcnuci, (urn) uicic Xieuer Ijalteu ju fiiuucn, 
lie is rich enough to keep many servants. 





Note.— -After -an adjective with ju, a cla 
may be used, as : 

m nuir sn iniibc, ah Dog id) au&flrl)ni foimtf, I was too tired to 
be able to go out. 

274. The Infinitive after Substantives. 

The Infinitive with 511 is used after substantives, nouns and 
adjectives, akin to the verbs in § 272, to express purpose, 
cic, as * 

v'^c^) ^abe CufJ, einen 3pa5icrciang ju moreen, I have a 
mind to take a walk. 

:3c^ battc fcinc ^cit, mid^ nad> ibm umjujc^cu, I had no 
time to look after him. 

er ift ftet^ bcrcit, ben i)amcn ju ^clfcil. He is always 
ready to help the poor. 

275. The Accusative with the Infinitive. 

The Accusative with the Infinitive is inadmissible in 
modern German; hence verbs denotin- statement, know- 
ledge, perception, etc., must be followed by a bo^ clause, as: 
(^^'i"/-) I know him to be a good man, • 
{Germ.) ^c^ \m\\\, bo^ fx ein filter ma\m if}. 
(E;igL) I perceived her to be inattentive, 
(Germ.) ^^cf) mcvttc, ba§ fic unaufnicrffam loar. 
Remarks. — i. In such sentences as those in the examples 
given in the above section, the passive construction with the 
Infin. is also inadmissible in German except impersonally, as : 
{EngL) He is known to be a good man, 
{Germ.) Mm tticife, bttj ?r ein i3utcr m'nf* ift; — or : 
QeA ift 6e!annt, bn^ cr u. f. \\\ 

Observe the different relations of the accusatives in the 


0*^1 ng sentences 




{EngL) I begged him (obj.- of ' begged ') to come, 

{Germ.) I^rf) bat i^it 311 fommcu. 

(Engl.) I wish tc see him {obj. of ' see'), 

{Germ.) ^d) trunfd)c, t^u 311 |e(;en. 

{Engl.) I wish him {subj. of 'come') to come, 

{Germ.) ^cf) iuunfd)e, bn^ cr tomnie. 

3. After glauben, the Infin. is admissible in German, but 
not in English, when the subject of the action is the same in 
both clauses, as : 

{Germ.) ^Jrf) g(auBte, vec^t gef)ort ju fjaben, 
{Engl.) I believed that I had heard aright. 

When, on the contrary, the subjects are different, the Infin. 
(with accus.) is admissible in English, but not in German, as: 
{Engl.) I believe him to be an honest man, 
{Germ.) ^d; glaubc, bo^ cr ein ebr'id;cr ^Dienfd) ift. 

4. The English Infin, in objective indirect questions is 
unusual in German, and should be replaced by a finite 
clause, as : 

{Engl.) He did not know where to go, 
{Germ.) gr tt)u^te ntd;t, iuofjin cr gct)en fottic. 
{Engl.) He told me what to do, 
{Germ.) @r fagte mir, tua§ ic^^ tliun fattte, 

276. The Infinitive governed by Prepositions. 

I, Only three prepositions can govern an infinitive (with gu) 
directly, viz. : um, ' in order,' o^uc, * without,' and (^au)ftott. 
* instead of,* as : 

©i* fam, U!H mid) toon biefem Unfad \[\ bcttttr^rij^ttflcn. 
He came, in order to inform me of this accident. 

^c^ founte ibn nid)t cin[eben, oftiic ber,3licb ^u lacben, 
I could not look at him, without laugh//z^ heartily. 


^itftott mic^ gebulbig nn^u^eren, untcrBrac^ er mid) 
beftanbig, Instead of listen//^^ to me patiently, he 
kept constantly interrupting me. 

Remarks.— i. Observe that in each of these examples the 
preposition stands at the beginning of the clause, the Infini- 
tive at the end, with the words dependent on the Infinitive 

?. The Infinitive after Df)nc and (an)ftatt may be replaced 
by a baf; clause. This is always the case when the subject of 
the action is different in the two clauses (compare § 224, 
2, b, Rem.). Thus we may say : 

Sd; furf)te Dorbcisufomnien, oFine gefeben 311 tticrbcn (or : 
obne ba^ id; ge[ef;en hjurbe), I tried to go past without 
being seen ; 

but we must say : 

^c^ fud)te bovbei^ubmrnen, o^ne bn^ man mid) fn§, I tried 
to go past without any one's seeing me, 
because the subjects of the two clauses are different. 

277. With other prepositions, the Infinitive or bo^ clause 
is represented in the principal clause by the adverb "i^^ pre- 
Lxed to the preposition, as : 

^c^ bei3nugtc mid; bamft, ibn meine Unsufriebenfjeit morfen 
311 loffcil, I was contented with showing him my 

2Bir bertaffen un^ baraiif, bn§ Sie fommen. We rely on 
your coming. 

%&i fonnte ibn md)t boron Derbinbern, oug^Uflc^cit, I could 
not prevent him from going out (or : his going 

tparen, He was jealous of our having been invited. 




[§§ a77- 

2Bir fe^nen urn tam^, ®ie toieiJcr^uje^en, We long to 

see you again. 
@r finbet ^i^er^piuflcn boron, tinber jtt neefcn. He finds 

pleasure in teasing children. 

©ie dvc\txU fid> 'Ooriiljer, bo^ unr [0 fpat famen, She was 
angry at our coming so late. 

Remarks. — i. The preposition 'of is often omitted, as: 
^ie '3Zad>vicf)t, baf| ber Aviebc unterjeicbnct tuorbcn Wat, 
The news of the peace being (having been) signed. 

2. The Infin. clause is only admissible when the subject of 
the action is the same as in the principal clause (compare 
§ 276, Rem. 2, above). 

3. The English Infinitive in -ing, or Gei /nd, must be 
carefully distinguished from the Present Participle, with 
which it has no connection. 

4. The genitive or possessive adjective in English before 
this Gerund will become the subject of the bo^ clause in 
(jerman, as : 

She was angry at our coming late, ©ie tt)ar bofc 

bariibcV, baf5 luir 511 f^iit famen. 
He insisted on his sister's '.earning Latin, (Sr beftanb 

barauf, bafe fcinc St^lucftcr 2atcin Icrntc (levnen foUtc). 

5. In an indirect question^ ob takes the place of ba^, as : 

(g§ gcbt mic6 md;t§ ^x^, ob er lonnnt ober nic^t, It does 
not concern me, whether he comes or not. 

6. When the Gerund expresses an adverbial _ relation (time, 
cause, etc.), it must oe expanded into an adverbial clause, as : 

Before concluding, I shall make one more obser- 
vation, r^lie t^ \Mvt^t. toerbc idb nod) einc 33emerfuna 


On seeing me, he held out his hand to me, ^U er 

midj |of|, hicit er mir bie §anb ^in. 
In persuading others we persuade ourselves, ^iibrm 

itJir anbere iilicrrcbcn, iibcrrcbcn n?iv un^ felbft. 

278. The Infinitive in Elliptical Constructions. 

1. The Infinitive is used, as in English, in various elliptical 
constructions, without being dependent on any other word, as : 

3Barum mid) tuccfcii? Why waken nie ? 

9^a(i) [eincm 3lu^fci;on 511 uvtcllen. To judge from his 

2. For the Infinitive with the force of an Imperative, see 
§ 269, Rem. 5, above. 


A. h Nicht, Fraulein B., Sie waren gestern Abend iiu 
Konzert.? ;2. Ja, waren Sie auch dort ? Ich habe Sie nicht 
gesehen. a. Das ist gem inoglich ; unter so vielen Mensciien 
findet man sich nicht leicht. 4. Der Saal war gedrangt voll, 
wahrscheinlich well das Konzert zum Besten des neuen Waisen- 
hauses gegeben wurde. 5. Nicht allein das, sondern auch weil 
die neue Sangerin, Fraulein M., zum ersten Male auftrat. 
6. Das Publikum schien von ihr ganz entziickt zu sein, und die 
Zeitungen sind heute Morgen voll ihres Ruhmes. 7. Ich habe 
nie eine so klare und starke Stimme gehort. S. In der Arie 
aus Lohengrin hat sie sich besonders ausgezeichnct. 9. Das 
Lied von Schubert mit Harfen-Begleitung gefiel mir am besten. 
10. Frau S. sang auch sehr gut, aber Sie schien ein wenig 
heiser zu sein. 1 1 . Trotz dem, was die Kritiker sagen, gefiel 
mir ihr Gesang besser a'ls der von Frl. M. 12. Ich finde auch, 
dass sie mii mehr Clefiihl singt und dass ihre Sdmme geschulter 
ist. 1:1. \^'as liaiten Sie vom Geigenspiel dcs Ilcrrn K. ? 14, Es 
muss sehr gut sem, dem Beifall nach zu uiteilen, aber ich ver- 




stehe mich nicht auf die Geige. 15. Ich ziehe die Geige jedem 
andern In^trumentevor. Ki. Spielt Ihr altester Bruder nicht 
die Geige? 17. Nein, aber er spielt die Flote unci begleitet 
mich oft, wenn ich auf deni Klavier spiele. 18. Ihre Familie 
ist iiberhaupt sehr musilialisch. 1{». Ja wohl, wir spielen fast 
alle mehr oder weniger. :>(). St-lbst Ihre kleinen Geschwister? 
2\. Ja, Marie spielt die Guitarre, Anna die Geige und Frie- 
drich nimmt seit einigen Monnten Stunden auf dem Violoncell. 
20. Wissen Sie, ob vicl fur das Waisenhaus iibrig blcibt, nach- 
dem alle Kosten bestritten sind? L>3. Etwa funf hundert 
Thaler, doch beabsichtigt man, ein zwcites Konzert im Laufe 
des Winters fUr denselben Zweck zu geben. 

/?. 1. Let us (indef.) not return evil for evil. 2. Do what 
is right, let it cost what it may. 3. The eighth command- 
ment says that we are not to steal. 4. He was punished for 
having neglected his duty. 5 The teacher told us we should 
close our books, we had read enough for the present. 
6. Freddy, do you stand, and give your little brother your 
chair. 7. In German they say of one who buys anything 
without seeing it that he buys a cat in a bag. S. Do you 
care to go for a drive with us ? 9. No. thank you. Do you ride 
(tahen); I prefer to walk. 10. Who has left these books lying 
on the table .Ml. John ; and he says he forgot to take them up. 
12. Bid him carry them up immediately into the study, and 
then let him come down here. 1 3. Every one thought Mi. 
N. to be a rich mm 1 ut he failed fperf.) lately. 14. I have not 
a single pen fit to write with, and I have a dozen letters to 
write. 15. Do not allow yourself to be disturbed by my com- 
ing ; do not stop writing. 16. The beggar, of whom we were 
speaking in another exercise, passed his youth in idling 
instead of workiiig. 17. Little Frederick had the misfortune 
to break an arm while skating, and he was obliged to remain 
lying in bed a week. 18. Alfred the Great divided the dav 




into three part3 : one part was devoted to business, the 
second to reading, praying and studying, and the third to 
eating, sleeping and pleasure. 19. We wished our friends to 
come in, but they had no time. 20. I am glad to have made 
your acquaintance. ;.'! . If you go hunting without your father 
knowing it, he will be very much displeased. 22. Our teacher 
useu to insist on our writing a German exercise every day, 
and it was impossible for us to neglect this duty without his 
knowing it. 23. Before going home we must go to visit your 
old friend L. If you went away without his seeing you, he 
would be very sorry. 24. We heard some one coming behind 
us on the street, aid we remained standing at the corner to 
see who it was. 25. Our old neighbour has three sons, but 
instead of their supporting him, he is obliged to support them. 
Is he not very much to be pitied > 



279. The Participles are properly Verbal Adjectives, and 
their uses and constructions are those of Adjectives. There 
are three Participles, the Present, the Past and the Future- 
Passive or Gerundive. The English compound Perfect Par- 
ticiple (e.g., 'having praised',) has no corresponding form 
in German, and must be rendered by a clause (see § 284, 


The Present Participle. 

The Present Participle has active force, and, like the 
Present Indie, marks a present or continuing state or action, 
the substantive which it qualifies being the subject of the 
action, as: 


Lesson xi.vii. 


Ta^ [(^Infcnbc ilinb. The sleeping child (= 'the child 
that sleeps '). 

Sine ^anrfirtinOcnbe ©efc^ic^te, A story that makes 
one's hair stand on end. 

The Present Participle is for the most part used only 
atinhutively, as in the above examples. It is used predica- 
tively only: 

{a) When it is a true adjective in function, without any idea 
of time, as : 

Seine 5lrann;eit ift nirfit kbputnib. His illness is not 

2)ie Sd^onbeit biefev Sanbfc^aft ift cntjiitfcwb. The beauty 

of this landscape is enchanting (i. e., delightful). 

ib) In apposition with the subject (sometimes also with 

the direct object) of the sentence in which it occurs, when 

the action of the Participle is simultaneous with thai of the 

principal verb, as : 

©icb frfntcir nac^i mir ummcnbeub, \oX) er niir in^ ©eftc^t. 
Turning quickly around, he looked into my face. ' 

^Prriitcub [rf)Iuc3 fie bie ^ilugen nieber. Blushing she 
dropped her eyes. 

gJrcifcnb mit bid \Cmm\ 3?eben 
S^rer Sdnbev SlJevt unb 3a^r, 
6af,jt uicle bcutfd^e ^uirften 
einft 5u Sorm§ im .<Raiferfaar. (Kerner.) 
Praising with many fine speeches the worth and num- 
ber of their territories, many German princes v^ere 
sitting one day in the Imperial Hall at Worms. 

Remarks.— I. This construction is more usual in puetic 
or exalted diction than in ordinary language, where it is gen- 
erally replaced by an adverbial clause (see § 284, below). 




2. The Present Participle is not used in German, as it is 
in English, with the auxiliary * to be ' (see § 31, Rem. 3). 

281. The Past Participle. 

The Past Participle of a transitive verb has passive 
force, not necessarily with any distinct reference to past 
time, as : 

^aei gelicMe ^inb, The beloved child (i. e., the child 
that is or was beloved). 

But when the participle indicates a single action, it has 
perfect force, as : 

^a^ flcfio^rcttc ^ferb, The horse which has been 

The Past Participle of an ^ntransitii^e verb has active 
force, as : 

^ie g)Jufif \i(xi oufgc^ort. The music has ceased. 

Remarks. ~ i. The Past Participle of transitive verbs may 
be used attributively as well as predicatively, as in the first 
two examples above. 

2. The Past Participle of intransitive verbs conjugated 
with fein is sometimes used attributi\ely and denotes a state 
produced by the action of the verb, as : 

Ta§ lucgficlnnfcttC ^sferb, The horse which had run 
away; but not: ^a§ Bclaiifenc %\<:x\>, 

3. The Past Participle, like the Present (compare § 280/;, 
above), may be used predicatively in apposition to the sub- 
ject (or sometimes to the direct object) of the sentence in 
which it occurs, as : 

2)a^ 2?Dlf, Dom ?^-urften unferbriirft, emporte fic^ gegen 
t{)n. The people. ODpressed bv fhp nrinri> rAtri^if^rj 
against him. 





4. For the Past Participle with Imperative force, see §269, 5. 

5. The Past Participle replaces the English J^nse;?/ Parti- 
ciple after fommcn to specify the manner of the motion, as : 

@r tarn i Cflongcn, gcfoufcn u. f. w., He came walking, 
running, etc. 

6. After verbs of ca///ng, it is used for the Infinitive, as : 

Ta$, f)eint (ncnnc i(b) fiir bie ^iifunft gcforgt, That is (I 
call that) caring for the future. 

7. It also replaces an Infinitive in such phrases as the 
following : 

^cf; mn^ fort! £ieber I^ier 211(^3 im etid^e rcloffcn ! I 
must go ! Rather (would I) leave everything in the 
lurch here. (Lessing.) 

8. It is used in a few (7/?so/u/e constructions, with or with- 
out a substantive, which is usually in the accusative when 
present, as : 

^UflCgckn, ba^ bieg Waijx ift. Granted that this is true. 
3}icincn 53ritber ouggcncmmcu, Waxm aik jugegen, Ex- 
cept my brother, all were present. 

282. The Future Passive Participle. 

This Participle, also called the Gerundive, has the form 
of the Present Part, preceded by gu. It is formed from tramt^ 
tive verbs only, and is only used attributively, being replaced 
•n the predicate by an infinitive with ju, as : 

(^ine 3u (oOcnbe .Oanblung, An act to be praised ; but 
eine ^anbhutfl, Jt)eld;e 311 UUw {ft. 

283. General Remarks on the Participles. 

I. Many words with the form of Participles have the value of 
adjectives. Some occur as adjectives only (see also § 194^ 
Note), others with a special menning, as: fjclef^vt, learned i 
mmwx, acquainted; uerju-ieben, different; beja^rt, aged, etc. 

has read. ^°'^'^"'^'' '""= ^l'^"™^" ; *«« ©elefenc, what one 

inr;;:'; !^" ^' ^^-^>"- -^^^ ~::r: 

its subLntit r . sSt? 'it' T ";-""''""'^ p^^-^-^^- 

poetry, precedes the^ s e S .sL . ?\'''"'°^"^ '" 
and more correctly folLls as '' "^' '"' ^-^'^Hy 

» bcr due,, §«„b mmmtni, „,it bet anbern bn3 
fob „6cr ben, iVaffcv cn.^or(,„It„,b u.f.u, Swim 
m,ng vv,.l. one Itand, with ,he other holdinrZ" 
child above water, etc. "'"ing tne 

2)as ms, lu-m ,^.iir,-tc„ untcrbriirft u. f. lo.. The neoole 
oppressed by the prince, etc. '^ "^ ' 

284. English Participial Construct,ok,s. 
I. The Present Participle is never used in (v.,„ 
frequently is in Kn.lish, t^ express ad^rbil^ r'S :; •,: 




iced, where so used, by 

a reg 


or cause, and must be replaced, where so 
adverbial clause, introduced by the proper adverb or con- 
junction, as follows : 

(a) To express time, the conjunctions bo, aU, * when,' 
ittbcm, nja()rcni5. 'while,' must be used, as : 
Seeing him turn pale, I hastened to his assistance, 
^tt (aU) i* \bn erblci^en ia% eilte i* i^m jur .t^ilfe ^evbei. 
Recovering himself, the orator continued, ^W^^m 
er fid; fammelte, fubr ber ^Tiebuev fort. 
Remarks.— I. The English Perfect Participle is replaced 
by a clause with noff)llcm (or oJS', with the Pluperfect, as : 

Having examined his papers, they let him go, 9la(^= 

bcm man feine "^a^ierc unterfucf)t l^attc, Uefe man \hn 


2. The clause with inbcm, indicating simultaneous action, 

may be replaced by a participial clause in the case specified in 

§ 280, /-, above. 

(p) To express cause, the conjunctions btt, illbcm, * as,' 
'since,' or lucil, 'because,' must be used, as: 
Being an honest man, he may be trusted, 99Beit er ein 

etjrlidicr "OJiann ift, fo tarn man i{)m trauen. 
Hoping to see you soon, I remain ever yours, ^nbcm 
i* boffc, 3ic balb ju fcbcn, mhUxU tcf» \UU ber ^i^rige. 
Not having found him at home, I went away, 2)tt 
tcf> i(m ni*t 511 .soaufe flcfuubcn ^itc, ging icB fort. 
2. The Present Participle qualifying a preceding sub- 
stantive or pronoun is changed: 

{a) Into a regular relative clause with finite verb, as : 
A loaf was found at Herculaneum, still retaining 

its form, Gin 3?rut Vourbe 511 ^ 
welches uocli bie ^orm bcibcjtclt. 


The sliip, having come straight towards us, sliowed 
the black flag, Ta^ ecf)iff, mclf^cg geral^c auf mi 
^ugcfommcn toar, scigte bie \d)mr^c ^taggc. 

with ?hT; "f Ju" ''"'' 1 '^'^'^ '" ''^' ^^""''^'"^ ^'^"^^ ^"1 correspond 
wuh that of the pr,nc,pal verb, as shown above, the Pluperfect, however 
generally replacing the English Perfect Participles. 

(/') Into an attributive participial clause, in which the 
Participle will immediately precede the substantive 
(see § 283, 4, above), as : 

A man passing on the street, Gin auf ber Strafee tior« 
Dcigc^cnbcr 9)?ann. 
3. A Participle preceded by an adverbial conjunction is 
replaced by a finite clause with the corresponding conjunc- 
tion, as : - o J 

While travelling in Europe, we met a great many 
Americans, %\^ jmr in Guropa reiften, trafcn tt)ir mit 
t^ielen Imerifanern gufammen. 

For the Infinitive in -ing, or Gerund, and its German equi- 
valents, see § 276, above. 


A. 1. Haben Sie Ihr Billet schon gelost.? -2. Nein noch 
nicht. ;}. Dann miissen wir uns beeilen ; wir sollten erst etwas 
geniessen, ehe wir abreisen. 4. Hier ist der Schalter : soil ich 
auch ein Billet fur Sie nehmen ? 5. Danke, ich habe meins 
schon gelost. (i. Jetzt bin ich fertig, aber wir haben kaum drei 
Viertelstunden Zeit, bis der Zug abfahrt. 7. Dann miissen wir 
nach der ersten besten Restauration gehen. H. Dort druben ist 
eine. 9. Das trifft sich gutj gehen wir gleich hinein. ](). 
Kellner, wir haben es sehr eilig. 1 1 . Nehmen Sie Platz, meine 
Herren ; ich werde Sie sofort bedienen ; hier ist die Speise- 
karte 1:>. Geben Sie mir gefalligst einen Teller Suppe. 
13. Und Sie, mein Herr? 14. Brin-en Sif^ m,v -,„«,.. ..v,^ 
Semette. lo. Entschuldigen Sie, hier ist sie. 16. Ich nehme 



II 284 


eine Forelle. 17. Bedaure, es ist keine mehr da. 18. Nun, 
dann bringen Sie mir ein StUck Lachs. 19. Hier ist die Wein- 
karte; trinken die Herren V/ein? 20. Bringen Sie eine 
Flasche Rotvvein und Glaser. 21. Wie schmeckt Ihnen der 
Fisch? 22. Ausgezeichnet. 23. Diese Suppe schmeckt mir 
gar nicht. 24. Lassen Sie sich doch Fisch kommen. 25. Ich 
mache mir nichts aus Fisch ; - KeUner ! 2(). Zu Befehl. 27. 
Eine Portion Entenbraten mit grunen Erbsen. 28. Wunschen 
Sie keine Kartoffeln? 21). Jawohl, gebratene Kartoffeln. Brin- 
gen Sie audi Brot. aO. Noch etwas ? 81. Nein. Was wunschen 
Sie, Herr B. ? 32. Bitte, reichen Sie mir die Speisekarte. Ich 
bes'telle mir Kalbskoteletten mit Kartoffeln und gelben Riiben. 
33. SonstnochGemiise? 34. Etwas Blumenkohl. 35. Erinnern 
Sie sich schon fruher hier gespeist zu haben, Herr B. ? 36. Nicht 
dass ich wiisste ; die Restauration scheint neu zu sein. 37. Des- 
halb wird man vielleicht so gut bedient. 38. Ist den Herren etwas 
gefaUig ? 39. Bringen Sie mir eine Portion Eis und eine Tasse 
Kaffee. 40. Und mir eine Tasse Chocolade und eine Portion 
Erdbeeren mit Sahne, und schreiben Sie alles auf meine Rech- 
nung. 41. Hier ist die Rechnung, mein Herr. 42. Wie viel 
betragt sie? 43. Sieben Mark funfzig Pfennig. 44. Hier 
sind acht Mark; das Ubrige ist Ihr Trinkgeld. 45. Jetzt 
mussen wir fort ; es hat soeben auf dem Bahnhofe zum ersten 
Male gelautet. 

^. 1. A sleeping fox catches no chicken. 2. Sleeping 
dogs* do* not bite. 3. The past cannot be helped (changed) ; 
let us rather think of what is to come. 4. It is much better 
to think without speaking than to speak without thinking. 
5. Man is a speaking animal, a fire-using animal a laughing 
animal : these are some of the definitions which have been 
proposed by philosophers. (>. We learn to speak German in 
speaking German. 7. Well hit (treffcu) ! I call that well 
played ! 8. I wanted to show you an article in yesterday's 


paper, but it is nowhere to be found. 9. Let me know when 
you think of coming to town. 10. The skill of ants in the 
buildmg of their nests is astonishing. U. Smiling, he began 
to read the letter, but before having read the half of it, he 
threw it furiously on the floor. 12. A hussar came galloping 
down the street and said the battle was beginning. 13. The 
Paradise Lost of Milton is one of the most important works 
of English literature ; it was written in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, but this does not prevent its being still much read. 
14. After having been so well received by us, I wonder that 
he is not ashamed to speak evil of us. 15. The morning was 
cool and charming, but towards noon the heat became 
oppressive, and we saw great clouds rising in the west 
iO. He says the matter is perfectly clear, but his saying so 
does not make any difference. 1 7. He went away complain- 
mg that there was no use talking to people who did not want 
to understand. 18. That was because he was angry, and 
because he had not succeeded in making himself understood 
(berftdnblid)). 19. Make no mistakes in copying your exercise, 
or else a second copying will be your punishment. 20. Besides 
making mistakes the last time, you wrote very badly. 21. " The 
danger to be avoided," said he, "is not yet past." 22.'Going 
(^ingefjen) to visit our friends in Schiller-street this afternoon, 
we met them coming to visit us. 23. His being rich is no excuse 
for his being lazy j we do not need to be idle merely because 
we are not forced to earn our bread. 24. A certain man, just 
before dying, called his sons to him, and told them there was 
a treasure lying hidden somewhere in his field. 25. Believing 
they would find it, they began digging everywhere, bu^t 
without finding the wished-for (orh)iln[rf^t) treasure. 26. One 
of them, wiser than the others, finally guessed what his father 
had meant by ha-.-ing told them this. 27. This son said that 
smce digging the ground the crop had been nmch better, and 
that this was the treasure the father meant. 





285. Concord of Subject and Verb. 

1. The predicate verb (the finite part, or that containing 
the copula) agrees with its subject in number and person. 

2. Two or more subjects require the verb in the plural, as : 

^Jiciu i^atcv unb inciuc ^Jhitter fiitb ^ier gen)efen. My 
father and mother have been here. 

'remarks. — I. If the subject nearest to the verb be singu- 
lar, the verb is sometimes in the singular, especially if the 
subjects follow the verb, as : 

©eine §abfurf)t, feiue iippige Seben^art, feiu ^odn^i^n'*-'"^'^^ 
3Befen fcrotitc bie Grbitterung gegen i^n auf? J^brfifte, 
His avarice, his luxurious mode of living, his arro- 
gant behaviour, excited the animosity against him 
to the highest point. (Schiller, Egmonfs Leben 
und Tod.) 
Dbcn bei bem ^bronc log i?er S^bnig unb bie Monigin, 
Above near the throne lay the King and Queen. 

(Grimm, Dornroschen.) 

Note. — This is especially the case when the subjects, indicating 
things or abstract ideas, are regarded as forming together one idea, or 
are more less synonymous, e. g. : 

^Ott« unD ^Of ift Dcrtnitft, House and home are sold. 
©Clb una ©Ut lltttJ^t uicl)t gtudlid), Money and property (= wealth) 
do not make [one] happy; 
or when particular attention is called to the last (as forming a 
climax), e. g.: 

:Uicin ilkmibgen, iiiciu :1hif, mcitt l^eben ft€{}t nicl}t anf bem @piele, 
My property, my reputation, my life (the most important of allj, 
are not at stake. 




2. If the subjects be of different persons, the verb agrees 
in person with the first rather than the second or third, and 
with the second rather than the third, the plural pronoun of 
the proper person being usually (always with the second per- 
son) expressed before the verb, as : 

2)u \\\M> \6> (mcin ^i^rubcv unb idO, luir gingen au^, You 
and I (my brother and I) went out. 

®u unb bcine ed)me[tcr, ijr jcid au^gcgangen. You and 
your sister went out. 

3. With titles of rank and compliment the verb is usually 
in the plural (see also § 49), as : 

Seine 5Jiaieftat ^okn geru^t u. f. lu.. His Majesty has 
been pleased, etc. 

4. CoUectives, if singular, take a verb in the singular, unless 
followed by a plural substantive in apposition or in the geni- 
tive, as : 

@ine gro^e a}ien[d;enmenge toor jugegen ; — but : 
Gine grofje 3Jiengc 9}ien(clHMi marctt gugegen, A great 
number of people were present. 
^ Notes.— I. The singular may also be used in such cases as that 
given in the second example above, unless the collective is considered 
with reference tu its component parts individually. 

2. With nouns of Number in the sing, (see § 185, i) the verb is used 
in the plur. only 'vhen an indefinite quantity is meant, as : 

©in |inar (= cinifle) i£agc tnnrcn Devflaugcn, A few days had 
passed ; — but : 

etn ^aar ©ticfel foflct ftebeu 2;t)a(cr, A pair of shoes costs seven 

5. When the real (logical) subject is represented by c6, or 
some other neut. sing, pron., before the verb (see §§ 39 ; 82, 
Rem. 2 ; 141), the verb agrees with the logical, not with the 
grammatical subject, as : 

d^ pub meine ^vubef, It is mv brothers. 




Lcaso:, XI. nil. 


Note. With z/^rsonal pronoun as , 'act, tkl. t5 follows the verb 
(see § 39, 2). 

6. If the subjects be separ:ited by a disjunctive conjunc- 
tion or conjunctions, the verb regulnrly agrees with the last 
only, but this rule is by no means so strictly observed as in 
English, even by the best writers, e. g. : 

SBcbcr bie Union noi^ bie Si^ue mifrfjrrn fic^ in biefen 
©trcit. Neither the Union nor the leag took part 
in this dispute. 
©otco^l bie gage a({l bie 53efeftiguni3 biefer Stabt fd|iejicn 
jebem Slngriffe ^Troij ju bietcn. The situation, as well 
as the fortification, of this city seemed to defy 
every attack. (Schiller, lojahriger Krieg.) 
Notes. — i. Construdtions like the following : 

Gnttucbcr bu obcr icf) bin taiib, Either you or I am deaf, 
are in German, as in English, telt to be awkward, and are therefore 
avoided by substituting some other construction, e. g. : 

Giitmebcr irf)btntaub,obcrbu bift e8, Either I am deaf, or you are. 

2. The sing, is used after expressions of the time of day, and in the 
multiplication-table, as : 

®« iP yi\)\\ 111)1", It is ten o'clock. 

3fl}U mat elf ift (mod)t) Ijunbcrt Uiib yi\)w, Ten times eleven is one 
hundred and ten. 

286. Repetition of Sui3ject. 

When several connected sentences have a common subject, 
the subject must be repeated (as pronoun) when the order of 
the words is changed, as : 

3Der 3ug fommt urn neun U^r an, unb faBrt urn ftalb 5eJ)r. 

tuieber ab. The train arrives at nine o'clock, and 

leaves again at half-past niue ; — but : 
2)er 3ug fommt um neun Uyr an, unb urn bal6 gefin fdbrt 

cr h)ieber ab. The train arrives at , ne o'clock, and 

*;*; haif-pasl nine it leaves again. 




287. Omission of Predicative Verb. 

.t>aben and fein, as auxiliaries of tense, may be omitted in a 
subordinate sentence, as : 

9Md>bcui fie ben ilkief rtdefcii, loeinte fie. After she had 
read the letter, she wept. 

288. Other Concords. 

1. TheAttributive (or Determinative) Adjective agrees 
with the substantives il qualifies in gender, number and case 
(for inflections see Less. XX, XXII, XXlVj; the Predica- 
tive Adjective has no inflection (see § 14). 

2. For the concord of Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives 
with their antecedent (in gender, number and person) see 
§§ z'i, Rem. 4; 39 ; 43, Rem. 3, 4; 82, Rem. i, 2; 83, Rem. 
I ; 86; 95, I (//); 1C2, 2. 

NcTE. A Relative Pronoun referring to an antecedent of the first 
or second person takes the verb in the third person, unless the relative is 
followed by the personal pronoun, as stated in § 95, i [h], e. g. : 

53ift bu e«, bcr fo ^,ittertV — or: J^ift bit ct% bcr bu fo 3itterfi? 
Is it you that tremble ? 

289. The Appositive Substantive. 

1. A substantive or pronoun may have another substantive 
attached to it attributively, giving a further description or 
definition of the person or thing spoken of. This latter sub- 
stantive is said to be in apposition to the former, as : 

yjiein A-reunb, bcr 8c§rcr, trug feine ein^iJie 2Baffe, cinen 
birfcn Storf, in ber .'pnnb, My friend, the teacher, 
carried his only weapon, ? thick stick, in his hand. 

2. A substantive or pronoun may also be placed in appo- 
sition to a sentence or clause, as : 

©r fagte, ba^ er iuiebcr gang gefunb fei, cine ©e^ouiihing, 
n)eld)eid) be,;;iDcifeltc^. or; ttiQ? jcfi be^iueifelte, He said he 
was quite well again, a statement which I doubted. 

■ f 





3. The appositive substantive is in the same case as the 
substantive which it defines, thus : 

5iarl (Nona.), muw jiingftcr ^^ruber, ift franf, Charles, 
my youngest brother, is ill. 

2)ie Mrari!(;eit Marls (Gen. \ >neine» iiingften iBniberg, The 
illness of Charles, my youn^^est brother. 

(iinc gefdt;rUcI;c Mrant(;eit brobtc ( Marl (Dat.), meis 
nem jungftcn 50vubcr ; or : bctvohtc ( trans. ) Marl (Ace), 
meincn iiingften IHubcr, A dangerous illness threat- 
ened Charles, my youngest brother. 

Notes. — i. A substantive in apposition to a sentence is put in the 
Nominative, as in the example under 2, above. 

2. An appositive genitive without a determinative word before it, 
especially v.hen governing another genitive, is uninflected, as : 

Die iliautt)eit be* ifvonpviii^cn, «ol)n bej? bciitfd)iMi .l{aifcr«, The 
illness of the Crown-Prince, son of the German Emperor ; but : 

2)ie ftranfl)eit be<j .^ironpvin^cn, ticS iilteftcu <^ol)iie8 n. i. m., The 
illness of the Crown-Prince, the eldest son, etc. 

4. The appositive substantive generally agrees also in 
number with the word it defines, except in the case of abstract 
substantives and collectives, as : 

gornelien^ Minber, i^r Stolj unb iljre j^rcubc, Cornelia's 

children, her pride and joy. 
2)a lebteu bie ^irtcn, eiu Ijarmlo^ 0^c|d|lciht, There lived 

the shepherds, a harmless race. (Schiller. > 

5. The appositive substantive agrees in gender when there 
is a special form for the feminine, as : 

^ie ©raijitatiou ift bie Scntcriu bcr '-Baljnen allev ^im= 
rnelsfbrper, Gravitation is the director of the courses 
of all heavenly bodies. 

6. These rules are also applicable to an apposition intro- 
duced by al5, ' as,' e. g. : 




^6) fanntc ihn a(« §(r\oh ;Nom.), I knew him as (when) 
a boy (i. e., when / was a boy) ; — but : 

^d) fannte il;n alg ^naben, I knew him when {/if was) a 


A. 1. Konnen Sie mir eine gute T^uchhandlung empfehlen ? 
2. Was fiir Bticher wollen Sie kaufen ? ii. Ich miichte mir die 
Werke einiger von den besten deutschen Schriftstellern an- 
schaffen. 4. Sie soUten zu Herrn Br?nn gehen ; er hat einen 
sehr groszen Vorrat, besonders von den deutschen Klassikern. 
5. Wo ist das Gescliaft? (>. Nur einige Schritt(e) von hier, 
Nummer fUnf, urn die Ecke ; ich werde Sie begleiten. 7. Das 
ware mir sehr angenehm. S. Sie scheinen ein groszer Biicher- 
freund zu sein. i). J a, das ist eine Schwache, die mich viel Geld 
kostet, aber mir auch viel Vergnugen macht. 10. Hier ist der 
Laden ; ich erwarte Sie auf meinem Bureau, wenn Sie fertig 
sind. 11. Ich danke vielmals fiir Ihre Aufmerksamkeit. Also, 
auf Wiedersehen. 1;2. Zeigen Sie mir gefalligst einige Exem- 
plare von Schillers Werken. 13. Gebunden oder ungebunden ? 
14. Zeigen Sie mir beides. 15. Aus wie vielen Banden besteht 
dieses Exemplar? IB. Aus zwolf, und ich mochte Sie auf den 
ausgezeichneten Druck aufmerksam machen. 17. Der Druck 
ist sehr klar ; haben Sie noch sonstige (andere) Ausgaben ? 1 H. 
Wir haben Ausgaben in groszerem Format', aber nur gebunden. 
Hier sind sie. 19. Das Format gefallt mir besser, aber ich 
mag den Einband nicht. 20. Dem ist leicht abzuhelfen. Ich 
bestelle Ihnen ein Exemplar und lasse es nach Ihrem Ge- 
schmack einbinden. :>]. Gut, ich mochte es in braunem Leder 
mit Titel gebunden haben ; aber wie viel soil ich Ihnen dafur 
bezahlen? 22. Die Ausgabe kostet zehn Thaler, der Ein- 
band fiinf, 2H. Bekomme ich Rabatt' ? 24. Ja, zehn Prozent 
gegen bare Bezahlung. 25. Ich bezahle bar ; das macht zwei 
und vierziir Mark. 2<). Wiinschcn Sie noch etwas? 27. Ich 



[§§ 289- 


mochte auch Goethes sammtliche Werke in demselben Format 
und Einband haben. ;i8. Es thut mir leid, dass wir keine mehr 
haben, aber ich kann sie bestellen und gleich iiiit der anderen 
Ausgabe einbinden labsen, 29. Zum selben Preise? 30. 
Nein, es wird mit Einband achtzehn Thaler netto betragen. 

31. Dann besorgen Sie es gefiilligst, und schicken Sie mir die 
Werke nebst Rechnung an diese Adresse ; hier ist meine Karte. 

32. Ich besorge aMes aufs Sorgfaltigste ; binnen acht Tagen 
sollen Sie die Biicher haben. 

B. 1. "Books," said Alfonso the Wise of Spain, "are 
my most honest councillors : neither fear nor hope prevents 
them telling me what my duty is." 2. "It is not my courtiers," 
said this king, " who tell me most honestly what my duty is , 
it is my books." 3. "No courtier dares to say to a king: 
'Your Majesty is wrong,' but my books tell me so every day." 
4. I asked a gentleman standing near me, if he knew what 
time it was, and he answered me that it was exactly twelve 
o'clock. 5. More than two hours have passed since then, so 
it must now be between two and three o'clock. (>. Was it 
you that came to see me yesterday, when I was awa)' from 
home .'' 7. Yes, my brother and I wanted to visit you, and 
we were sorry not to find you at home. 8. Margaret, the 
eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, married James 
IV. of S-^otland. 9. These were the grand-parents of Mary 
Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 10. To do what^is^right, and 
to be happy, is one and the same, for virtue is its own reward. 
11. Dear father and mother, do you remain sitting here until 
I go for a carriage to drive you home, for I know you are too 
tired to walk. 12. Twelve and twelve make twenty-four, and 
twelve times twelve is one hundred and forty-four. 13. 
After having seen London and Paris, we had not much desire 
to see other cities. 14. I wrote to K.. invitinij him to pnss 
his holidays with us, and by return of post received a letter. 




saying we might expect him in a fortnight. 15. I asked you 
first as my oldest friend to assist me in this embarrassment. 
l(j. I know we should avoid asking our friends for help until 
we have done our utmost to help ourselves. 17. The hunts- 
man whistled, and his dogs came running from the wood. 
18. Our teacher was^in^the Jiabit^of telling us we should 
do what was right, let it cost what it would. IJ). Is your 
teacher still living? Yes, he is still living, but he is getting 
very old now. 20. Goethe and Schiller are the two greatest 
poets of Germany : it is dithcult to say which of the two is 
most beloved by the German, people. ;>1. If ^ ou think we 
are right, give us some sign of approval : a word, a smile, a 
glance will suffice. :>•>. All the rest of our party arrived at 
the top of the mountain before sunset, but my friend and I 
arrived only at nine in the evening. :>:\. Expect us on Thurs- 
day next, health and weather permitting. 24. The gentleman 
coming out of that shop is Dr. B., and the lady accompanying 
him is his niece. Miss L. 25. Did you ever see the Emperor 
William .'* I have never seen him as Emperor of Germany, 
but I saw him many years ago as King of Prussia. 



290. The Appositive Adjeciive. 

I. Attributive Adjectives and participles are said to be 
lised appositively when they are separated from their substai> 
Uve, as : 

3)er ^age, jung, ^iifift^ imb gciftrdr^, Wax ber :^iebling 
be^ .|)aiifi>!v The page, young, handsome and 
clever, was the favourite of the house. 







^311 bcv 3cl;IadU fcurig unb |urd)tlo0, iuar ^lionmoutb 
fonft iiberaff UH'idUid} unb unfAIiiffig, Ardent and 
intrepid in battle, Monmouth was everywhere else 
effeminate and irresohite. 
2. This appositive adjective or participle is, like the pre- 
dicate adjective, uninflected, and is placed at the end of its 
clause. It is used much more sparingly in German than in 
English, and is almost wholly confined to apposition with the 
subject of the sentence (sometimes also with the direct object). 
In English the attributive adjective or participle is generally 
used appositively when it has more than one modifier, and 
always when it has a complement (as in the second example 
above). In German on the contrary the attributive adjective 
is freely used in all such cases before a substantive. All such 
appositive adjectives or participles, unless referring to the 
subject (or direct object) of the sentence, must be rendered 
in German either by an attributive or by a relative clause. The 
following examples will serve to illustrate to what extent the 
appositive adjective can be used in German, and to show how 
it is to be replaced in German in various connections. 

{a) English Appositive = German Appositive (see also the 
examples under i, above) : 

(Engl.) Beleaguered with present distresses and 
the most horrible forebodings on every side, 
roused to the highest pitch of indignation, yet 
forced to keep silence and wear the face of 
patience, Schiller could endure this constraint no 
longer. (Carlyle, Life of Schiller.) 

{Germ.) 9Sou gegcuiudvtiijni 9JiJten unb ben f(l^rec!Iid;ften 
Sl^nungeu i)on alien 3citcu Jcimgcjur^t, bi§ auf ben 
l;oc^[ten ©rab ctttriiftct, gcjttungctt jebod), ftilljus 
fc^ttjeigcn unb bie 5!Jlaefe bev ©cbulb gu tragen, fonnte 
Sd^iKer biefcu 3^tt"S "^^ Idnger erbulben. 




raint no 

NoTr..--In this example, as in those under i. above, the adjectives 
(participles) beleaguered, f tc, are in apposition to the subject ' Schiller.' 

{J>) English AppositiTe Adjective == German Attributive 
Adjective or Relative Clause : 

{Engl.) To judge from the quantity of light emitted 
from Jie brightest stars, there is (one has) reason 
to suppose that some of them are much greater 
than the sun. ^ 

(i) \ (Germ.) "^adj bet toon beit bctlften Sternen ouggeftra^I^ 
ten 2irf)tmafje 511 urteilen, f)at \\\axi ©runb anjunefjmen, 
ba^ einige bation biel grb^ev finb aU bie Sonne ; or : 
narf) ber Sicbtmaffc ju iirteilen, ttjcl^e u. ]. lu. augge= 
fiiro^U luirb u. \. \o. 

{E?igl.) In the Isle of Man vast trees are found 
standing firm on their roots, 
(ii) -' {Germ.) 2luf ber ^\x\d 9Jian finbet man ntad)tige §8aumc, 
metric auf ben 3Bur§eIn fcftftc^cn ; or : mdcf)tige, auf 
. ben SBurjeln fcfifie^cnbc '-Sdumc. 

Notes. — i. The participles in these examples are in apposition to the 
objects 'quantity (of light)' and 'tree' respectively. 

2. Observe the position of the Germ, attributive adj. immediately before 
the substantive. 

(c) English Appositive Adjective = German Attributive 
Adjective : 

{Engl.) Bruce caused his men to lie down to take 

some sleep at a place about half a mile distant 

from the river. 
( Germ.) 'ikuce lie^ fcine Seute fid) nn einer ungefdbr 

cine l)albe 9JZeile bom ^^hiffc cntfcrittcn ©telle nieber= 

Icgen, nm ein n»emg %\x fdUafen. 

NoTK. — An attributive clause is preferable here, since a relative 
clause would separate the clause of purpose (iUll, etc.) from the infin. 
(Uieberiegcn) on which it depends. 





[§§ 290- 



{Bngi:) During the eruption of the volcano, the dark- 
ness occasioned by the ashes was so profound, 
that nothing hke it was ever experienced 

^"■'x's.^'5""*' ^''^ *"«6™*'^« K'6 %mmi toav bie 
burd b.e a(i4.e ttcrurforfite Tvinftcrnis f„ tief, toie man 
me ctlt)a« aiinlidieS toahrgcnommen battc 

bi,l, ,J ""'-"'''•^' y' 'he position of the subject ,,fUr the verb for 

^^:zi^ ''''-''- --'-'- ^" ^--- - ais:tt 

("V I ^,f"^^'\ j! ^^' ^'^ P^^^'^ advantageous for defence. 

(^«.<) This plant has changed into two distinct 
vegetables, as unlike each other as is each of 
them to the parent-plant. 

(Gen;^.) Dtcfe ^^flan^c hat fic(, in jtyei berfc^iebene @e= 
mufeavtcn uerimanbelt, mclt^c einanber fo unafintiA 
fmb, line jebe bcrfelben ber SJhitteri^franje ift 

of ":^;;^:::^:;:rtt::Tr'"" '^ ^— — „„t 

3»1. Syntax of the Prepositions. 

The cases governed by the various Prepositions are fully 
t eated of m Lessons IX, XIII, A, and XXXVIII, and tlreir 
icl.omm.c use is furtlier defined in Less. XXXIX 

ad iecdvefr °^ ™™^' r^"' •■''"'" "' "'^" "' substantives and 
," ess d ll '■"''° "" ""' ""'" ■■" -^'g-fication, is ex- 
.^ er,^' P-PO-t.o„s. The proper use of prepositions 
aftu ,erbs, etc., must be learnt fron, practice and rom the 
dictionary ; but below is given, for convenient reference he 
regimen of particular classes of verbs, etc., which differ most 
widely from their English equivalents. 

[§§ aso^ 




I. at, of = iificr -f- Ace, of sorrow, Joy, wonder etc., 



, fid) drgern, be vexed 
erroten, blush 
erftauneu, be astonished 
fic^ frcuen, rejoice 
fid^ gram en, grieve 
flagen, complain 
Iad)en, laugh 
fic^ frf)amen, be ashamed 
[potten, mock 
fic^ (ber)h)itnbern, wonder 


Strger, vexation 
Grvotimg, blush 
©rftauncn, astonishment 
?^'rcube, joy (also an -}- Dat.) 
©ram, grief 
^lage, complaint 
©eldditcr, laughter 
©diam, 'i-^cid)dnumg, shame 
(5)30tt, mockery 
33crnnniberiing, surprise 

Also the Adjectives argerlid), vexed ; bofc, angry (at things); 
empfinblid), sensitive ; froh, luftig, merry. 

Note.— m\t takes nilf + Ace. when referring to persons. 

2. for = nuf + Ace, of expectation, etc., as : gefa^t, pre- 
pared ; ^offcn, ^^offnung, hope ; marten, wait. 

3. for = nni^, of longing, inquiring, etc., as : 
*^^^bs. Substantives. 

biirften, thirst 2}urft, thirst 

forfd)en, inquire j^orfdnuig, inquiry 

fjungern, hunger hunger, hunger 

iagen, hunt c^agb, chase . 

fudien, search 2uft, ) 

fid; fcf)nen, long 
berlangen, desire 

33erlangen, ) 


_ Also the Adjectives burftig, thirsty ; elirgeijig, ambitious ; gie. 
rig, greedy ; ^ungrig, hungry. 

4. for = urn, of entreaty, etc., as : Htten, ask ; Bubten, court • 
[le^en, beg ; fic^ {ummern, concern one's self. 




5. from == bar -{- Dat., of protection, etc., as : ^en)a{;ren^ 
preserve ; {;uton, protect ; rctten, save. 

6. in = au + Dat., of plenty, want, etc., as: arm, poor-, 
frucfctbar, fruitful; reid), rich ; f^luadv weak ; ftarf, strong. 

7. in or on = auf + Ace, of ionfidcnce, etc., as : 

Verbs, Substa?i.tives. 

fief) triiften, boast Stol^, pride 

[id; Herlaffen, rely 93cr(ai reliance 

ucrtrauen, trust 33ertrauon, confidence 

8. of = an 4- Dat., of plenty, want, doubt, etc., as : 




'OJJangel, want 
9teid)tum, wealth 
tlberflufj, superfluity 
3iT??ifel, doubt 

fe^lcu (iinpers.), > , 

, ,, ' - be wantinj 
mauijdn " ) 

•^njcifcfn, doubt 

bcrjtoeifcln, despair 

Also the Adjectives franf, sick ; leer, empty. 

q. of = an + Ace, of remembrance, etc., as : 
Verbs. Substantives. 

beiifen, think ©ebanfe, thought 

erinncvn, remind (Srinnerung, recollection 

fid^ crinncvn, recollect 

Note. These verbs also govern the Genitive. See § 245. 
io. of = auf + Acc. of suspicion, envy, pride, etc., as, 
S ubstanti7>cs. Adjectives. 

XHdU (gelicn), (pay) attention ad;tfam, | 
iHrgmobn, suspicion aufmei!fam, j "'^^^'^^^^^ 

(i'ifovfud)t, jealousy avglDobnifd), suspicious 

3^eib, envy eifevfiid;tig, jealous 

eit J, vain 
neibiyd^, envious 
ftolg, proud 




1 1, of = Dor -f Dat, of fear, etc., as : 

Verbs. Substantives. 

\\^ furc^ten, be afraid c^urdU, Icar 

„ erfc^recfen, be terrified ©cfirerf, terror 

„ grauen, dread ©rauen, dread 

Also the adjectives bange, afraid; fid;er, certain, sure. 

12. to = nn + Ace, ot add,, etc., as: nbreffiercn, ad- 
dress ; fc^veibcn, write ; fic^ vidUoi, turn ; fid; Joenben, apply. 

13. to = gegcit, after Adjectives signifying an affection of 
the mind, as : barmfjergig, merciful ; feinblid.^ hostile ; freunb. 
hc^, friendly; gerec^t, just; rtleicfigiftig, indilTerent; gncibig 
gracious ; graufani, cruel ; nac^ficbtig, indulgent. 

1. My sister is vexed at not receiving an invitation to 
the party. 2. lam tired of waiting for Charles; let us go 
without him. 3. Oh no, do not let us go yet ; he will be angry 
at us. If we do not wait for him. 4. Charles has many good 
qualities, but you cannot rely upon him. 5. The boy is proud 
of the watch given to him by his father. 6. If you lose your 
way in a city, it is always safest to apply to a policeman. 7 
I have no doubt that this is good advice. 8. Mary is angry 
at Sarah, because Sarah has made sport of her. 9. Our 
neighbour has been ill for some days ; he complains of rheuma- 
tism, and says he has caught cold. 10. I am less vexed at 
his not coming than at his not sending us word. 11. The war 
had already lasted more than four years, and people were long- 
ing for peace. ll>. Diogenes is said to have gone once in dav- 
hght through the streets of the city, carrying at the same tim'e 
a lantern. 13. People began to laugh at him and mock him, 
asking him what he was looking for. 14. He replied that h^- 

a iii^ .„f an ^ioneoi man. lo. iIxk:. general postponed 

attacking the enemy, because his army was weak in artillery. 




U§ afta- 

16. Mr. Kalk, the architect, promised that my house should be 
finished before the 1st July, but I doubt it. 17. The Province 
of Ontario is rich in iron, but is wanting in coal to smelt it. 
18. We have been thinking for some time of selling our house, 
but we cannot find anyone who is willing to buy it. 19. Be 
good enough to remind me to buy some postage-stamps, when 
we go past the post-ofiice. 20. We may learn as much by pay- 
ing: attention to what we see and hear as we can learn from 
books. 21. The horses, frightened by a passing train, shied, 
and were on the point of running away. 2i. The first settlers 
in this country had much to endure : they lived for the most 
part in houses built of [the] trunks^of^trees and covered in 
many cases with bark. 23. (Just) as many people lost their 
lives (the life) by the famine occasioned by the earth- 
quake, as by the earthquake itself. 24. The bad news re- 
ceived yesterday has prevented our going to town to-day. 
25. There are men who grow richer by giving than others 
[do] by receiving. 



292. The Essential Parts of a Sentence. 

I. Every sentence contains three essential ,: arts, viz : the 
Subject, or that of which something is asserted, the Predi- 
cate, or that which is said of the Subject, and, thirdly, the 
Verb or Copula, the word which makes the assertion, and 
which may include the Predicate (as in the simple tenses of 
a verb), but does not necessarily do so. Thus, in the sen- 
tence : ' He sings,' ' he ' is the Subject, while 'sings ' contains 
both the Verb or Copula and the Predicate, i. t., it not only 
asserts som.ething of the Subject, but al ) says what that 
something is, being equivalent to ' is singing.' In the sen- 




tence : ' He has sung,' on the other hand, ' has ' is the V,rb 
(or Copula), ' sung ' is what is asserted, or the Predicate. 

2. The Verb (or Copula) is in German the member of the 
sentence, the position of which is most absokitely fixed- it is 
the cardinal point or hinge on which the sentence turns. ' 

293. Normal Position of the Verb. 

In German, there are three normal positions for the Verb 
accordmg to the nature of the sentence. ' 

(a) The Verb stands first : 

I. In Interrogative Sentences expecting the answer 'yes ' 
or ' no ' (i. e., when the verb is the question-word, see 
§ 23, 2), as : 

Sft SI;r Sruber njofjl ? Is your brother well > 
2Birb er fommcn? Will he come.? 
^Ci^en <Sie ^arl? Is your name Charles ? 
2. In sentences expressing a command or 7vish, as : 

©cMcn eie mic^ morgen, Come^and^see me to- 

mmt id) gu §aufe ! Were I (would that I were) at 
home ! 

Note -The verb may either follow or precede the subject in the 
3- vbing. bubj. used as Imperative (see § 268, i), as: 

®Ott bef)ilte bid^ ! or: ^cl)ute bid) (Siott! God preserve thee I 

3. In Conditional clauses, when the conjunction mm is 
omitted (compare § 59), as . 

JBBarc ba^ SBetter fd;i3ii, fo iviirbe i4> au^gefjen, If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 
(b) The Verb comes second (is the second idea) in all 
principal assertive sentences (compare § 20), as : 
^er 5Kenfc^ ifi ftevblicf), Man is mortal, ' 





i ii 
•1 .1 i 

^er iiinflcre 'il^rubcr meinco ootcv^^ ^ooldbfr \o Iranf irar, 
ift tci. My father's younger brotbei', who was so ill, 
is dead. 

©eftcrn !iHbcnb ftnrb bcr '^H'uber meiue^^isaiev-^, Yesterday 
evening my fatlier's brother died. 

(SolDobl (nid;t luiv) mciu ^^aUx, ioie (jonbcrn audi) mcin 
5^.nibcr ttJCr jiUiiei^cn, Both (not only) my father, and 
(but also) my brother were (was) present. 

Remarks. — i. As in the last three examples above, the 
first member of the sentence may be complex, with several 
attributes, complcmenis, etc.; the verb is still the second 

2. The coordinating conjunctions pro'\r (§ 236; do not 

count as members of the sentence (see the last example above), 

but adverbial conjunctions throw the subject after the verb. 

NoTK. Certain adverbial phrases, of a more or less interjectional 
nature, such as: fvdlid), true; jil, yes; ja lUOl)l, to be sure; \m\\, no; 
fur;;, in short; lUit cilinn 5i?0Vt, in a word; ^wi, well, are not regarded as 
part of the sentence, and do not tlirow the subject after the verb, thus: 

grcilid). irt) link e^ nid)t fcUift 0cfcl)cii, Tiae, I did not see it 


iiurj (mit eincm aSorO; id) glaubc c« uid)t, In short (in a word), 

I do not believe it. 
®Ut, id) tucrtic tommcn, Well, I shall come. 

3. In assertive sentences of an emphatic or exclamatory 
character, the verb sometimes comes first, especially when 
the particle bodi is present, as : 

^ft ba^5 eiu ^ilsctter! (= J^a^ fur ein ffietter ift ba^!) 

What weather ! 
^cbc idi'^"> biv bO{^ n^f«f\^ ! I told you so ! 

4. If a dependent clause or a quotation precede the prin- 
cipal sentence (compare § 294, l\ Rem. 2, below), such clause 
or quota.tion is regarded as a single member of the sentence, 
and requires the verb immediately after it, as ; 




SDa ic^ fclbft mrf;t fommen fonntc, f ' icftc id; mciiun So^ 

As I could not come myself, I sent my son. 
%h id) antam, tuor c^> fduMi iiad) lo lU;r, When i arrived, 

it was after 10 o'clock. 
3Bcnn cr {innmcn [of fc, jttfr&c id; jjj .'oaufe in. If he 

should come, I .hall be at home. 
,.m UMlI iiioinc I'dify.aK- nd^t (crncn," jrfjric ber unartige 

Miuibo, "1 will not learn my lesion," cried the naughty 


Notes -i. After de,Kndent ^u.ulitional and adverbial clauses (except 
those of Lvu) the particle fo usi.allv introduces the principal sentence, as : 
^a idi nid)t felbit foiiuiini l\ iti', fo fdiirftc id) inciucn ^of)u. ' 
Seuii cr tuiimicn foUtc, fo luerbr id) ^u >^auic fr 
2. This pa. ucle fo should always be inserted after a cu..ditional clause 
wita tt .tin omitted ; in c..lloquiaI usage, however, the principal sentence 
sometimes has the subject d./on- the verb, fo being omitted, as: 

5K>nri' a fril()or flcfoiinitrii, fo fiattc cr mid) gofd)en ; 
or (colloquially) : 

SBfire er friih r ncfo.imeu, cr t^diU mid) !icfoI)eii. 
This latter construction, Lnvever, should not be Mnitated. 
_ 3- In /r^/^r//^«.;/ clauses introduced by j,., Qcfio, or ur io, the depen- 
o.nt clause comes first, and the verb is preceded by tl,. w, : ' expres- 
sing the comparison, as well as by the particle j.', etc., as 

'Micium- bie md)tc finb, b.fio (ur^r frtft bio ^a.^e, The longer 
the nights are, the shorter are tiie days. 

(^) The Verb last in dependent sentences and ques- 
tions (compare §§ ^,2 ; 88), as . 

3c^ t»eif„ bag bcr Hfcnid^ [terblid) ^ 1 ow that mnn 
is mortal. 

mn mann, ttJcIt^n leftern bicr mnr, A mnn, who was 

here yesterday. 
Scf) gebe, mil es fc^on fpat ift, 1 go because it is late. 
m JiH'ifj ni*t mv i)kv GciDcfcn ift, X) not know who 

has been here {t/c'/>. question). 


*( 1 



[§§ 293 

Remarks. — i. Indirect statements with baf^ omitted 
have the construction of principal sentences (verb second; 
see §§ 20; 87, 3), as: 

(?v fagte, ev fjobr ce; Deroeffen, He said he had forgotten it. 

2. Conditional chiuses with UKini omitted follow the 
question-order {\Q:xh first ; compare § 59), as: 

aOiirc ba^i *^i> otter [duMt, fo univbe \6) nu^geh' i. If the 
weather were fine, I should go out. 

3. The Verb precedes two infinitives (or infinitive and 
part.; see § 199,3), as in the compound tenses of Modal 
Auxiliaries, thus : 

Gr [ante, bafj er nicM ()alic fommcu nioflcn. He said that 
he had not intended to come. 

4. Clauses with iJcmt (='unless,' § 241, \^),\\^V\\\g negative 
force, follow the construction of a principal sentence (verb 
second), as : 

^c^) laffe 2)idj nic^it, Tu fcgncft inic^) bcnn, I will not let 

Thee go, unless Thou bless me. 
^c^ luerbc nid^t toiumcn, C0 fci bcnn, bof; ba^ ^Better fcbbn 

iDCvbc, I shall not come, unless (it be tha'^) the 

weather should become fine. 

5. ^(^hiw and fcin, as auxiliaries of tense, arc frequently 
omitted at the end of a dependent clause, as ; 

©r loiujnctc, baf^ cr ba-S ^-enftcv ^,e-/tvod;oi (^olsc under. 

stood), He denied that he had broken the window, 
^c^ fvaojte ifui, ob er juv vedUen ^eit ani^efoininen (fcj 

understood), I asked him if he had arrived in good 


294, Position of the Subject. 

The Subject is placed : 

(a) In Direct Questions, if it be the question-word, at 
the beginning ; otherwise immediately after the Verb, as: 





aSJer ift ^ier gelDcfcn ? Who has been here ? 

3ft cr i)KX gctucfcnV Has he been here ? 

2Bann fommt ^^re Si^tticfter ? When does your sister 
come ? 

(d) In Principal Assertive Sentences, the norma/ po- 
sition of the Subject h Jirsi ; but if any other word precede 
the Verb, the Subject immediately follows the Verb, as: 
^(f) )Merbc inovi^cn nidit auoiic(;en ; or : 
^Jorflen iuerbe ir^ nid)t au^fle{^cn, I shall not go out to- 

Remarks.— i. Tn point of fact it may be said that, in a 
principal sentence, the Subject follows the Verb quite as often 
as it precedes it. 

2. A preceding dependent clause, or a quotation, always 
throws the subject after the verb, except when, after a con- 
ditional clause with ucnil omitted, the principal sentence is 
not introduced by the particle fo (compare § 293, 4, Note 2, 

3. When the real {logical) subject is represented by eg 
before the verb as grammatical subject, the logical subject 
immediately follows the verb, as : 

(5^ ift mcinc (Sr^mcftcr gcmefen. It was my sister. 

i,c) In Dependent Sentences, the Subject, if a relative 
pronoun, h-gins the sentence, otherwise the Subject imme- 
diately follows the connecting word, as : 

^er gjJaun, lucli^cr geftern bier mar. The man who was 
here yesterday. 

^er mam, ben i(^ geftent fai). The man, whom I saw 

%i} fav3te ifn-, ba^ ir§ fommcn toerbe, I told her that I 
should come. 



i I 



[§§ 294- 

Note. — F-rsonal Pronouns, and especially the reflective f|^, some- 
times prece('e the Subject, both in principal sentences with the Subject 
after the Verb, and in dependent clauses, as : 

a)foi'gcu roiU fid) meiu 5Brubcr toerl)eiraten, My brother is going to 
get married to-morrow. 

Gr fugt?, bafj i^it bicfer SJicnfc^ beleioigt ^obt, Ke said that this 
fellow had insulted him. 


Position of the Predicate. 

1. The Predicate, if not included in the Verb (see § 292, 
I, above), may consist of a participle or infinitive (as in the 
compound tenses of the verb); or it may be a substantive, an 
adjective, or the separable prefix of a compound verb. 

2. The Predicate is placed last in Principal Sentences 
and in Direct Questions; in Dependent Sentences it 
immediately precedes the Verb. 

3. If the Predicate is compound, consisting of two or more 
of the elements under i, above, they will occur in the follow- 
ing order: I. Predicative adjective (or substantive) ; 2. Sep- 
arable prefix ; 3. Participle ; 4. Infinitive ; thus : 

I'RED. Adj. 
@r foil fteto gegen fei len armen 53ruber fe^r frcigctiifl 
Part. Inf. 

gctoefcit fcitt. He is said to have always been very 
liberal to his poor brother. 

Pref. Part. Inf. 

©ie imivbc fd>on cjeftcrn ah - gcrcift jcin. She would have 
departed yesterday. 

Remark. — Any one of these elements of the Predicate 
may, for emphasis, occupy the normal position of the subject 
in \}ci& first place {before the Verb), as : 

Srf)lin ift baa 3i^cttcr hcutc nid;t. The weather is not (at 
all) fine to-dav (i. e., it \^ far from fine). 







6i)(bat ift mein §8mber, nic^t ^Jiatrofc, My brother is a 
soldier, not a sailor. 

^iiiQCn tt)itt id) WoU, aber ntc^t fpielen, I will sing, but 
not play. 

Note. - The Separable Prefix and the Participle are, however, rarely 
placed in this position, except in elevated or poetic diction, or for con- 
trast, as: 

IWiebcr ftetg' id) jum @efecf)tc, I descend (down I go) to the light. 

3urUlTe blcibi ber .f na^jpeu '^xo% The retinue of squires remains 
behind {ibid.). 

Sntfdjloffcn ift cr nlfobatb, He is resolved at once (i/>iJ.). 

©cgebcn Ijnbe id) il)m baS i8urf) nid)t, fonbern nnr geliel)eii, I did 
not give him the book, I only lent it to him. 

296. Position of Objects and Cases. 

1. Objects (not governed by a preposition) precede adjects 
(objects governed by a preposition), as : 

^c^) f)a6e einen Srief an i^n {an meinen 33ater) gefc^rieben, 
I have written a letter to him (to my father). 

2. Pronouns (unless governed by prepositions 1 precede 
substantives, as : 

^cf) \:}ah^ i^m einert SBrief gefc&rteben, I have written him 
a letter. 

3. Of Pronouns, Personal before "other Pronouns, as: 

^c^ {jaht ijm bag (etUjag) gegeben, I have given him 
that (something)o 

4. Of the cases o^ Personal Pronouns, the Accusative precedes 
the Dative, and both precede the Genitive ; but the reflexive 
[id^ usually precedes all others, as : 

Gr l^at fi(^ (Dat.) c^ gemerft. He has taken.^^note.^of 
it (for hinuelf). 


mwimHt ^tl^M 





5. Of Substantives, the Person (unless governed by a pre- 
position) precedes the thing; the Indirect precedes the Direct 
Object, and the Remoter Object (in the Genitive) follows 
both, as : 

3c^ Jjabe S^rcr Si^tocficr bas SSuc^ gelief^en, I have lent 
your sister the book. 

©r hai bicfcn 9Konn be^ 2)ie6[ta^Ig befc^ulbigt, He has 
accused this man of theft. 

6. Yhe personal {or subjective) Genitive (compare § 243, 2) 
may either precede or follow the substa ilive which governs it, 

Witxnti a5oter§ ^au%, My father's house ; or : 

Xa^^Qxx^ mcincS ISBotcrs. 

7. The limiting Genitive (see §243,3) follows, exc?pt in 
elevated or poetic diction, as : 

I'a^ Gnbe bcfl ^ticgcg, The end of the war. 

8. Cases governed by adjectives precede the adjective, l.ut 
a substantive with a preposition may follow the //-j'/^//Vd;//V^ a, 1 
jective, as : 

3cf) bin i^m ban!6ar fiir fciiic ©cmiifjuiii^cn, T am grate 
ful to him for his exertion. 

297. Position of Adverbs and Adverbial Expressions. 

1. In general, adverbs precede the word they modify, as: 

3c^ bin \t\^x miibe gelDorben, I have become very tired. 
@r ^ai bag ^^urf) wx^i gelefen, He has not read the book. 

2. Adverbs of Time precede objects (except pronouns) and 
all other Adverbs or Adverbial expressions, as : 

Time. Object. Place. Manner. 
^r ^at {)cftcrn bag SOuc^ ju S:>a\\\^ febv flcif^ii^ ftubievt, 
He studied the book very diligently at home yesterday. 




3. Adverbs of place precede those of manner, and both 
follow objects, as in the above example. 

4. Of several Adverbs of like kind, the more general precede 
the special, as : 

SWorgcii urn ge^n U^r, At ten o'clock to-morrow. 

Remarks. — I. Any object, adject, adverb or adverbial 
phrase may occupy the normal position of the subject at the 
head of a principal sentence (before the verb, compare § 295, 
Rem., above), as : 

aWcittcn J8otcr ^a6eic§ md;t gefe^en, I did not see my 

©cftcril lam id) ju fpat, I came too late yesterday. 

2. The re/ati7'e position of objects, abverbs, etc., is the same 
in principal and subordinate sentences. 

298. Position of other Members of the Sentence. 

1. Attributive Adjectives and Participles immediately 
precede the sut/st««tive they modify, as : 

@in §«r 13?evteiaigung fef)r fliinftigcr Ort, A place very 
favourable for defence. 

^ag auf bem ^uget ftc^cnbe .^au^. The house standini; 
on the hill. 

2. -Prepositions precede their case, with the exceptions 

given in the lists (see §^r" 4^) ; 51 ; 223). 

3. Conjunctions ccme between the words or clauses they 
connect, as : 

5Jlein 33ruber unb feine ^amilie nnb bter. My brother 
and his familv are here. 

3c^ tt)ei|3, ba^ 3ie nicfct fommen tvivhta, I Know that 
you will not come. 

ir II 


m\i I 






. : 


Lesson t. 


Vote. — In dependent clauses that precede the sentence on which 
th. y depend the conjunction is first, as: 

aScil id) frnnf mar, tonnte itJ) nic^t fommen, Because I was ill, I 
could not come. 

^.^99. Construction of Incomplete Clauses. 

^^he Word-order of Incomplete or Elliptical Clauses is the ss that of Con. jlete Clauses, there being no Verb in the 
fo>-ner. Jn Infinitive Clauses the Infinitive comes last; and in 
Aj jositive Clauses, the Adjective or Participle comes last, thus : 

©ute ^reunbe (311) f)abtn ift ein grofee^ ©liicf. To have 
good friends is a great blessing. 

5Dic ^uuftin CI 311 maUw, The art of painting in oil. 

Sc^ iuerbe mic^ fveuen, '3ie morgen ju fe^en, I shall be 
glad to see you to-morrow. 

2)ie§ afu^ be. mir benfcnb, fd)lief id) ein. Thinking all 
this to myself, I fell asleep. 

SSon bem 2arm oufgefi^rcdt, f^rang er ai:^ bent Sette, 
Aroused by the noise, he jumped out of bed. 


Interrogative Sentences. 

1. Direct Questions always i^egm with the question-word, the 
other members of the sentence occupying the same relative 
position as in principal sentences. For the position of the 
Verb and Subject, see §§ 293, 294, above. 

2. Questions in German very frequently have the form of a 
principal assertive sentence, the question being marked only 
by the rising inflexion of the voice, as : 

3)u ^ofl bcine 2e!tion nic^t gelevnt? You have not 
learnt your lesson t 

Notes.— I. This construction often occurs with a Dof^ in the sen- 
tence, as : 




^n ttJirfl tto^ fommen? You will be 

sure to come (will you 

Grift ioiftnicfitfranf? He is not ill (i, he .? I hope not). 
2. Exclamatory sentences frequently have the construction of depen- 
dent questions, but may also have that of direct questions, as : 

2Bci- mitfle()en Wrfte ! (Happy he) who might go with you I 
aBie tft bog Sisetter f(})i)ii ! How beautiful is the weather 1 


General Remarks on German Construction. 

The following are the principal points in which German 
differs from English Construction : 

1. The Verb (containing the Copula) is the hinge on 
which the sentence turns, and has its position most absolutely 

2. The Subject does not, as in English, necessarily precede 
the Verb in Principal Sentences; but if any other member of 
the sentence precede the Verb, an inversion of the subject 
takes place, and it is thrown after the verb. 

Notes. -I. The terms inversion, inverted sentence, often used by 
grammarians, refer to the Subject only, not to the Verb. 

2. This inversion of the Subject is also found in Interrogative and 
Imperative Sentences (see §§ 293 ; J94 ; 300, above). 

.. ^;7^J '"^^^^T "^'"^ "^ sentences is marked by the varying position of 
the Verb, which is last in Dependent Sentences. 

4. All the other parts of the sentence, except what precedes the Verb 
are included or bracketed between the Verb and the Predicate. 

5. Dependent Sentences (incl-uinj. Infinitive and Appositive Clauses- 
see § 299, above) are marked off fioru the sentences on which they depend 
by commas. j v ^ 






302. Compound and Complex Sentences. 

1. A sentence is compound when it contains more than one coordinate 
clause ; complex when it contains a iubcf-dinate clause, thus : 

Compound: 3d) cjliiq nn il)m t)or[iei, taniitc i(]n alier nid)t, 
I went past him, but did not know him. 

Complex : Gr f n^te inir, bnfj n fomntnt lucvbe, 
He told me that he would come. 

2. Any subordinate clause may itself be complex, having another clause 
dependent upon it, as: 

3d) emnrtete it)u geftevn, tacil cr mir nt1rf)viclieu Ijtittc, tjnft fcine 

©efrijiifte ba(b becnbifit \v\\ Unutni, I expected him yesterday, 

because he had written me, that his business would soon be 


Note. — In the above example, the clause loeil er, etc., depends on the principal 

clause preceding it; whereas the clause bag feine ©efc^aftc, etc., depends on the clause 

weil er, etc., which is itself subordinate. 

Remark. — In the following observations as to the relative position 
or order of clauses, the term "principal sentence " includes all sentences, 
though themselves subordinate, which occupy the relation of a principal 
or governing sentence to the clauses dependent upon them. 

303. I. "in Complex Sentences, the position of the various depen- 
dent clauses is regulated by the following general principle : 

Finish the principal sentence before introducing the sub- 
ordinate clause. 

2. Thus, in the example in § 302, 2, above, it would be wrong to insert 
the last clause (bilfj . . . ttJiirbeu) within the preceding clause on which 
it depends, thus : 

Scit ev miiv bajj feine @efd)nfte bceubigt \n\\ tiuirben, ge|ci)vieben 

3. Similarly the following construction would make the complex sen- 
tence quite unintelligible: 

3)ie ®ch)o()ul)ctt mug tie j^ettigteit eine ^c^^z ol)ne iibev bie 9?egel 
ju benteii ju t^un tjctlci^cn. 

The observance of the above rule will require the clauses of ibis sen- 
tence to be arranged .is follows : 


2)ie ©emo^nMt muB bic J^ertinfeit ftcrld^cn, eine ®arf,e m thun 

tt re" d- ^^^;'V^-"''*^"'^"^"' "^^^^ ^P-^^^-) --tit"; 
the ead.ness of a thing without reflecting upon the rule. 

is :.^Z^r'''''''" '''''-' ''' ^-'-^- °^ t^e separable prefix 

|eiter ging bie @onne an jenem 2«orgen, an bem n)ir abreiften our 
The sun rose cheerfully on that morning on which we set o^t ^' 
The prefix ouf should be inserted after mirgcn. 

the1>?rtultTf 'rr.""''"'"' ""'^' '^"^"^^' ^*^^"d immediately afte. 
the particular part of the sentence to which they refer as • 

S)ie ^rlcftcrin toot, iftrct mttin felftfi getudfil^t' unb flefietftaf 

lod I '". '""',7'' ^"'^^'"^' '^^"^^ -d consecraterby tie 

goddess herself, speaks to thee ^ 

f iben'sZ:: r" ^^' ^ '''-' ^^-^^^ °^ ^-^--^ t^«^ ^^^^-t 

Oft Doigcmo MI, I have often reproached him with this mis- 
take of misuuerpreting every action. 
Scf) fomue biejvrngc, cb tmt fiimcn, ntd,t fieantmorten, I could 
not answer the question, whether we were coming. 
305. Relative Clauses must immediately follow the antecedent : ' 
pitllsIntetVrr ^-^^^^---^i— o, precedes the verb of a 

1 he man who was here yesterday came again to-dav 

not know the man, who was here yesterday. 
Note. -If the antecedent does not precede the v^rh t), 1 .- ' • • 

S»teiflb,r5)l„„„„,rt.r(,.!o,n,n™,,„,M«„.f „ 
3« I)06c ben *«„„ „i,i„ ,,,„„„^ „,,j,„ ^ ^ J- ' 

guify. T" *"' "'"""°" ''^ *= ="'"="- ™W cause ambi- 
fnand, whom I had „„t seen foojcng^.i™.. ""^ 





I A 

306. A Snhordinatc or Dependent Clause (with the exceptions 
specified in Remarks 3, 4, below) may also, whether subjective, objective 
or adverbial, procde the principal clause, in which case it throws the 
Subject after the Verb, as: 

CD ifl) fomiiicn (onn (sui>jective clause), ift juicifelljaft, It is 
doubtful whether I can come. 

aScr flcr ,511 rid fccljuiit (subjective clause], iinrb iveiilg (eiften, He 
who considers too much, will accomplish little. 

^nft cr mil' nidjt fictdjriclien ^subjective clause), miid)t iiiir gorgcn, 
[The fact] that he has not written to me, causes me anxiety. 

Cb id) trcrtJc fomn-en fbnnea {objccti^'c clause), lucifi icf) iiidit, 

I do not know, whether I shall be able to conK 

^nft cr fronf ift {objective clause), {)abe id) geftern , qort, I heard 
yesterday, that he was ill. 

Ta id) frnnf hjor (adverbial clause], foiiiite id) nid)t tommeii, As 

I was sick, I could not come. 
Remarks. — I. Such a clause takes the place of a subject, object or 
predicate, as the case may be, ' before the verb i compare §§293, b. 
Rem. 4; 294, Rem. 2; 295, Rem ). 

2. Adverbial clauses in this way bring expressions of time, place, etc., 
but more especially those of can^c, nearer to the verb, which is the part 
of the sentence they modify. 

3. (.M\\y subject i^■c relative clauses with the f^w/^//;/*/ relative mcr, mnvS, 
can stand at the head of a sentence, as in the second example above. 

NoTF.-Tlie relative bcr is sometimes used instead of luer as compound relative 
(includmg both relative and antecedent), especially in the plural, as: 

'^M fid) s\\ t)avt ocvnnnnen batteit, f(or)oii ini§ bom Sonbc. (Schiller) ; i. e., 
5»irifiu<^cn, wetdic ii. f. u.. • or : -iBa- fid) jii Ijart iiersinii,]en hattc (sln?.)| 
flod 11. y TO., Those who had committed too great offences, fled from tha 

4. Clauses which modify not the whole sentence but a particular 
member, cannot stand at the head of the sentence, but stand either 
immediately after the word to which they refer, or after the conclusion 
of the sentence (compare § 297, above). This remark applies especially 
to relative clauses (but see Rem. 3, above, and Note), and to comparative 
clauses with oI§, as: 

>Sein llnniiirf loar grbucr, old er crtroflf n fonntc (or : ^u grofi, 
%\i Oa^ ei- est u. f. \x\), His misfortune was greater than he 
could bear. 




Note. -Comparative clauses with n>ie may precede, as: 
ffite im Mawb ocr tio(\d rinjit, 
Wan ft* jcbcr jiiitficfi tliun, 
As the bird sings amid the boughs, let every one enjoy himself. (Schiller). 


J;,VT "77«''^'^' «^*>-^ - great botanist, to give, in the present 
tate of our knowledge, a co.nplete definition of what (^ that which) is to 

as ">la,u "' 'tT ""T';- " -"^■■-'-^'""ion to what one must regard 
as a plant. 2 The good king Robert Bruce, who was always watchful 
and prudent, had received inforn.ation(.^tlinbc) of (Don) the intention of 
hese .nen to attack him suddenly. ,. Bruce caused his men to lie c.own 
o take some sleep at a place about half a n)ile distant fro.n the river 
see § 290, ., ,), while he himself, with two attendants, went down to watch 
the ford through which the enemy must pass, before they came to the 
lace where kmg Rol,ert's n.en were lying. 4. " If I go back," though! 
he lung "to call ,ny ,nen to (the) arms, these men tvill get (foium;, 
hrough the ford unhindered; and that would be [a] pity,'sinc is a 
lace so advantageous for defence." o. I„ the confusion, five or six of 
the enemy were slain, or, having been borne down bv the stream, [were 
lrow,u.d. .;. Vyuh the natural feeling of a young author (3ri,r.f , cdai 
he had ventured at) to go (fid, anf.nari,c„,, secretly and witness ('bcH "eli 
+ dat.) the first representation of his tragedv at Mannheim. 7. He 
resolved to be free, at whatever risk (anj jebo ^c^- Din); to abandon up) advantages wluch he could not buy (cvfanfo,,) at such a price • 
o qm his stepdame (inrT.niittcrlid,, adj.) home, andgo forth (fortmauborn)' 
hough friendless and alone, to seek his fortune in the great market 

(Qiuat 11 -f- da .) hun, to make an attack upon the fort from that side 

where he hade imbed up, offering (fid, rrluctcu) to lead. =.. how) the way 

0. He ordered his men to advance against the wail with their shields held 

ogether m the manner which the Romans named ' testudo ' or tortoise 

^rf,t bhotc) iO Mis n.other was present on (Inn) this joyous occasion 

and si e produced (== showed) a paper of (== with) poison, which, as she 

hln' t'!T"l to have given her son in his liquor (C^Vlrauf, ace.) rather 

than that he should submit (himself) to personal disgrace. 







307. I. New words are formed in a language by two more or less 
distinct processes : Derivation and Composition. 

2. Derivation is of four kinds, viz.: i. without change; 2. by inter- 
nal change ; 3. by Suffixes; 4. by Prefixes. 

Note. — All tr.immatical teToiinations (inflexions) are really suffixes, but these are 
not considered under the jiresent head. 


Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, adverbs, etc., by the 
simple addition of the endings of conjugation, as: '.'Ivbcit, labour; nr= 
lieitH'li, to labour (sH'n^*, grass ; iivai=on, to graze tvorfcu, dry ; tvorflt-en, 
to dry — lui()CV, near (compar. 1 ; niil)Cni, to approach — geilCtl, against; 
brgefln=eu, to meet. 

Note. — In many of these derivatives, and in most of those from adjectives, the vowel 
has Umlaut, as: 'I'fluiv. iifliiii,=en, plough — .CMimmfv ; l)nmmor:it, hammer — ftarf, strong; 
ftiirtscii, strengthen — tot, dead; totscn, kill — offen, open; offn=ou, open — empor, up; 
empjrjcit, excite. 


Derivative Verbs. — Verbs are derived from other Verbs : 

{a) ]5y change (generally Umlaut) of the root or Stem Vowel, forming 

causative verbs, which are always transitive and weak, as : foticu, fall ; 

fatlon, fell {cause to fall) — tvillfcu, drhik; tviinfcn, make to drink 

(drench) -- jil^eu, sit; \t\^m, set — Uegcn, lie; legen, lay — fot)ren, fare, 

proceed ; fiU)ren, lead, cause to proceed. 










{d) By umge of consonant, with 1 without vowel-change, as : ftc^cit 

stand ; ft II, .ause to stan, set pL.r ight ~ bicgnt, bend ; tmiVit' 

bow ^ ucijcil, iroline; nirft:i, n. //,- /,e„J) - u,arf,e„, a^akc ; 
hJerfi I, n' )use {cause to awal< ). 

Note. -Many weak verbs and nearly all ./r^«^ verbs are /W«,/^V^; but ^r/W/,., 
verbs are generally ^ ^vj/l. 

810. Deri\jtive ubstantives. — These are derived from Ve-bs 
by internal vowel-change without suffix, and are mostly masculine, as • 
bmboh, bind; Syuiib, bond, volume; 5l^uiib, union - 'iilu'll, sit; Z,\\i 
stake (thing set or laid down), etc. - jidjcn, draw; Sup, Irait etc — 
trcten, tread; Zx'xW, step. 

Note. -Observe that in both the Vu. nd Substantives above occasional conso. 
nant changes also occur. 


311. Verb Suffixes. 

1. =Clll forms derivatives from other verbs, as well as from subsfan- 
tives and adjectives, usuallywUh Umiaut, implying diminuti..n or con- 
tempt, as: liid) oil, laugh; Idd) cln, smile — itlillft, art; fuilft clll, affect 
(artfully) — froiiiin, pious; |roiiunc(u, affect piety. 

2. =rrn from verbs, substantives and adjectives (sometimes with Um- 
laut), as: folnon, follow; folii = crn, infer — id)laf, sleep; fd)lafH'rn, feel 
sleepy — arg, bad ; ovivcrii, vex. 

_ 3- =icrci1, mostly from foreign stems, without Umlaut, as : mnrfd)= 
icrcn, march - rcflicren, reign - imO=.frcn, study. Also from ( ierman 
root.s, by analogy, as: bllri)ftali=icicn, spell. 

312. Substantive Suffixes. 

»• 't (--ft, ft), -b, =tlC (usually feminine) from verbs, usually with vowel- 
change, as : l)C;incit, bendjilViri, J bay (bight) - falH' CU, drive ; rval)r t 
drive - tni(] nt, wear; Xx<xk\)\, lostume Uwwwnx, come; .«uii.-f 
commg (-)lutimft, arrival; i^iifiintt, future) - rbmirn, can; ,iMtn f f art 
- bitniirn, bum; «ran=5, conflagration - rcmieH, know; iiun=Dc' in- 

2., 3. =d)cn ar.d =lcilt form diminutives, usually with Umlaut, as: ^:)<x\\^ 
house; .SpauS.djCll, little house, cot - DJfann, man; iWanii^Icili, manikin! 

Notes -I. =rf,e„ (Engl, -kin^, originally Lo-.v (North) German only, is now more 
common th.n =le.!l, which however is pr.L-rr.d aft. r gutturals, as: 3Jing = !Dht, a3ui,.lti„ 





.0 "« 







1.0 :? iM i^ 



^'-^ pit 

!^ 1^ 12.0 










W£BSTER,N.Y. 14580 

(716) 87i2-4S03 













4. «e forms a very large number of feminine derivatives from verbs, 
often with vowel-change ; also, usually with Umlaut, from adjectives, as: 
flicflen, fly; jyticg=c, fly (insect)— gcben, give; C^/abf, gift — fprecf)en, 
speak; ®prorf)-C, speech, language — gut, good; ©iitC, goodness— trcu, 
faithful ; 2reu=c, fidelity. 

5. «ct (from Fr. -ie) forms feminine derivatives, with accent on the 
suffix : 

{a) From verbs in i=cln, =crn, as : fff)llU'td)ein, flatter ; 5rf)mel(i^ct=cl, 

flattery — ^jaillicni, enchant ; 3rt»tifV=ci. 
[b) From substantives, indicating state, occupation, etc., most fre- 
quently from those in =:i'r, as : %\^n, hunter; ,ui(iev=cf, hunting 
— 2)riicfcr, printer; S^ntrfCM'i, printing (-trade or -office). 
Notes. — i. It sometimes implies contempt, as: fiinbcv=f«, childish nonsense. 
2. By analogy with the formations from stems in jfr, there has arisen the double suffix 
sfref, added to other stems, as : 3tlau=erci, slavery (from 3flauc). 

6. =cl, from verbs {sometimes with vowel-change), generally indicating 
the instrument, as: bcffen, cover; Diufcl, lid — flicfim, fly; g^liig-Cl, 
wing — fd)licfieii, lock ; ef!)luff=cl, key — 5icl)-en, pull ; Biigcl, rein, 

7. =etl, from verbs, including all infinitives, as well as others, e. g. : 
grabcn, dig; (^H-ab=cii (masc), ditch — fri)aben, hurt; >>rf}ab=en (masc), 

8. tX, often with Umlaut, indicating the actor, chiefly from verbs, but 

also from substantives, as: luicfeil, bake ; ii3acf Ci, bak-er iiuiu'ii. paint; 

!J}ia(=cr, paint-er — tiUMCil, dance; Jiiuj^CV, danc-er -- (Mavtcii, garden; 

@artll=cr, garden-er - @d)af, sheep; ®d[)ttf=cr, shepherd. 

Note. — Some derivatives from substantives insert 11, as: ^yilbsitscv, sculptor (from 
93tlb) — 01bcf=lt=cr, bell-ringer (from (yiocfc) — ;1tcb«ii<or, oravor (from ;)febc). 

9- =l;cit (Engl, -head, -hood) forms feminine abstracts from substan- 
tives and adjectives, as : C^ott^, God-bead — ilinb-^cit, childhood — 
ilMillb l^cit, blindness — (yrci^()c;t, f'eedom. 

10. =fcit replaces licit after adjectives in =el, Cr, tfl, =lid), bor, =fam, 

as: (Si<:fl-fcit, vanity -- i^ittei'4cit, bitterness ^■i^tlUg fctl, cheapness — ^ 
— ^cimUri)^fcit, secrecy - iBvaud)(iar4clt usefulness *Spaiiam-cit, 

Note. —Some derivativos from adjeciives insert sifls before »£eit, especially from thosq 
in «ha?t and =lo>3, as: eii6=i(jsfeit, sweetness — 3tanbt)aft»t(js(eit, steadfastness — $reu# 
lofsig>teit, unfaithfulness. 




II. .in (compare §89, 2, Note) forms feminine appellatives from mas- 
culine substantives, usually with Umlaut (always so from monosylla- 
bles), as: ®raf, count; ©riifin, countess — ^iciiitb, friend; ^reiinb-in, 
(female) friend — @iivtncr, gardener ; @drtner=iti, gardener's wife. 

»2. ^liltfl forms masculine diminutives (sometimes with Umlaut) from 
verbs, substantives an^l adjectives, as: Iel)reh, teach; l'c()r=lin0, appren- 
tice — gtud}t, flight; ^;ud)t=|lnfl, fugitive — fvcmb, strange; (^rembaiiig, 
stranger — jiinfl, young; 3ui>g=Iin0, youth. 

13. »ni6 (Engl, -ness) forms ab' tracts from verbs; also from a few 
adjectives, usually with Umlaut, as: licgiabcn, bury; 33egvoli=ni'^, funeral 
— ^inbern, hinder; Apinber=nig, obstacle — riefanficn, captive; @efong» 
nig, prison — ftufter, dark; |5i"ftei"=nig, darkness. 

14. 'fill, »fri form abstracts, (generally neuter) from verbs, and also from 
a few substantives and adjective, as: fcl)iffen, send; @d)icf=fjil, fate - 
raten, guess ; 9iot=fcI, riddle — S}Ml)(, trouble ; 2)?u()=fttl, fatigue — triilie, 
sad ; $!riib ftti, tribulation. 

15. =fd)Oft (Engl. -ship, -scape) forms femi^^ine abstracts from verbs 
and adjectives, as: 2Bailber=fd)aft, wandering — {sit'iii'-b=fd)Oft, friend- 
ship — ?anb=f(l)aft, land-scape - ©cincin f(^nft, community (Stgcn= 
fj^oft, peculiarity ; also some collectives, as: ^I'ieftcr frfjoft, priesthood; 
@efeU=fd)att society. 

16. 4um (Engl, dom) forms (generally neuter) abstracts from verbs, 
substantives and adjectives, as : 2Bad)>?tlint, growth - (Stgen-lum, pro- 
perty — 9JeicI)-tum (masc), wealth — itiiutg tum, royalty (king-dom). 

17. -Ung (= Engl, -ing in verbal nouns) forms a large number of 
feminine abstracts, chiefly from verbs, as : ^cU'{)r=uii9, instruction — 3Scr» 
geb^'Ung, forgiveness. 

18. The suffijces =^enlJ, i\], 4d)t, ^ing are only found after stems which 
no longer have an independent existence, as : 2lb=cnft, S)lt^=cnl), (Sff=|g, 
m-'i%, iQaUm (hawk). 


Adjective Suffixes. 

1. =bflt (connected with bdl'Clt, 'bear') from verbs (= Engl. -able) and 
substantives, also (rarely) from adjectives, as : rtVllflt.', eat-able — fnicf)t« 
bar, fruitful — furd)t=6av, frightful — 0ffeu=bar, evident. 

2. 'tn, 'ftn form adjectives denoting material or kind from substantives, 
as : golb=en, golden — b(ci cm, leaden — ftlbev=n, silver — I)i)lg^ern, wooden. 

Note. -^(Sifern, 'iron,' from Sifen, is anomalous, 




3. 'I^aft (connected with f}abcu, 'have') forms adjectives, denoting the 

quality of the primitive, chiefly from substantives (also from a few verbs 

and adjectives), as: fiinb ()oft, sinful — tiigenbjjoft, virtuo"s — nJO^n= 

l^oft resident — bOy? Ijnft, malicious — lual)r l^aft, true. 

NjTE. — The sufRx sljjis often added to adjectives in sljoft, as: njQ^v^aftsig (compare 
also § 312, 10, Note, above). 

4- -tl^t sometiriics replaces i^ (see below) after names of materials, as 
born i(f)t thorny — ftcin id)!, stony; also m tor-t^t, foolish. 

5. 4^ (— Engl, -y, as in might-y, etc.) forms a very numerous class of 
adjectives, usually with Umlaut, from verbs, substantives and particles, 
and from other adjectives (including the possessive pronouns, sec 
§119, 6-), as: na(l)flic[i=in, yielding — niinft=i(^, favourable -— ni6d)t=r, 
might-y - fd)n(b-ij|, guilt-y — fliit ig, kind — Doll ifl, complete — i)eut=ifl, 
of to-day — Dor=|0, former. 

Note.— For sifl before =ffit, see § 312, 10, Note ; for ;«() after sl)Hft, see 3, above. 

6. =ifd) (= Engl. -ish) forms adjectives: 

{a) From proper names, denoting or/gin, as: lutljerMfl^, Lutlieran 
— piruH if(^, Prussian. 

(^) From substantives, as: bieb=jfd), thiev-ish — t)ini.Tll=if(^, heav- 
enly; sometimes also with depreciatory sense, as in English, 
e. g. : fiiib ifrf), child-ish — Juoib iid), woman-ish (compare finb> 
Ii(^, child-like — unib lirf), woman-ly\ 

(f) From foreign words (=: Lat. - icus ; Engl, -ic, -ical), as : l)iftov« 
tfd), histor-ical - log^jfdj, log-ical. 

7. Aci forms variative numerals; see § 182, (>). 

8. lid) (Engl, -like, lyi forms numerous adjectives from verbs (with 
active or passive sense), substantives (usually with Umlaut) and other 
adjectives (generally with diminutive meaning, like Eng. -ish), as: crfreu- 
liaSi, delightful — jdliib lid), injurious — bciirdf Ud), intelligible — glaitb 
11^, credible — t)evad)t'l!^, contemptible — jd()r lid), year ly — in!*tin4id), 
man-ly - liatiir !i1), natural — rijt lid), redd-ish -- ((ing-Iid), long-ish. 

9- 'fam (Engl, -some) from verbs and substantives (also from a few 
adjectives), as: aiifnicif fnm, attentive - beil^om, whole-some --^ furd)t» 
jam, timid — ein=fom, lone-some. 


314. Verb Prefixes. 

The Verb Prefixes coming under the head of derivation are those 
which are always inseparable, viz: 6?-, C!lt= or cm^-, cr , 0C^ mift', tier , 
jeT=. Their various meanings are given below. 




1. ic» (connected with the prep, bet) is intensive, and 

(a) forms transitive verbs from intransitive (its most frequent use), 
as : fnlteu, fall ; Oc-faltcn, be-fall — (|c()cn, go ; br=3ci)cu, commit 
(a crime, etc.) — {(ngcil, mourn; De^flaflCU, mourn for; 

{b) it forms verbs from substantives and adjectives, with the mean- 
ing 'provide with,' ' make,' as : bc=freuut)Cll, be-friend — 6c=ftdr= 
fcii, make strong, strengthen. 

2. ent'- (cmji" before an f, akin to o?lt-, as in nnttnortm) corresponds 
frequently to the (Latin) prefixes dis-, de- in English words and denotes 

(a) 'in return,' as: cm|l=fangcn, receive; cm|I-fcl)[cn, recommend;^ 
{b) 'contrary,' 'against,' 'away from,' having privative force, from 
verbs, substantives and adjectives, as: cn^btubcil, relieve — 
cnt-bccfcii, dis-cover cilt Gcl)Cit, cilt (aufcu, get away, escape; 

{c) transition, origin, as: cnt4d)tafcil, fall asleep — ent=ftel)CU, arise, 

3. er* (Engl, a-, as in a-rouse, a-rise, etc.) denotes : 

(a) 'out from,' 'upwards,' as: er4)cbcn, raise— cr=mecfcn, awaken; 
(<J) transition (compare V.\\ , above), as : cr=l'el)CU, begin to tremble 

— er=btiU)Cll, come out in blo.ssom — erfaltcil, grow cold ; 
[c) acquisition or attainment by the action of the verb (a very common 

use), as : cr=I)Cttc(u. get by begging — cr=(iftcn, get by cunning; 
{d) accomplishment, as: txAd)\t^\n\, shoot (kill by shooting) — 

cr=ti-infcn, be drowned. 

4. 0C- often has no perceptible force, as in : f^c neicil, recover (from ill- 
ness) — gc niollen, enjoy; but commonly it is frequentative and intensive, 
as : gc=bioten, command — j]C=bcnfcn, remember, mention - 0t'=lobcn, vow. 

5. mift= (Engl, mis-) has negative force, sometimes with the notion of 
falsehood or failure, as: mjft ad)tcn, despise nuft=frtUcn, displease — 
mi^ gliidfcn, fail — mt^ ucrftcbni, mis-mderstand. 

6. bet' (Engl, for- in for-get, for-give) has the general meaning of 
•away' and often, like-fitt^, answers- to a dis- or de- in English. 

(a) It is intensive, and expresses excess, etc., as : bcr=bUil)cn, fade 
away Ucr^onimcii, go to ruin — tjcr=i5agcii, despair. 

[b) It denotes a mistake, etc., as : llfr=fii()fcil, lead astray — bcr» 
laufen (refl.), lose one's way UCl'4cf}CU, mis-lay. 

{c) It \% privative (its most frequent use), and denotes loss, parting, 
waste, dissolution, as: t)Cl = 0Cl)ni, pass away tier=triufeil, 
waste in drink — Uerfpielcu, gamble away. 





{d) It forms verbs from substantives and adjectives denoting a 
change or transition into the state of the primitive, as : tlfT- 
armcn, grow poor — tjcr^golbrit, gild. 
7. jft' denotes separation, destruction, 'to pieces,' as: jer«brecf)en, 
break to pieces — jer^gtiebern, dis-member. . 

316. Substantive Prefixes. 

,. qxi (= Engl, arch-), as: (frj=bifd)of, arch-bishop — Srj'fcinb, 

@e» forms usually neuter derivatives: 

(a) Collectives, from substantives, as: (^C=lnvge, mountain-range 

— ©cfieber, feathers — @C=ftrand), bushes. 
{b) Associatives (of persons), from verbs and substantives, as: 
(SJc=ipiele, playmate — ®c-'irf)iuiftcr, bi others and sisters (')f a 
family) - ^efcllc, fellow. 
{c) Frequentative or intensive abstracts, also from verbs, as : 
@ef^3Vad), conversation — @c=fliiftev, (continued) whispering — 
®C'tofe, uproar. 
Note. — The substantives @slud, @slau6e contain this prefix. 

3- 3Rife'/ with the same force as in verbs, e.g.: 3Miffc=tl)at, misdeed — 
aRi|=gunft, envy. 

4. till' is negative prefix, as in English, e. g. : Ult^gtiirf, bad luck — 
Un-rcd)t, wrong — Un-finu, nonsense. It also expresses something 
monstrous or unnatural, as : Un=tl)at, unnatural or moi.strc . deed — 
Ull^tncnjd), inhuman monst'^r. 

5. Ur» (akin to tX', see above) denotes 

(a) origin, as hi Ut'tetl (er4ei(rn), sentence, judgment — Ur4aub 

(er=lciuben), furlough, leave of absence ; 
{b) primitiveness, as: ttr=fari)r (original thing), cause — Ur-menfcl), 
primitive man — Ut-tl5fltb» primeval forest. 
Remark. — Substantives with Verb Prefixes (see § 3T4, above) are 
derived from verb-stems having these prefixes (e. g. : 2lb=Jltg, S3e=,Viflr 
from abjieticn, bcjiet)en), except those with gc- (see 2, above). 

316. Adjective Prefixes. 

The Prefixes of Adjectives are the same as those of substantives, ai.d 
with the same force, except gCv which forms : 





(a) Past Participles, some without corresponding verbs, as : geftttet, 
well-behaved - gc-fticfelt, booted ; 

(d) adjectives from verb-stems, as : flCMief)m, agreeable, acceptable 
— 0C=n)if5 (from luiffcn, ' know '), certain ; 

{c) from other Adjectives, as: 0C=recf)t, just — gf.treit, faithful. 
NoTH. — flsIetc^ also contains this prefix. 

317. Other Parts of Speech. 

Pronouns, Numerals, Prepositions, Conjunctions an.'. Interjections are 
for the most part either primitive or compound; for Derivative Num- 
erals and Numeral Adverbs, see §§ 182, 183; for the derivation of other 
Adverbs, § 189. 


318. I. A compound word is one made up of two or more words, 
each of which maintains its separate form and meaning. 

2. In genuine compounds, the last component only is inflected; but 
there are also spurious compounds, in which op- or more of the pre- 
ceding components takes an inflectional ending (see § 319, i, Notes 2, 
3, below), without liability to further variation. 

Note.— I» a few words arbitrarily written as compounds, both elements are inflected ; 
see § 319, 2, Note, below. 

3. Compounds are made with much greater freedom in German than 
in English. Words that in English are written separately, are often 
written as one word in German, forming compounds of a length and com- 
plexity unknown in the English language, as : ^eucnioifid)erillU3«gcjcUlcf)aft, 
fire insurance company — l'llftvo{)reujd)luinbiud)t, bronchial consump- 

Note. — These long compounds are generally broken up by one or more hyphens 
as: ?feuerua-fid)eniitaS«©c}ellfd;Qft, a capital letter usually following the hyphen. 

4. When the last component is common to several successive com- 
pounds, it is expressed with tlie last component word only, the omission 
being indicated in the other cases by a hyphen, as: 3lpfe{=, .<iirid)= unb 
53irnbditnie, apjjle, cherry and pear-trees — eiiic freuben= unb nublofe 
'Jlufciabe, a joyless and profitless task. 

5. The Composition of Verbs is fully treated of in Less. XXXVI, 
and Supp. Less. E. ; that of Numerals in Less. XXVIII, and also 
in §§ 1S2, 183. The compound Prepositions will be found in Less. 
XXXVIII, and Conjunctions in Less. XL, and require no special ex- 



Composition of Substantives. 



The last element is (with exceptions noted under 5, below) a SuV;stan- 
tive, which determines the gender, and is alone inflected; the first ele- 
ment generally having the principal accent. The varieties of Compound 
Substantives are: 

1. Substantive + Substantive, the first element being in apposition or 
in some case or other relation (usually genitive) to the other, as below, as : 
.^imniel vcid), kingdom oi \\&2i\en- {apposition) — ^tiifj^npfct, eye-ball — 
?onbe«i=l)err, sovereign — greuben-fcft, joyous festival — ^inbcv-ftubc, 

nursery {genitive elation) — Xiuteu-fafi, inkstand (stand/^r ink) — Xailj^ 
ftimbe, dancinglesson {dative relation) — flatten fiiiuicr, rat-catcher - 
iEBcg^Uieiier, guide, finger-post {accusative relation) Cft'tDJnb, East wind 

— §VCUben«tl)rnilf, tear of joy {origin) — j^ufi'tritt, kick {instrument) 

— !l)aci)»fenftev, window in the roof {place) — j£afle«n)erf, day's work. 

Notes. i. /'W»«a»j>' Compounds are those composed of stem + substantives, either 

with the stem-suffix «e, as: Sogeroerf ; or without suffix, .is: ^lanbsrocit, trade — ^aflbs 
l^orn, hunting-horn. 

2. Secondary Compounds are made up with a Genitive case, Singular or Plural ; if sin- 
gular, the first component takes sS after sfrotig masculines and neuters, and -AW after weak 
substantives, whether sing, or plur, ; thus: ©oniuaflsSsfleib, Sunday- dress — 'j^rcub 5 eit* 
gefc^rei, cry of joy — - ffiortevsbud}, dictionary. 

3. The suffix s8 is also added Xo feminines in A, «^elt, sfett, »|lf)nff, »llitp, and the 
foreign endings 4on, tot, as: ®eburt=e=tag, birthday — ;Vrnl)cii=8-Hel)e, love of liberty 

— aJia^igfeitsgstJereiit, temperance society — SHeUfliuiis8s!vieg, religious war — Unioer* 
fitOtsSsgebciube, University building. 

2. Qualifying Adjective -f- Substantive, as : (5be(=ftrin, precious stone, 
jewel — 3uugfrau, virgin — J^od)ieit, wedding (high time) - SBoU=monb, 

Note. — In a few spurious compounds of this kind, the adjective is declined, as: 
ein ^oficr^pricfter, high priest; ber §ol)eprieftcr — *^ie £aiige»»)eilc, tedium, ennui; Gen. 
bet gangeutDeile. 

3. Adverb or Preposition •\- Substantive, usually from compound 
verbs, but not always, as: Aporflinft, origin— Sol)l tl)at, benefit — S(n» 
gal)l, number — iBei=jpic{, example — §iiiter4ift, cunning — Uber=mad)t, 

4. Verb-stem + Substantive, sometimes with connecting suffix »t, 
as: Sej=c^bnd), (Scf)reib=feber, ®iiig nocjel. 

5. Other Compound Substantives. There is a special class of 
substantive compounds of a character different from those enumerated 
above, and of various composition, consisting of: 






first ele- 


'osition or 
elow, as : 
'e-ball — 

— Xaiii- 
itcher - 
last wind 

lives, either 
le — JSOflbs 

ural ; if sin- 
it after weak 

- 'j^rcubsen* 

Itp, and the 
e of liberty 
■ — Unioer» 

5US stone, 

jclined, as; 
;nnui; Gen. 

fit — S(n» 

suffix -'t, 

\ class of 

(a) A limiting word (not asubst.) -f Substantive, as j ©(Inbe^Iu^, 
blind man's-buff — tal)l=fopf, bald-head — ©rog.maul, boaster 

— i'ang^beiii, long-legged person — ®d)rei.f|al«, bawler — JBIcr. 
erf, square. 

(b) Limiting word -f Adjective, as : bcr SSlmmtx\ai\, the glutton 

— bnS 3mmcv gviiii, the evergreen. 

NoTB. — These compounds are masculine when referring to persons, otherwise neuter. 
The same rule holds good for the compounds under {c), below. 

(c) Verb -f- Object, limiting word or phrase, as: ftcr S^auge* 
nirf)t^, the good-for-nothing — ftcr ®priug4u8=felb, the romp — 
ter ©toreiufrieb, the kill-joy - bal ®teU=bid)=ein, the rendez- 

320. Composition of Adjectives. 

Compound Adjectives consist of an Adjective preceded by a limiting 
word, viz. : 

1. Adjective -f- Adjective, as : taiib=jltumm, deaf-mute — buutel^blau, 
dark-blue — lot bad:ig, red-cheeked. 

2. Substantive -j- Adjective : 

(fl) with connecting inflexional suffix (compare § 319, i, Note 2, 
above), as: (icbcK-fianf, love-sick — gebaufcn=t)oU, pensive-- 
l)offnung8=(o?, hopeless; 

{b) without suffix, as : Ucbe=t)cU, affectionate— ^ulb-reirf), gracious 

— frtMibo=(cer, j-oyless. 

Notes. — I. The Adjectives Ui, reirlft, ttoK are of such constant occurrence as to have 
almost acquired the character of suffixes. 

2. In soniu of these compounds, the substantive expresses comparison, or has intensive 
force, as : frcibemeig, white as chalk — f eberleidjt, light as a feather — felfenfeft, firm as 
^ rock. 

3. Verb -f Adjective, as : n)i§=bcgierig, eager for knowledge — merf- 
Univbig, remarkable (noteworthy). 

Note. — In Compound Adjectives like bnnfc»l8*H)ert, 'welcome ' (' thankworthy'), the 
first element is the infinitive used as a Substantive. 

4. Adverb or Preposition -\- Adjective, as : l)orf)=geboren, high-born 
— tDDf)l=fei(, cheap — initei-=tl)nn, subject — uber*!lug, overwise. 

321. Composition of Adverbs. 

Adverbs are compounded of various parts of speech : 
I. With Nouns {mostly in the Genitive) affixed to other parts of 
speech, as: gall; glcic^-faUg, likewise; icben=fon?, in any case — 




9)?nft(r) : cinlflpr^mnften, in some degree — '3fitc : rtnerfeitJ . . . anbtcr^ 
Uiiif^ on the one hand ... on the other hand — Xeil : mcil'tcii^tfilfi/ chiefly; 
mcineS.tcilP, on my part — i^rfl : gcrabe^^ttJCfl^, straightway; ffliieS. 
tOe9d,bynomeans — Scilc: cinft-toeilcn, niitt(cr=ttjcile,meariwhile, mean- 
time — Sotje: girufli(f)cr.mcifc, fortunately; fi-euii=ttJfiif, crosswise; 
t!)Ovid)ter»HJCtfc, foolishly. 

Note. — The wasc. and «f«/?r genitive-inflection »8, from Us frequent nse in adverTjial 
genitives, has become an advjrbial suffix, and is sometimes attacl.ed to ^;«. substs., as: 
bte »Jiad)t, aiiv. nadfti, by night. So also has the suffix >ttiartd, as; t)immeI«Uijrt8, 
heavenward — norb«lDartd, northward. 

2. With Prepositions (or original Adverbs) prefixed or suffixed to 
other parts of speech, as: ju n(cirf), at the same time — flcrabc.^U, straight 
on - ouf'luartS, upward; bov.vnttf, uphill - HlttC^meg^?, on the way; 
beig'Unter, downhill — ^cutjU^tanc, nowadays - ia()rc=lon0, for years. 

3. With Pronouns (or Stems originally Pronominal) compounded 
with each other, as: njo()iu? whither? ba^in, bortljiii, thither — iuo^er? 
whence? ba()er, bort^iu, thencp, etc. 

For Numeral Adverbs, see § 182. 


822. Relation between German and English. 

1. A comparison of German words and forms with their English equi- 
valents will serve to show that a very large number of both words and 
grammatical forms are common to both languages. Though rarely ab- 
solutely identical in form, the resemblances are both so close and so 
numerous that they cannot be the result of mere borrowing on the part of 
either language from the other, but must imply relationship, or, in other 
words, a descent /ro7n a common source, a common origin. 

English and German are therefore Modern dialects of one 
and the same original language. 

2. This original language is no longer extant, either a: a spoken or as 
a written language. There are, however, ether languages — some still 
spoken, some known to vs only as written — which were once al»7 



. . aiibtcr- 
J, chiefly; 
f; ?flitc8« 
ile, mean- 

ill adverbial 
substs., as: 

uffixed to 
I, straight 
the way; 
■ years. 


, etc. 


;]ish equi- 
ords and 
arely ab- 
>e and so 
le part of 
in other 

5 of one 

ken or as 
some still 
)nce al*^ 


Hindustani, etc. 
Persian, etc. 

modern: the Romance Ian- 

(ii.iljdsu' this common anrcutor, or @ntnMprarf)f, a^ German philolo. 
pists c'.ll it. This group or sith-famiiy of languages is called the Ger- 
MANIC ur Teutonic, the common source or (iJrl^l^i^)lad)e of which was 
itself a dialect of a larger family, all of whose members were dialects of, 
and derived from, one common primitive source (UnpVQd)O). This family 
is called the Indo-Ger.manic, Indo-European or Aryan family, and 
includes most European and several Asiatic languages. 

3. The divisions oi this great family, with the chief representatives, 
ancient (written) and modern (spoken), of each, are as follows, beginning 
from the East : 

{a) Indic — ancient: .Sanskrit, etc. 
{b) Persic— •' Zend, etc.; 
{c) Greek — ancient a.nd modern. 

(d) Italic ~ ancient : Latin, etc. 
guages (Italian, French, Spanish, etc.). 

(e) LrrHUANic. 

(/) Slavonic — Russian, Polish, Bohemian, etc. 
(g) Germanic — see below. 
(/i) Ckltic— Irish, (Jaelic, Welsh," etc. 

323. The Germanic Languages. 

The Germanic or Teutonic group 'of languages may be classified as 
follows : 

1. Gothic or East Germanic, once spoken by the Goths of Mcesia, 
on the Danube, represented only by a translation of portions of the 
Bible, made by Ulfilas, Bishop of the Goths, in the 4th century, a. d. 

2. Scandinavian or North Gilrmanic— ancient: Old Norse; 
modern: Icelandic, Danish (Xorwegian), Swedish. 

3. Low German or West Germanic — ancient: Frisian, Low Saxon, 
Low Frankish; Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Middle English; modern: 
Dutch, English. 

Note. — The modern representatives of the other Low Gennan languages are mere 
dialects - known as Plattdeutsch (i. e., Flat German), the present (High) German literary 
language having displaced them. 

4. High German or South Germanic, including the (no longer 
spoken) Old and Midd'e High German, and the GERMAN, as spoken 
and written at the present day. 

The following diagram will serve further to illustrate the relationships 
of the German language : 


















w S 

h _ 



u ■ 



•^ *« S 

w --2 




w - 




. 5 



- M 




w 3 

-O O 

3 u 

C *■ 

^ o 



2 ^ 



c to 

E c. 

O c 











































































































History of High German. 


The High German (including the Middle German) branch of the 
Germanic subfamily has passed thi^ough three stages as follows: 

I. Old High German, to the 12th century. Its literature is chiefly 
ecclesiastical — its principal authors being monks, such as Otfrid, the 
Frank, author of a rhyming harmony of the G()s|)els, and Notker, of St. 
Gallen in Switzerland. Each author wrote in his own dialect. 

NoTK.-The chief characteristic of this Old Hi^vh German, which ciistinRnishes it from 
the subst-quent '.tage.s, is the compa.ativc fuliu-ss and distinctivc-n.-ss of its Kranimatica) 
forms. Thus '^o,irit, 3blii,rii, Otntfii (d.-t. pi) =^ O. H. G. t.-^-um, sun-uir, gtb-6m re- 
sprctivfly : ai'd the pres. indie, of nt- an (iii'li!>!.ii) is as : nim-u, nim-is, iiim-it, 
neman)-(es), nem-at, nein-ant. It also has a fifin case (the I intrumental). 

2. Middle High German a. n. ih)o-isoo'. Literature during this 
period passed from the hands of the clergy into *ho^toi {he nobles; hence its 
courtly character. The branches of poetic composition therein re|)resented 
were F.p.c and Lyric I'oetry, tlie former conjprising not only the great 
National Epics of the ' Nihclnngcnlicd' and Gudrun,' but also the 
Courtly or Art Epics of Chivalry, such as Wolfram von Eschenbach's 
'Parcival' and Gnttfried von Straszburg's ' Tri.stan und Isolde'; the 
latter comprising the i)r eductions of the ' Minnesanger,' of whoin the 
greatest wns Walther von dcr Vogelweide. The Dia/cct of Snahia 
(which included Maden, Wiirtemberg and parts of Bavaria) became the 
leading literary language. 

Note. - Middle is distingui.shed from Old High German chiefly oy the loss of the 
full vowels of, ctional syllables, vvhidi were for the most part changed into f. Thus 
the (). H. G. datives pi. laj,-um, seb-om are in Mid. H. G. t.ig-en/ geb-en ; and the 
pres. indie, of nemen is: nii.i-e, nim-esl, nim-et, ncm-en, nem-et, nem-ent It is 
further distinguished from O. H. G. by the of the Umlaut (see § 326, below), which 
m the former is confined to th- vowel a, to the vowels o and u also ; and from both 

0. H.G. and Modern German by the large number of its diphthongal sounds (.li, ei, o.-, 

01, an, ou, on, eu, ia, ie, io, i„ ; ua. iie, iie, no), the greater number of which are unknowti 
in both the preceding and the hter stage of the language. 

3. Newer Modern High German, from 1500 to the present day, 
forming, since before the beginnmg of the i6th century, the standard 
/.' ary lan^^nagc of all German-speaking people. Its basis is Doctor 
Martin Luther's translation of the Bible (1J22— 34), in which he 
adopted the „.fan>,(eiiprad)r" or official court language particularly of 
the Duchy of Saxony, as being, in his own words, „Dic gcmcine Dcutfl^e 
2|iro^e, tt)cld)er nadifolgcu nUe Jviirften unb ^bnigc in gain ©euttdj. 
lanb." ' 




Note. —The chief characteristic which disfinpuishes Modern (New) High German 
from Middle Higli German is the lengthening <if ;dl stem-vowels before a single consonant. 
Thus fni]cn, jpiud), lobeii, all l.ave the stem-\(>v.Ll long in ^Tidern G.rnian, but short in 
Middle High German. To tliis may be add;d .'ii'i use of the letter () lo mark a preced- 
ing long vowel, as in neftmen, M. H. G. nemen (wirh short e); thi.- rliarge of f into frf) be- 
fore 1, n, as : 2it)(ai, Srfincc, M. H. G. slSf, sne; and that of the long vowels i, fi, into the 
diphthonj.';s fi, tit respectively, .- : jncin, brill, bvri, ®cib, TOailS, .&0U8, ^OUt, lotlt, 
M, H. G. min, din, drl, wib, mfls. hfis, hut, hit. 

;{25. (tkimm's Law oi l*autt>cr'd)icbunfl. 

I The law of the progression or shifting of mutes, Genu. \iauU 
DCr(d).cbuilfl, also called Grimm's Law after its chief ciiscoverei, Jakob 
Grimm, the illustrious grammarian, is one of the most striking features 
of the Germanic. languages. 

2. The Mutes are divided into three classes, according to the organ 
with which tlicy are: uttered, viz. : LiN(;i;.\i.s (or Dkntai.s; : t, th, d; 
l.AniAi.srp, ph (f), b; and Palatals (or k (c), ch [h), 
g. Kach of these classes contains a ft'niiis ^ov sitrd), an aspirate or 
spirant, and a tucdia (or sonant), thus : 



or Spirants. 

ph, f 
kh. ch 'h) 





Labials: p 

P'lI.ATAI.S: k, c 

3. In the majority ol the Germanic languages — (iothic, Scandinavian, 
Low German (including therefore I'.NGLlSHj - as compared with the other 
members of the Indo-Gennanic family (Greek, Latin, etc. ; see § 322, 3, 
above), each of these mutes has undergone one "shifting, '' or been 
pushed forward one stage in its own class, the tenues having been changed 
hito aspirates (or more strictiv sf iraiifs), the asjnrates into mediae, and 
the media! into tenues. In Higli German alone they have undergone a 
second "shifting" in the same direction. 

Note. — The accompanying will serve further to illustrate J^vi) 

this 1 rocess, showing how the mutes observe the following rotation >/^^ 
from primitive Indii-Gormanic through general Germanic (including / 
English) to High (Wrman. vi/.. : 'I'tnuis, Aspiratf, Mtdi.i ; Aspirate,^ 
Media, Tennis; Media, Tunuis. Aspirate. v^f, 

3. Taking Latin or Greek as representing the first or 
primitive Indo-Ciermanic stage, and English as repre- 
senting the second, or general (Jcrmanic stage (the first shifting), the 
following scheme will show the theordical working of this law ; 


grimm's law of iiautbcrfcf;iebuiuj. 



Latin, Greek, etc. : 
= English, etc. : 
:= (High) German 


t, th, d 
th, d, t 
d, t, th 


P, ph, b 


ph, b, 
b, p, 

k, kh, g 
kh, g, k 
g. k, kh 

5- The operation of the law is, however, subject to the following 
general exceptions : ^ 

(a) p and k were changed in the second shifting, noc into aspirates 
proper, but into the s/mnt/s f and h (= j^i respectively, and 
these s])irants were n(jt. subjected to any further change. 

(d) The lingual aspirate is represented in High German by j, |l, ff, or §. 

{c) The second shifting of media to tenuis took place in High Ger- 
man in the /in_s;-ua/ scries only, except in one dialect (the Ale- 

{(i) The aspirate lor spirant) rf) is never found in Modern German at 
the beginning of a word. 

6. Hence the modified scheme below will represent approximately the 
actual working of the law : 

LiNGUALS. Labials. Palatals. 

Latin, Greek, etc. : t, th, d p, ph (f), b k, kh (h), g 

= English, etc.: th, d, t f, b, p h, g, k 

= (High) German : d, t, z, s, ss, sz f, b, f h(d)) g, k (rf)) 

Note. - Latin has c, f, and h for k, ph and kh respectively ; and the (1) at the bottom 
of the last column does not occur at the beginning of words ; see 5, {fi), above. 

EXAMPLES OF t'lUilocrfiOicbuiig. 

(Note. — Examples from Lat. unless otherwise specified.) 

1. LlNciAi.s: (r/) t th <l ; as : tectum — tllatch — i;ad); tenuis — 
thin- ftiiiui; tu- thou — 1 11; trcs three -tlTi; f rater -brother 

— ii3niUer; [b) th — d- t, as: thygatOr (Gr.) —daughter todjtoi- 

thyra(Gr.)— door — 3:urc;ther((;r.) deer 2icr;'o) d- t z, si 
ss, sz, as: domus — timber ,^'Jimim'r; dakr-y (Gr.) tear — ^'Jdl/rc- 
sedere - sit - [hiCii; edere- eat- rffcii. 

2. Larials: {a) p f— f, as: pugno — fight — fcriitcii; pedem — 
foot- ^^11 ll; piscis - fish j'^.ifd); {h) ph (Lat. f)--p--b, as: f rater 

— hrother - iih-iibor; fagus — heech — 58ud)i'; [c] b -- p — f, as : can- 
nahis — hemp — .S^nui, 

3. Palatals: {a\ k (Lnt. c) -h - dj (h if initial), as: canis- hound 

— ^lm^; octo -eight - ad)t; noc-tem - night — iUad)t; {!>) kh (Lat.h) 

— g-g, as: Ilostis — guest — Okft; hortus — garden — ©ar ten; (r) 




g__lj(c)_(f) (k if initial) as; gelidus — Cold — fatt; genu — knee 
iinic; jugum — yoke — 3od); frangro - break — brcd)en. 

Note. — A further class of exceptions is caused by the fact that the mutes are some- 
times protected from change by an adjacent consonant, as: wander — roanPcrii; s.tone — 
eicin ; haste — A>nft ; night — 9Inftt ; craft — Rvaft. There are also other deviations 
from the strict rule too numerous to be mentioned here. 

326. Umlaut. 

1. Umlaut is the modification of an accented a^ 0, U, OU into it (e), 
b, iir iiu respectively, and is caused by the influence of an i or j| in the 
following syllable. 

Remarks.— i. The vowels a, 0, ir, with the diphthong nil, are guttural 
or "back" vowels, and approach the sound of the following i, which is 
a palatal or " front" vowel. 

2. This i or j appears in Old High German, but has disappeared — 
with some exception's, as under (</j, (/), (/j, below — in Modern Ger- 
man, and even in Middle High German. The following are a few exam- 
ples of the origin and working of this law: 

(a) 111 the plur. of Substantives of the iSo()n Model (§ 2i), the ter- 
mination t is in O. H.G. -i, as: @oftiV O. H. G. gasti; ilv'ijtf, 
O. H. G. krafti. 
Note. — Not all substantives with Umlaut in the plural have thi= origin ; a number of 
them (e.g., So()i;), which originally belonged to declension-forms without an -i, having 
followed the analogy of the others. 

(d) In the plur. of the 2)ovf Model (§ 36), the ending =rr is in 
O. H. G. -ir, as: ."ilttlba-, O H. G. kalbir. 

(c) In dinn'nutives in cl):n (orig. -kin) and =lc!tt (orig. -lin), as: 
iliiobd)cn, rtiubdnn, from .^luobc 

((/) In fem. appellatives in Av, as GHdliu, from @raf. 

(if) In sub ts. in =nix% as ^.^cgriibuiv^, from grnbcn. 

(/) In adjs. in -^ijj, as fliitifl, tljiitifl, from (jilt, %\)at. 

{g) In the impf. subj. of strong verbs, the final =e is in O. H. G. -i, 
as: Q':ibt, O. II. G. gabi. 

3. Sometimes the Umlaut of a is represented by c instead of li, as in 
gngcl (angel), from angil, Gr. angelos ; ^Itcni, parents, from oU. 

4. Instances of Umlaut occur in English also, as in mouse,, mice; 
goose, geese; old, elder; but they are comparatively rare, ind the in- 
fluence of Umlauc ceased in Knglish at a very early period. In German 
on the contrary it is still an active principle. 


A. Substantives of aHalcr Model with Umlaut in Plural. 

as 111 

ader, field 
Sir uber^ brother 
-^ai!l!]l£il/ hammer 
Sc^roager, brother-in-law 
SSater, father 

(Lesson V, § 17.) 

^afen, harbour 
Saben, shop 
OiejU. stove 
Sc^abeit, damage 

S8oben, bottom, loft 
(^nbeii, thread 
Ciiartail, garden 
OraDcn, ditch 

' ilPicI^ apple 
^am:nc(, wether 
^aiibcl, affair, quarrel 
OTantel, cloak 
''Sio.hti, navel 

DJagel, nail 
-Sattel, saddle 
Sdmabcl, beak 
Sogsl, bird 

ailuttcr, mother 
Soxljljei, daughter 

filofter, cloister 

B. Masculine Monosyllables of .^unD Model (without Umlaut;, 

aial, eel 

Slar, eagle 

2trm, arm 

Sorb, board, shelf 

Sovn, well 

2)od)t, wick 

SJolcf), dagger 

S)om, dome, cathedral 

S)ru(f, pressure, print 

©vab, degree 

@urt, girth 

^ag, hedge 

J&ad, sound 

^alm, blade (of grass), etc. 

$auci), breath 

^orft, eyry 

Sort, refuge 

$iif, hoof 

^uub, dog 

(Less. VII, § 22, I, 

ilalt, lime 
^orf, cork 
.Rrafjii, crane 
£ad)0, salmon 
Sacf, lac 
Siiiit, sound 
Suct)<j, lynx 
SDIpW), salamander 
aJlonb, moon 
aHorb, murder 
Dvt, place 
*^3art, park 
*^fab, path 
^fau, peacock 
^ol, pole 
$ul3, pulse 
SPu'ift, point 
5Puitfc^, punch 

Cluarj, quartz 

Duaft, tassel 

©d)uft, mean fellow 

Sc()ii(), shoe 

Spat, spar (mineral) 

Staar, starling 

Stalil, steel 

Stoff, material 

Sunb, strait, sound 

Xo.\X, taffeta 

2:ag, day 

Salt, tact, bar(m music) 

Sol', talc 

2;f)ran, train-oil 

2:J)ii.'ii, thione 

2;orf, peat 

Sujd), flourish of trumpeu 

Sou, inch 





C. Feminines of Sol^ii Model. 

(All with Umlaut; Less. VII, § 22, 3.) 

Slngft, anguish 
2(u§f(urt)t, evasion 
STjt, axe 
93anf, bench 
S3rnut, bride 
SBnift, breast 
Sauft, fist 
>vnu()t, fruit 
G5ttii§, goose 
©ruft, grave 
^anb, hand 

$aut, skin 
filuft, cleft 
lli'nft, strength 
ilu(), cow 
fltiitft, art 
£ou§, louse 
fiuft, air 
£uft, desire 
3)Jarf)t, power 
Wacjb, maid-servant 
i!)Jau§, mouse 

Also those ending in -iiio and -in( 

SKadjt, night 

9lal)t, seam 

9lot, need 

aiufi, nut 

Snu, sow 

Sd)nur, string 

Stabt, town 

ffianb, wall 

2Burft, sausage 

3iinft, guild 

^ufainmeiifunft, meeting 

D. Irregular Foreign Substantives. 

(Less. VII, §22, 6.) 

1. 2)er Kaplan, chaplain, pi. Ataplaiic. 

2. The following foreign substs, with accent on last syll. follow the 5i«nb Model : ber 
iWonoloci', soliloquy; bcv 3)inloii', dialogue; also those in -or accented, as: ber 
^umov', humour; ber I'Jaior', major. 

3. The following are mixed (Or)r Model); Oer 3l(Itiia'tor, alligator; ber 2)Smon, 
demon; ber ,Slon'|uI, consul ; bao ctercoffop', stereoscope; ba§ 2:cleifop', telescope; also 
those from the Lat. in -OX unaccented, as: ber Jottor, ber ^i'rofeffor. 

4. The following are weak or mixed (Olir Model): bcv 9lbamaitt', adamant; ber T)ias 
tnant' (or 2)emant), diamond; ber SDlaiinet'', magnet. 

E. Neuter Monosylla 

i?LKs OF ^uiil) Model. 

(Less. VIL§22, 5.) 

SBeet, flower-bed 
53cil, hatchet 
SBcin, leg 
SBier, beer 
S8(ed), tin-plate 
SBIei, lead 
93oot,' boat 
SBvot, bread 
2)infl,2 thing 
6rj, ore 
geU, hide 
^eft, festival 
ijett, fat 
^tofi.i i-aft 

Wift, poison 
OUcio, rut 
.yeft, handle 
.'Oorn,2 horn 
Jod). yoke 
flnie, knee 
ilreu^, cross 
8atib,2 land 
Sid)t,= light 
8oo9, lot 
aOiia(a)l, mole, mark; 

3)lo6, measure 
Wo or. moor 

a)loO'5, moss 
Vwli, net 
ti, oil 
^^Jferb, horse 
*>PfuiiD, pound 
^Ult, desk 
Slec^t, right 
SHef), roc-deer 
9tcic(), enii ire 
9iiff, reef 
9I06, horse 
Salj, salt 
Sdiaf, -heop 
©d'iff ship 

Scfjilf, nish 
Sd^ot, shot 
Sditpciii, pig 
3c i(, rope 
Sieb, sieve 
Spiel, {,ame 
Stiicf, piece 
2:au, cable 
Teil, share 
3i>eliv, web- 
21'eif, work 
fflort,2 word 
3elt, tent 
3eug, stuff 
^iel, goal 



Also eight in -r : 
■'Qaat, hair 
$eer, army 

3a^r, year 
iWeer, sea 

* Also with Umlaut. 

^aar, pair tier, animal 

9101)1-, reed J^or, gate 

" Sdi; also A])|>. (j.* 

/'. Weak Masculines not knding in -c. 

(Less. XIV, § 57, 2.) 

eat bear Oecf, fop .Unffa, Caffir 

Sate.-, Bavarian ©efeU, fellow .jj,ci.ic(,, man 

«urnar' Bulgarian Wraf, count Woln; Moor 

«ui-[ct), lad i^a.ieftolj, old bachelor -JJarv, fool 

J^vtft, Christian ^elb, hero ^Jicvv, nerve 

gtnf, finch ^ei-r, master Qdyi, ox 

(Jiil-ft, prince $irt, herdsman 

i>ommei-, Pomeranian 

^ritia, prince 
Spn^, sparrow 
-2teiiimc(,i, stono- 
lOov, fool [mason 
Hiuiar, Hungarian 
A'oifatji-, ancestor 

6'. Substantives of Mixed Declension. 

(Less. XV, §§ 61 6,?.) 

(a) 9Jomc Model (Muse). 
©aHe(n), beam (sUnnri.- fniti, -^ .. . • 

„, . , , . wumi, bLeei aji i", will 

©ebante, thought 

Also one neut. : ftn.; wv\, ( ;. bco .Oericiio. 

.. Masculines: ^'^ *^^"*^ '^ ^°^^^- 

^nuer peasa,,t i>oi(.cer, laurel nHUitoffd, slipper *3tiefel boot 

2. Neuters: 9htflc, .ye Unbe, end 

• Also after ailaler Model. 

I. Masculines! 

9tt)ti, ancestor 
>VOVft, forest 
0au,' district 
»ufar,2 hussar 
/■ Neuters: 

(c) Cljr Model. 

ma^t, mast 

ijifau,' p.iar'. I; 

Sd)nterj, pau; 
See, lake 

S3ett, bed 

«pi.rn, spur 

(also Sporeii) 
otaat, state 
Strati, beam' 
i^t'Mh, shirt . 

@trau6,3 ostrich 
3ii.'vat, ornament 
3* "9, interest 
Of)r, ear 

' Also after Cvimb Mudci. » Al,,o alter Slnabe Model. 
To these may be added the foreign substantives in App. D. . See .,!..., App. G 








bie syanf : 
ba3 Dina : 
ber !Corn : 
ba« «eftc(;t : 
ba<5 ^oni : 
ber Sabett: 
ba^ Snnb: 
bas i;id)t : 
bcr "Mann : 
bcr Dfonb : 
ber Crt : 
bie Sail : 
bev etrnug : 

iaa Suc^ : 
boo sajort : 

* For instance ■ 
dered); but bie j 
the Netherlands. 

- For instance 
but an alien Crten 

Double Plurals with dikferent meanings. 

(Less. XV, § 64.) 

'^onber, ribbons 
iflnnfe, benches 
3)insie, things 
Dome or Jbnirr, thorns 
_ (MefiiOter, faces 
Corner, horns 
lidben, shops 

Snnbfi', sejiarate countries ^ 
fiirfne, candles 
Wdniier, men 
Woute, satellites 
Ovter, (single) places* 
Sour, sows 
Stioiific or Straugeii, os. 

2;iii%r, cloths 
aBdrter, single words 
3olle, inches 

SDonbt, ties 

5<ontrii, commercial banks 

3)ini]er, creatures 

Dovnoi, thorns (collectively) 

0e)icl)tc, visions 

.'poiiie, kinds of horn 

iinbcn, shutters 

finnbf, provinces or districts 

i!iri)ter, lights 

aWaniiCII, vassals 

IJfonbfn, months (poetic) 

Crtf, places (collective'. ) 

Sancn, wild boars 

Strniifif, nosegays 

ZudH, kind,-, of cloth 
il'Ol'tf, coherent words 

:)Oiu-. tolls 

-bte X'ttJibei- Ciiiiopao, the countries of Europe (individually consi- 
■ ciui\iien iianftc, the German distriti ,.r iiroviuces; bie 9Jieberlanbe, 
Poets use the latter form also in the sense of the former. 

\n nUcu Crtcni ber 'VUouiiij, in all (inhabited) places of th" province; 
, in all places generally, everywhere. 

//. Nouns {/,ios^/jy abstract) WHICH FORM THEIR Plural hv means ov 



(Supp? Less. B., § 66, i, Note. 1 


ber 93au, building 

(ber syail, burrow, etc. 

bac) 'iH'ftvebeii, effort 

ber 33etnt.i, deceit, fraud 

ber SBunb, alliance 

ber I'ant, thanjts 

baS (irbe, inheritance 

ber ;yriebe, treaty of peace 

bie OJewalt, force, violence 

bie (?Jiinft, favour 

ber .Uiiinmer, affliction, trouble 

brt'5 \!.q\>, praise 

Dei 111 01 b, murder 

ber ;)!i-,t, counsel, advice 


btc Saiiten 

bie iiauc) 

bie '-Ikflrelningcn 

btc "-lU'triiiiereien 

bie i^iinbnifje 

bie 3;air{)ac]nn(ien 

bie (Srbfdinften 

bie (vricbcKouertrcSiie 

bie ©eamlttljcitinteiteir 

bie ftitp.ftbejcugiingen 

bie .Hiiinnicrnifje 

bie Vobivriiifte 

bie SDJorbtl&uten 

bie Siatfc^lagc 




(ber 5Rat, cou.icillor 
ber SWoui), robbery 
I'd- 3ci]Cll, blessing 
ber Stl'Cit, quarrel, dispute 
ber J'ob, death, decease 
bag UnjUict, misfortune 
ber S8erbru6, vexation 
ber3an'/ quarrel 


bfe SJiate) 
bic aiidubcrcien 
bie 3ci]ituniien 
bie Strcitiijteiten 
bic JobcSfciUe 
bie UiiiililcfcfaUe 
bic 33crbric6lic[}fciten 
bic 3cinfcrcien 

/. Exceptions to the Rules on Gender. 

(Less. XVII, XVIII, §§ So, 89, 90.) 

80. I. {a) Fern.: Cic SDIannSpcrfoit, male-person. Ncut : all diminutives in -(^eit 
and -Icill. 

2. (fi) Neut.: bao aSeib, woman; ba3 *i)ieii)ct), wench; 'a^x'i ';'fraueiijimmer, woman; 
and all diminutives in -djni and -(fill. 
{b) Trees, etc. ; 

ber 2(f)oni, maple 

ber 9(pfel, apple 

baS ©pl)cii, ivy 

baS ©eratiiiiiii, geranium 

ber §afer, oats 

ber §nnf, hem j 

ber illee, clover 

ber iloljl, cabbage 

ber J^ol)lrabi, Brussels-spouts 

baj JJoiii, grain 

ber ilciud), L'ck 

ber SorOecr, laurel 

ber a)(aiS, maize 

bO'j 'JJiood, moss 
ber Stoggcn, rye 
ber Spnrijet, asparagus 
ber Spiiiat, spinach 
ber 3:abat, tobacco 
ber iffieijen, wheat 

Also Compounds, as: ber Sc^uiarjOont, blackthorn; baO Weifeblatt. honey-suckle; 
ba3 *-8ergif;nuMniiicf)t, forget-me-not; baci Jaufenbfcljbn, daisy; and diminutives, as: basi 
93ei(c()en, violet. 

3. (a) Metals — i^/zjc. ; ber MoOalt, cobalt; ber Stahf, steel; ber Sombacf,' pinch- 
beck; ber -iiJiSmut, bismuth; ber 3iiif, zinc. /^^;«..- bie iUatiito, platina. 
ip) Countries, etc. — Musl. : ber ^eloponneS, Peloponnesus; ber .'onai], the Hague; 

Fern. : bic .Uvim, Crimea; bie Senante, the 
and those in -ei, -ou, -]. 

also those in -^an, as: Ddu'gau. 
Levant; bie Ufraiiie, the Ukraine 

89. I. (a) Neut. : ba§ ^effing, brass. 
(fi) Feminines in -el : 

Slc^fet, shoulder 

Stmpct, lamp 

Slmjel, black-bird 

aingel, fish-hook 

SJibel, bible 

93ucfel, boss (of a 

6l)inbei, cymbal 

Ssattel, date 

5)eid)fel, carriage- 

Itiftel, thistle (Surge!, throat 

2)rof)0(, thrush .giummel, humble- 

(Sirf)e(, acorn bee 

j^abcl, fable ^jnfel, island 

^actei, torch ilaitjci, pulpit 

(■5:cffc(, fetter ^artoffol, potato 

^t&cl, spelling-book iloppoi, leash ; brace i'appei, poplar 

(VOrinel, formula (of dogs) iparaOcl, parable 

Qabcl, fork .Hugel, bail ']}riiiU'l, primrose 

©ciftel, scourge ^uppel, cupola SRafpef, rasp 

(Sonbcl, gondola a^Ianbel, ,- Imond SU'gcI, rule 

aJiaiigel, mangle 
aJHftct, mistletoe 
i)hi)d}el, sh 11 
'JJobel, needle 
■Sleffcl, nettle 
Drgel, organ 



«unjel, wrinkla Semmel, roll of bread Safel, table 

3il)aiS)tel, band-box Slc^el, itckle Srobbel, tassel 


oc^aufel, shovel 
Sc^autel, swing 
©d^tnbel, shingle 
©d^ilffcl, dish 

In -n : 
Slber, vein 

9(fter, aster 
Sliiflcr, oyster 
93lattev, blister 
Gutter, butter 
(Jeber, cedar 
3)auer, duration 
(Sifter, magpie 
5afer, fibre 
J?eber, feather, pen 
(?eier, celebration 

6ptnbel, spindle 
©toffcl, step of a 

Stopvel. stubble 

ijolter, rack 
^alfter, halter 
ilammer, chamber 
belter, wine-press 

Irommel, drum 
SrUffel, truffle 
Wad)Ul, quail 

Smarter, torture 
Wauer, wall 
ajiutter, mother 
5Jattcr, adder 
9Jummev, number 

99affel, wafHe 
fflinbel, swaddling 

'Burjel, root 
Srotebel, onion 

Steuer, tax 
Xo(i)tet, daughter 
2;rauer, mourning 
SeSper, even- tide, 

ffiimpcr, eyelash 
3tffer, cipher 
'^itljn, guitar 

fliefer, pine 

illammer, cramp-iron Dper, opera 

fltnppcv, rattle Otter, otter 

fcauer, lurking-place 3Jiifter, elm 

iJelier, liver Scijcuer, barn 

aeier, lyre Sd^Icuber, sling 

Setter, ladder 3rf)ulter, shoulder 

Note. — The names of rivers ending in -er or -f I are also feminine, e. g. : bie Dber hie 
Sffiefer, bie TOofel. 

Neuters in -fl : 
«ilitbel, bundle 
35iinfel, darkness 
(gjempel, example 

In -cii: 
atlmofeii, alms 
33eclen, basin 
(Eifen, iron 

In -er : 

2l6enteiier, adven- 
9llter, age 
Saner, bird-cage 
®iter, pus 
©uter, udder 
^fcuftcr, window 
i^euer, fire 
Steber, fever 
J^tiber, load 
Jutter, fodder 

fiapitel, chapter 
SKittel, means 
Drafel, oracle 

SHubel, hei-d, flock Stegel, seal 
Sd^armii^et, skirmish U&el, evil 

Segel, sail 

SUIIen, colt fiafen, sheet (bed- 

Jliffen, cushion clothes) 

2cf)Cii, fief 
And all infinitives when used as substantives. 

©Otter, grate, rail- 
©itter, trellis 

Jlloftcr, cloister 
iJupfev, copper 
fiager, couch 
Softer, vice 
Seber, leather 
fiilber, carrion 

IDJeffer, knife 
atUeber, bodice 
aJhifter, pattern 
Dpfcr, sacrifice 
^•Pfiafter, plastL-r 
'IJolftcr, cu;hioii 
^I'lilner, powder 
^tsiifter, register, 

SEBiefel, weasel 

aBappen, coat-of- 

3ei«^eii, token 

Scepter or ^^Pter, 

Silbcr, silver 
Steuer, helm 
2^{)eater, theatre 
llfcv, shore 
•SJoffer, water 
iiJetter, weather 
'IBiiiiber, wonder 
Simmer, apartment 

Wolter, a grain mea- Siiiber, oar 
sure Sifiauer, shower 

Note. — 3)iiinftev, 'minster,' occurs both as masculine — itom its present form — and 
as neuter — Irom its derivation from the Latin monasterium. 
(c) Feminines : 
Stc^t, proscription SBont, bench itirunft, conflagration Surg, castle 

Strt, manner, kind Soi, bay Slut, brood ^aijrt, expedition 

'Bofin, path ©rout, bride ^Piicht, bay i?fucf)t, flight 



Slur, field 
%\xi, flood 
j^orm, form 
iJracf)!, freight 
(5raii, woman 
iJrift, time 
gurc{)t, fear 
j^urt, ford 
@ei6, goat 
©ic^t, gout 
®ier, cagernc*? 
Glut, glow 
©unft, favour 
^oft, custod) 
J^aft, haste 
$iilb, grace 
^x\t, guard 
3ai]b, chase 
iloft, food 

Neuter \ : 

9la§, carrion 
lUint, office 
iOnb, bath 
iOniib, ribbon 
Sett, bed 
93ilb, picture 
SSlatt, leaf 
Slut, blood 
93ucl), book 
S3imb, bundle 
S^rtd), roof 

35itt0- tiling 
3)orf, village 
Si, egg 
Si5, ice 

iJacf), compartment 
So{j, cask 
gelb, fiL-ld 
§leifcf), flesh 
®arn, yam 
©clb, money 
(3Uv1>, gl.iss 
©leicv groove, rut 
©lieb, limb 

(3) 2ier 9(t)enb, ev 

draft, strength 

flufi, cow 

JTur, (obsolete), elec- 

Caft, load 
Cift, cunning 
Tlatt, boundary 
iDJorfd), mars! , fen 
aWautf), excise 
a)JiW}, milk 
'}lal)t, seam 
9JuII, zero 
^;in, torment 
iPflicbt, duty 
iJJoft, post 
!}JrncOt, sjilendour 
Oiial, torment 
Shift, rest 
©oat, seed 

Also those in 

Bdfam, shame 
3d)av, host, troop 
Sc^au, show 
Srfieii, dread 
®c()td)t, layer, stratum 
Scf)[ad^t, battle 
ScOIucfjt, ravine 
Sd)mad), disgrace 
Sd}fift, writing 
Sc^idb, guilt, dtbt 
Sd^iuulft, swelUng 
See, sea 
Sidjt, ^ight 
Sprcii, chaff 
Spuv, trace 
3tntt, stead, place 
Stirii, brow 
Streit, litter [sion 
®ud)t, longing, pas- 
App. C. 

0lUcf, luck 

GJolb, gold 

0)ra&, grave 

CJfao, i^rass 

PJut, projierty, estate 

^CiV>t, resin 

,yaii;-t, Iiend 

4lClu6, house 

^ei(, prosjierity 

,'ijemb, shirt 

§erj, heart 

$cii, hay 
$irit, brain 
JOOtj, wood 
Aiif)n, fowl 
Jtalb, calf 
JliiiD, clii'i.l 
Jtiiui, c!ii:i 
.Uloi^, ganuent 
Alovii, corn 
Ali-aut, herb 
iJamiit, lamb 
iianb, land 
2anb, foliage 

Also those in 

February ; DtttJ $'.'tfd;a 
■ening ; bad ^u^enb 

2eib, suffering 
iiieb, song 
fioO, praise 
£od;, hole 
fiofiii, wages 
Sot, plumb-line 
'^ial)l, meal, repast 
aJhilj, malt 
iUlnvt, marrow 
iUJaiil, mouth i^of 

TOe(;(, flour 
iDieitjc^, wench 
iDhiO, pap, jam 
•Jleft, nest 
Dbft, fruit 
Df)r, car 
^ec^, pitch 
'IJfaiib, pledge 
3iab, wheel 
9iei5, twig 
;){teB, ream 
atinb, head of cattle 
5d;cit, log of wood 
App. E. 

\t, seal. 


^f)Oit, deed 

'ZtiHv, door 

J:rad)t, load, cos- 

I^rtft, pasturage 

U^r, watch 

a3ad)t, guard 

aBaljI, choice 

2Be£)r, defence 

aSelt, world 

SBuc^t, bulk, heavy 

SBulft, pad 

aSJut, rage 

3o^l, number 

.yeit, time 

,Sier, ornament 

3uc^t, disciphne 

Bunft, guild 

3d) lib, sign-board 

wc^loB, lock; cas- 
tle , 

Scf)tna[j, grease, 

Sd)toevt, sword 

Stift, foundation 

Strol), straw 

Zl)C[l, valley 

tiid;, cloth 

'Ski), cattle 

5?olt, nation 

iffiadjS, wax 

iBantm'3, jacket, 

ffiel), woe 

iiSciO, woman 

aBerg, tow 

iBtlb, game 

iffiol)!, wcUbeing 

Sffiort, word 

SBrad, wreck 
3elt, tent 
3inii, tin 





(c) Matatlifitt: 

Suc^ftabe, letter of 

the alphabet 
jifrlebe, peace 
f^unfe, spark 
i^ebaate, thought 

@(aube, faitb 
^aufe, heap 
9lame, name 
Same, seed 
Sc^iabe, injury 

SBtOe, will 
Slffe, monkey 
2)rncl;e, dragon 
I^atte, falcon 
$nfe, hare 

fibroe, lion 
iWabc, raven 
Aiife, cheeM 

And names of males, as: ber 33otf, messenger; ber Jdnabe, boy, etc. 
Neuters: Mmie, eye; Gnbe, end; (Srbc, inheritance. 
(«•) Itr flat^oIiJ', Catholic. 
3. {b) Masculines: 3rrtum, error; Weic^tum, wealth. 
(c) Feminities in -nJd : 

(5rlau6nt3, permission 
erfparni3, savings 
3aiiliii5, putrefaction 
*53rbcrn;3, furtherance 
'5«nftcrni3, darkness 
.Rcnntnid, knowledge 
*3cl)icrfni^, terror 
SrocfntS, drought 

* Also neuter. 
Fcminines\n-\9.\: J) rangf a (, tribulation; mm;fal, trouble ; SrUbfal, affliction. 
Masculine \\\ -|el : Stopfel, stopper, etc. 

90. 4- >^>;«/«/«^ compounds of D!ut : 2Inmut, grace ; ^cmut, humility; ©voijntHt 
generosity; Sanjmut, long-suffering; Sanftmut, meekness; 2c()H)cnnut, melar.choj, 
aSe^mut, sorrowfulness. 

/. Nouns which have a double Gender. 

•SebrargniS, distress 
*!8efugni§, authority 
SOelilnimerniS, sorrow 
S3eforgni9, arprehunsion 
a3etrilbni<3, affliction 
JBeroanbtniC), conjuncture 
ffimpfangnio, conception 
©rfenntnisl, cognition 

*93erbammnt9, damnation 
aSerbcrbni^, corruption (is 

also used as neuter) 
33crfiiii!iniiy. neglect, 

liiJilbnid, wilderness 

( Less, 
ber Sanb (pi. SBdnbe), volumes 
ber SBunb (pi. '-Miinbe), confederacy 
ber Saner (pi. Sauern), peasant 
ber GI)Oi- (pi. Gbore), chorus 
ber Grbe (pi. Grben), heir 
bie Grfcnittnio, intuition 
ber ®eiicl, hostage 
bie ©ift (^litgift), dowry 
ber ^arj, Hartz mountains 
ber ^cibe (pi. .^eibcn), heathen 
ber §ut (pi. .£>iite), hat 
ber Jliefer, jaw 
ber ^unbe, customer 
ber Setter, guide 
ber 9JJangel, want 
bao ^Rart, marrow 
ber Wejfcv, measurer, surveyor 
ber JReiiJ, ricu 

XVIII, §g,.) 

bacs 33anb (pi. Sanber), ribbon 

baa SBimb (pi. SOiiiibe), bundle 

ba? 93aucv, cage 

baS GOor (pi. GOorc), choir • 

ba§ Grbe, inheritance 

baS GrfenntniS, verdict 

bie ©eigel, .scourge 

baS ©ift, poison 

'iiO.^ iMirs, resin 

bie $cibe, heath 

bie S^wi, heed, guard 

bie jltefer (pi. iliefern), pine-tree 

btc flunbc, knowledge, tidings 

bie Sieitcv, ladder 

bie DJtaiiael, mangle 

bie ffiarf (pi. itiarten), border-land 

baS Weffcr, knife 

baS iReiS (pi. 3ieifer), twig 



bet Sc^trb (pi. Sc^ilbe), thield 

ber See (pi. Seen), lake 

ber Spiofje, offspring 

ble Steucr, tax, duty 

ber Stift, pencil, tack 

ber Xe\i, p.nrt 

ber I^or (pi. l:boren), fool 

ber Berbienft, gain 

ba9 S(5irb (pi Sd^ilber), »l(?n.botrd 

bie See, sea, ocean 

bie Sproffe, step (In a ladder) 

ba« Steuer, helir. 

bad Stiff, pious foundation 

bad 2,ei[, share, portion 

baa Iljor (pi. Ifjore), gate 

bad Oirbicnft, merit 

K. Monosyllabic Adjectives without Umlaut. 

(Less. XXV, § .25.) 

barfcf), harsh 
(rati, good 
Bunt, variegated 
bumpf, dull (said 

of sound) 
falD, fallow 
falfd), false 
fladj, flat 
frol), joyful 
glatt, smooth 

^o^t, hollow 
^olb, favourable 
laf)l, bald 
fari], stingy 
fnapp, tight 
la()m, lame 
lag-, tired 
matt, wearied 
ir.orfcf), rotten 
nacft, naked 

The practice varies with bang or bange, afraid ; blafi, pale; 
sound; flov, clear; nnfe, wet; javt, tender. 

platt, flat 
plump, clumsy 
rafrf), quick 
toi), raw 
runb, round 
facfit, gentle, low 
fan ft, soft 
fatt, satiated 
fc^laff, slack 
fdjlauf, slender 

fc^roff, rugged 

ftarr, stiff 

ftolj, proud 

ftraff, tight, stretched 

ftumpf, blunt 

toU, mad 

ooU, full 

maf^r, true 

ja^m, tame 

fromm, pious; gefunb, 

L. Stronc; Vkrhs not given in the Lists. 

(Less. XXX 1 1, § 192. — Rare forms in [ J.) 

1. bingen (W.), hire 

2. ga(;j)ren (W.), ferment 

3. gebarcn,' bear, bring forth 

4. feifen (W.), chide, scold 

5. lUeben (W.), split, cleave 

6. Ineipcn2(W.), pinch 

7. pffcgsii,''' practise 

8. jaugen*(VV.), suck 

9. frf)inbeit (W.), flay 

10. fd)(ei6eit (W.), fray 

11. fdjnaubcit (W.), snort 

12. ft^rauben (W.), screw 

13. fd^roaren," fester 

14. f plcigen (W.), split 
16. ftedeno (W. N.), stick, be stuck 

16. ftic!3en(\V.N.), scatter 

17. ftiiifen, stink 

1 gebierft, etc. '■' Rarely strong, s 
fougft, faugt. " fc^iptert. " ftidft, etc. ; 












'.Pflog ; 




( [fcr;anb] J 
( IfcOimbJ < 








;,fc»)n)or ,» 
( [fcOiuur] '; 

flt,'.. . r: 







ftanf ' 


Weak in other meanings. 

« fSugft, fSugt, or 

generally weak. 




Explanations.— i. References are to the §. 
a. Words in Italia are not to be translated. 

J. Words connected by ^, if followed by a note, are included in that note; otherwise 
such connected words are tc be rendered by a single word in German. 
4- The gendar is not given, where it is according to rule. 

I. One may' say of the metaphysicians' what Scaliger 

said of the natives" of the Basciue ' Provinces': " 1 am told" 

that they understand each^other, but I do not believe it." 

« • can.' * a)ietapl)t)fifcr. ^ ^^^ tSingcbovciie. < bnijf ijd). * t^vo^Jin^, /. 
'113,2. 1 

II. "A friend of mine,'" says Lord Erskine, "suffered 
from' continual' sleeples.,ness.* Various' means'' were tried" 
to^send^him^o^sleep^— but in^vain." At^last his physicians 
resorted'" to an experiment" which succeeded perfectly.'* 
They dressed" him in a watchmnn's^coat," put " a lantern 
into his '" hand, placed " him in a sentry-box," and — he was 
asleep '^ in ten minutes." 

»ii9,3(^). 'nii-fdat. MortUia()vcnb. '♦(Sililaflotuifeit. « ucrfcf'ieben. 
'9)fitti(, «. 'iipvfitdicn. "11)11 cin,^,iiui)l{ifcrn. ' iu'nKbnic<. '° nrrroUeii auf 
+ acc. " ^jH'Vliid), w. "uoUftdiibhi. '^niMiol)cu -f dat. of pers. and 
ace. of thing. '* ")Jad)tiuaif)tevfittc(, »;. " fteden. •''44, 6 (^). '^fteUen. 
" iE3ad)t()niti<d)en. ''>ciiincfd)(afen. 

III. The great Goethe was not particularly ' fond ■' of music. 
When a pianist' once, at a Courtlconcert in Weimar, was 
in«_the^ middle' <7/"a very long sonata," the poet suddenly ' rose' 
up and, la the horror " of the assembled '" ladies and gentle- 
men, exc! jjr.'.ed ' : " If it lasts " three minutes longer, I shall 
confess ■' everything." 

* bcfoiiber, adj. ^ greunb. 3 iflnDicriptclcr. ■• .S>f, m, ; use compound 
word. Smitten in. « donate, /. 'plbt3lid). «ftet)en. ' Sd)i-e(feu, m, 
"oerfammeln. "riifen. '^baueru. "gefte^cru 





IV. In the first piece ' Theodore Hook wrote for the stage.' 
a traveller' comes up^io ' the door of an inn/ and sa>s: 
"Excuse me, my friend, are you the master of this house?" 
— " Yes, sir," is" the reply ; " my wife ha^^been ' dead these " 
three weeks." 

' etUcf, n. ' S8ill)nf. » bcv Dh'iieiibc. * aiif . . ^u, 224, 4. 
* lautft. ' 257, 4, Note. • ' for the last three weeks ' ; 46. 

' ©aftl)QU». 

V. "Ven you're a married man, Samivel," said old' Wei- 
ler, "you'll understand a_good_many_things' as' you don't 
understand now ; but vether it's worth-while ' goinjr.through* 
so much to learn so little, as the charity^boy " said ven he 
got^to^the^end^of the alphabet, is a matter^o'^taste." 1 
rayther think it isn't."" ^ 

' a i)roper name preceded by an adj. takes the art. " '^JielfO. 3' ihat,' 
96,5. '•^ol• a)fiil)c juert. * bunVmo.d)cu. « -.HniuMmljiUfr. 'fertig fein 
iitit. « ®ciff)inncf«farf)e. 9 • i scarcely think (flloubcn) it.' 

VI. George Selwyn's morbid ' passion 'for public executions' 
and similar* horro's' was notorious.* He paid_a_vi.sit_to 
Lord Holland while the latter lay on his' deathbed' When 
hisjordship" wa9|old '» that Mr. Selwyn had called," he said : 
"Should he come pgain, please bring him up.'' If I am still 
alive " I shall be^appy " to see him. If I am dead he will 
be happy to see nie." 

' fmufljaft. n'nbeii)rf)aft. 3,e)inricf)tuitfl. *<x\)\\\\^. ^®xmt\, m. 
*atUiemein befannt. ^44.6 0.). 8@tcrbebftt. »®e. @noben. '°benn.1)- 
rid)tiflen. " ' been there. ' '^ 210, 3, {b). » am ?ebcn. »< fid) fveueii. 

VII. .At* the time when Napoleon the Third lived as an 
exile" in London, he was always a welcome guest at' Lady 
Blessington's, at' Gore House. Very soon after his return* 



to Paris, while his poh'tical" prospects' were still rather* 
doubtful/ herjadyship'" paid^a^visit^to" that capital, and 
met '' the Prince driving " in the Bois de Boulogne. It was an 
embarrassing '* encounter," for the future '" Emperor of the 
French had shown " himself anything^but '' grateful for her 
ladyship's'" courtesy.''' He saluted-" her, however,'' with 
forced politeness," and asked; "Countess," shall you stay 
long in Paris?" — "I really -' cannot say," answered Lady 
Blessington, with a bewitching"* smile ; " and you } " 

'227, (/>), 2. »bcr ii^cvbauiitc. ^ijei. 4i„, s ^ihlcf fe()i-,/. ^poUtifd). 
'2lii«ftd)t,/ 'jiemlid). ^mcifcUjaft. "'the lady.' " bciiiri)eii. 'Mrcf' 
feu (/;-rt«j.). '3d„f etitev ^p;r,ici1al)vt. '<ucrh-(icit. "^I'f^niimciitnffeu. 
'^^utiuiftin. "cmunfni. "iucf)t8H)cuintn-a(<<. '« AiTimbru1)foit. =°(]i-ii6cii. 
"inbeffeit. ^ §oflui)feit. =3g„aj,i(je ©vafin. ^'Muii-flic^. ^^ beiaubernb. 

VIII. Talleyrand was bored' for' his' autograph* by a 
dull ' English nobleman." Atjast " he sent him the following 
invitation": "Dear Lord, — ^F/Z/jwHionour" me with your 
company'" next Wednesday evening, at eight o'clock. I 
have invited a number'^ of exceedingly clever'' people, and 
I do not like " to be the only fool" among them." 

' Uim UkvbntO beftiivnicn. ^itm. 3<an,' < ^Jlntonrapt), «. 'ei'ifaltig. 
'(Sbflmomi. ^Mibliri). ^(Stnlabunfl. 9i,fcl)vrn, wi/er. '°®c(\cmvaxt 
(presence). "%\Vf,al)\,/. " geiftreicf). "j^criic mbgeii. '-• Dumnifopf. 

XI. At a dinner_party' in Paris, a dull' and ugly' ba- 
ron* sat between Madame de Stael and Madame Recamier 
(the acknowleged belle' of the day), and whispered" to the 
former : " Am I not fortunate to be ' si'Uwg between beauty 
and genius » ? " — " Not so very fortunate," replied the of- 
fended authoress," "for you possess'" neither the one nor 
the other ! " 

» Diner (Fr.), w. ''bnmm. M)af3licl). '•33aroii'. ' Scf)ont)eit. *in8 
Of)r fluftmi. ''fid) befinbcn. ^^enie, «. « Sdiriftfteaerhu "bep.ben. 



X. When the dramatist Gilbert was one day descending^ 
m the greatest hurry ^ the steps => fronting^ the Savage Club* 
ft stranger, in a state « of excitement ' which defied « regular" 
construction/" addressed him thus: "Excuse ^/^, have you 
seen a gentleman with one eye of^the^name^of " X. — ?" 
Gilbert answered '^ this question with anotheT: "Stop'' a 
moment. What's the name of his other eye ? " 

MKrmumtciiCM. ^CiM(r,/ ^Zvcm\s\ug. *wv. ^use the Engl 
words. 'HiiUrtiib, w. ^^it'iimimui. 8,-p,ttni4--en. ' i-cneh'erf)t '°>iiJovt^ 
fol^ir. ">JJamni«. '-beniitunn-tcii. '^crimibni. 

XI. When Charles Lamb was still a clerk' in the India- 
House/ lie was one day rebuked ^as.follows ' bv a superior^- 
"I have remarked, Mr. Lamb, that you alwavs'conie'to « the 
office' very late.' - "Thats true, to^e^sure.^" answered 
Ella; "but you must not forget that f always go aw;iy very 
early." Of^course" such an explanation'" was more than 

'5d)roilnn-;44, 5. ^ use the Engl words. M'lr 9irDe ftrdrii -tfof- 
fleiibmmitVu. ^ Dci- i^oni ■ rtu^ -.iiir. ^ >)3iireatt, «. -mol)! (after the 
verb ' is '). 9 luuiidtd). '° Giflannui. " ()iiuTid)cnt) 

XII. r never in my life committed' more thnn one art 0/ 
folly."" said Rulhiere one d;iy in the presence of Talleyrand. 
" But when will it end = .? " inquired the latter. 

'begelieii, trans. ^loilicit. ^t\\\in\. 

XIII. While Sheridan was staying' at the country-house "" of 
a friend, he was one morning a«ked ' by a lady to'a^ccompany 
her on a walk. The lady was neither witty nor beautiful, 
and the author of the ' School for Scandal '" was at^a loss' 
for an excuse, until he luckily" discovered and ann^uncid ' 
to her that it was raining. His disappointed •"■ persecutress » 


B<: r 



'> A 





retired," but shortly'' came back to^announce" that the 
weather had cleared^up." "Sojt^as,'* m?dam,"" said 
Sheridan, driven'' to despair"; "but it has only" cleared up 
enough for one — not yet for two." 

« anf S8cfuc^ fein. n'aubf)aii^. Miitten. n'dfteiicl)iile. «t)crlegen urn. 
'fliacflidiectDcife. 'mittpilrii -t dat. ^m ifiven Gvwnrtimgen (expecta- 
tions) flrtaiiid)t ; 283, 4. ' ^ycifolciciiii. '^ fid) ,^urucf;;iel)en. "ba(b. 
"iiiit bci- 9;nd)rid)t. "fid) aufflarcn. 'MUevbingS. "gimbigc ^uau. 
'*299. "3Jeri;iueif(ung; usedef. art. "f)od)ftcn8. 

XIV. Foote, being annoyed' one day by an irinerant' 
fiddler,'' who produced ' harsh " discords " under his window, 
threw him down a coin' and bade him be^gone,' as one 
scraper " at '" a door was quite sufficient." 

*belaftigeu; 284, I, (</). M)mtiir,iel)cnb. ^(Seigenfpiefcv. *f)cn)or= 
Imngeit. Md)nll. 6 5[Ti'if.ton, »/. '©clbftiicf, «. «fi"d) aud bem @taube 
modjen. 'ifra^er. "an. " gcniig. 

XV. A certain nobleman was detected' trying- to cheat' 
at* cards," and turned" out of the house with the threat^ 
that he should be thrown out_pf the window if he came again. 
He related his misfortune" to Talleyrand, protested' his inno- 
cence,'" and asked "him at the same time" for" advice.'* 
" Well, my dear friend, I advise you to play in^future " only 
bn^the^ground^floor."' " 

'cutbcitcii. ="'111 the attempt." Hietvilgcn. -•im. « ^artcufpiel, n. 
'meifen. '3)rol)U!ig. » go^eiilgefi-fiicf, «. 'bcteuenu "Unfd)u(b,/. "bit» 
tiMt. "vtgtcid). "urn. '♦^Jfat, w. "fiinfttg. '^ ju ebcner (Srbe. 

XVI. h barrister ^ entered ' the court ' one morning with his 
wig* stuck quite on one side. Not being^aware ' how ridic- 
ulous Mie looked,' he was^surprised' at« the observation? 
made" uponjt," and at Jength " he asked Curran: "Dp 




you see anything ridiculous '* in this wig, Mr. Curran ? " - 
" Nothing except the head," was the consolatory "^ answer. 

*9tbtiofat'. " treteii in + ace. '®encl)tsfaa(, »?. '•tH'rriicff,/ Moiffen. 
284,1 {6). Mdcfterlicf). 'auofeljeu. «fid) luunbeni. ^i\bev-hacc. '^SBe^ 
merfung. "290, 2 (^). "bariiber. '^eublUi). '*i2a, u. " troftlic^. 

XVII. After a duel ' with young O'Connell, Lord Alvanley 
gave a guinea' to the coachman' who had diiven him to and 
from the scene of the encounter.' Surprised at ' the largeness 
of the sum,' the man said: " My lord,' I_only_/^^/&_you_to« 

" Alvanley interrupted him with the words: "My 

friend, the guinea is for bringing' me back, not for tak- 
ing '"me." 

'Xiier, «. ''©ninec', / ^f utidjer ; 45, Rule 2. ^ '^ to i\,^ scene oj 
the encounter (Stellbi-^/cin, n) and from there back." « bnvd). «" "large 
J^um (Summe)." ' (iiidbuirr §err. » id) t)abc ®ie yx mir l)iu~. 9377. 
'° ()iniiei)mcn, use the perf. 

XVIII. A gentleman, who had been^worsted ' in a dispute ' 
with Person, lost his^temper.' " Professor,' " said he, " my 
opinion^ of you is most" contemptible.'" - "Sir," returned 
the great Grecian," "I never yet met'' with any'" of your 
opinions that was " not contemptible." 

' ben .^iiv^mt ^ie()cn. ^ ©i^^pntation. ^ ^ie ©ebnlb. * .^crr ^]3rofe[for. 
'2«einnmi. ^127,2. ^ jjcvndjtltd). « @ned)c. ' oorfommen (impers. -f 
dat. of pers.). '° ein (nom.). " plupf. subj. ; 268, 4. 

XIX. The English,' says Sydney Smith, are a calm,* 
reflecting' people; they are ready to give time and money 
as soon as they are convinced' of a thing; but they love 
dates,' names, and certificates." In^the^midst of the' most 
heartrending' narratives," John Bull requires'' the day'" of 
t,i€ msntny the year of our Lord, the name of the parish," 


11 a 

11 t 



and the countersign" of three or four respectable^* house- 
holders.'^ As soon as these affecting" circumstauces " 
have been stated/" he can no longer hold^out/' but^' gives 
way" to his natural kindness — puffs,^'' blubbers," and sub- 

J Gnalaiiber. » ru{)lg. 3 lUrrle'flcnb. - ilbcr^cu'flen. « ^ahU f. 

JBLM(a.t[Hguun.s,-d)ein, m. r r,er,55cn-eif]cnb. « (5-r,?n()luno. 9 i,cr(anacn. 

J^.atnm. " 3al,vc->,a(,l. - ^ird,ipicO «. '^ n.ucridjnit, / "^ angcfc^en. 

236, I, Rem. I. =' fveicii l»anf laficii. =^ fri)nauben. • " fd)(ud)scn. 

XX. A young poet once came to Piron to read ' him a 
couple of new sonnets^ written ^ by him, and ask him which 
he preferred.* The^momentMie had finished the first, Piron 
said hastily": " I prefer the other," and positively' refused' 
to listen even" to a line'" of it. 

Dovlrfen. » (Soniiett', «. 3 yerfafiou ; 290, 

{l>)- * Dovijle^en. « ®o« MjafUg. ' burd)au8. « fid) lucigcr-i. ' and) nur. '° ^eile. 

XXI. Wewitzer, the well-known actor ^ and wag,=' was 
joking^ and laughing at* rehearsaP one day, instead of 
mmdmg" his part.' Raymond, the stage-manager,^ took" 
him to^task,'" saying: "Mr. Wewitzer, I wish" you would 
pay" a little attention.'-' — "Well,'' sir,'-^'" answered 
Wewitzer, "so I am '^ I'm paying as little attention as 

^ ' ©dianfpieler. ^mmh.m. 3jd)er^,en. *aul ^ ^uobc, use def. art. 

mm + aiif, with ace. ; 224, 2, (6). 7 gjoQ^.^ s s)}fj^{,-fem. 9 ^teUen 

|°3Hv9febe. "luoUte. '^ gebeu. '^Mn. ^^^Umx. '^ §err 9tegiffeur! 

"ba8tt)iie id) jaaud). • >Aegi„eur. 

XXII. The younger Dumas once perpetrated » a cruel* 
joke'' at^the^expense * of the Manzanares,' the riviil*»t« th.f 


runs^through' Madrid and is called a river by the grandilo- 
quent inhabitants of this city. When the famous dramatist" 
was one day present- at a bullfight," either the heat/ or 
some revolting" incident - in the show,- overcame - him 
to^such^an^extent^' that he fainted.- J3n - somebody brin- 
ing him a glass of water, as he was recovering,- Dumas 

: Tl ';/'^"^" ^"" ' ^'^^"^" -^-= "Go^'and pTr 
It into he Manzanares; the river needs- it much more 
tnan 11 

mnc^en. -bitter, mit}, - auf Soften. » masc. ^ ^ad) ' bur*- 

n) -brvmaOcn. - oI,nmacI,tin lueibe.i. - 77 Rem 6 ''m 
erMen. «ab(el,ie.i. «.84. i («). ^3^it. ^Md)mac^. 4tig ;ben' -f ace' 

XXIII Frank Talfourd, who rejoiced Jn ' a stature ' of six 
feet and several inches, was playfully^ challenged^ at the 
Savage Club one evening to raise his foot asjii..h as ^ the 
chandelier" that hung in the middle of the room! Lifting' 
his foot with^rather^too^much^vigour,^ he knocked down 
one of the glass^globes," which fell to the ground and 
was^smashed- to atoms." Frank rang ,Ae bell instantly 
and asked the responding- waiter, for- the amount- of 
nis bill. " Pray, sir, what have you had .? " — " Oh i " said 
TalW, pointing-;./ to -the chandelier, - only a glass of 

J ft* evfreuen + gen. ^ Sp^t. ^ im ^^tn^. ^ n„ffotbcni 5 ^is ,„ 

^vonlcndner. ^iu bie .^o(,e mcrfc, 284. i (/.). « ct.mis u a tin «@, 1 

uppel,/ -^erfrfieaen. .eut. " ''into .thousand pieces ' '3 H,.®"^ 

XXIV. Douglas Jerrold once said to a young gentleman 
who burned with • an ardent.desire ^ to see himself in^print^ 






"Be advised* by me, young man; don't take down* the 
shutters until you have something in ihe window worth Jook- 
ing^at." " ^ 

« uor + dat. « 33egierbe. » gebrncft. * use laffcn, with refl. form, 
"4. ('^)- *ob. ^fetiensttjcrt, 122. II. 

XXV. Alexandre Dumas had a we 11- won ' reputation in 
Pari? =" society as a teiler^oOmecdotes. At a large even- 
ing-party, he was " rather' annoyed ' at the persistent ' efforts 
of his hostess tojnducejiim « to exhibit ' his power* in this 
accomplishment.^ At last, tired of refusing,'" he said : " Every 
one has his trade,^ madam.'- The gentleman who entered" 
the room just before me is a distinguished" artillery^officer. 
Let him bring a cannon here and fire" it; then I will tell 
one of my little stories." 

Muof)(tofrbient. "^ ^nrifcr, 122, 9. 3 ^jrf, nrgcrn -f iibrr with ace. -« nirfit 
ninitg. « uimblaffin. ' tin: babiii ,vi bviiirifii. ' ^eigcn. « ^ertiiifcit 
» ^(lA), n. " subst. inf. " .s^auMucrf. '^ giidbioe graii. '^ eintuctcn in" 
" QU8fle,^cirf)uet. " nbfcucrn. 

XXVI. Some brainless* acquaintance' of Rivarol's was 
boasting ■• of * his having " mastered " four languages. " I con- 
gratulate ' you," said Rivarol ; "you'll have in^future' four 
words for one idea,* " 

» gebaufeuonu. * ber ^I^efaimte, 122, i, 2. 3pr„(,(f„ *277,R^m.i. 
» bag clause. * ^^^ ^jg^g anpig.jd 7 gratuUeren + dat. « j^^c^j 
'©ebmifc. "* 

XXVII. On the day after the first representation » of 
'L'Ami des Femmes,^' a comedy" by Alexandre Dumas 
(the second), the author's father sent him a letter, congratu- 
lating' him on' the success" of his piece," and volunteering" 
his own collaboration ■•* on '» some future " one." The letter 



closed with a somewhat grandiloquent phrase"- "If a gua- 
rantee '• is desired - for my ability,- I beg to refer" you to" 
Monie Christo ' and ' The Three Musketeers.' - " The son 
-replied: "Even if I did not hnoM- the great Nvorks you "• 
mention,- I should gladly- accept your offer," on^account 
of the high opinion ^^ my father evidently ^^ entertains « 
of you." 

JJi??»T' "^/,^:5ro.tcnfreunb. ^mm, u. -'in which he con- 
gratulaed" 5,,, ^^,^,^^,„,, ^Zm,n. "ftd) crbicten. ."to colla- 
borate (mittubeiten)." -an. "fpatci-. -122. 4. Note. '3.;,,,,,,-, u^. 
I^oi; y^'T'-..'''^^^^' 'M)imucifennnf + acc. » arfuJetier. 
** augenfrfieinlid). ^^"has." -yiunmig. 

XXVIII. Curran happened^o^teir Sir^ Thomas Turton 
that he could never speak in.public^a quarter^of^an hour 
without moistening^ his lips/ Sir Thomas declared thlt he 
had spoken >r five hours in the House^of^Commons « on^ 
the Nabob of Oude without feeling « the least » thirst " That 
IS very remarkable indeed,-" observed" Curran, -for every- 
body agrees- that it- was the driest - speech of the 


16 » 

(immediately after the verb). " bcmeifcn. -Me(nl.). '3 ba i„ ,i(,er 

XXIX. A gentleman praising' the personal ^ charms ' of a 
very^plam * lady in Foote's presence, the latter « said • " Why 
don't you lay« claim' to « such a beauty ?"_- What rijrht 
have I to« do soV^ was'" the counter-question.'^ ''Every 
right," replied Foote, " by - the universal '=' iaw^of^nations - 
— as the first discoverer.'^ " 

' 284, , (.). ^ pevfonlid,. 3 9fei3, m, < "anything but (241. ly, Note) 


Ji .1! 






tetc. " ©egenfi-age. 'Muid). '^ aUgcnicin. '* i^bltcrrec^t. » gntbeder. 

XXX. One day the poet and banker' Rogers took' 
Thomas Moc-e and Sydney Smitli home in his carriage from 
a breakfast, and insisted^' on showing them by^the way' 
Dryden's house in some obscure^ street. It was ve7y wet 
weather; the house looked « z^^/j ^^^^^cVi Hke" other okl houses 
and, having ' thin shoes on, they both strongly ' remonstrated'^' 
but in^vain. Rogers got^out '" himself," expectin- '^ them "' 
to do likewise-; but Sydney Smith leaned "> laughing out of 
the wmdow, and exclaimed : "Oh,"' now you see why Ro-ers 
doesn't mind '^ getting >« out : he has goloshes "■' on. But^my 
dear Rogers, lend each of us a golosh ; we will then each 
stand upon one leg and admire the house as long as vou 
please.''"" ^ ^ 

» 33aii.iuicr (pron. as in French). » brinnen. ' bcftcfjen aiif -f-acc 277 
untcmca.^. 5,i,|e„v. ^ aucfdKU nnc. ^284.1,/.). « nuTqikI,. nuo: 
^ticieu. -aiKSftcinon. " 42, 3, Rem. - "and expected." '3275. .45,^ 
©IciclK. 'MoOnte. '^ o,,,. - fid) f.l) ■urn uou -f- dat. " 277. Rem . 
»9 ®alofd)c, /. - gcf„u,, i^ ^^.^ ^ ^ 77^ Kem. 3. 

XXXI. '' When I was going from my house at Enfield to 
the India House one morning," says Charles Lamb, " I met 
Coleridge on his way to pay me a visit. He was brimfuP 
of some ^ new idea, and - in^spite^of ^ my telling him that 
my tune was precious' — he drew me into the door of an 
unoccupied' garden by tiie roadside," and' there - shel- 
tered^ by" an evergreen" hedge" from observation'^ — /^^ 
took'-' me by" the button^of^my.^coat,'« closed'" his" 
eyes, and commenced an enthusiastic"* discourse, '« waving^" 
at^the^same^time ^' his right hand gently,-'^ as ^=' the musical ==' 
words flowed in an unbroken " stream ^« from his" lips I lis- 
tened^" entranced '' ; but the striking- of a church^clock re- 








called " me to a sense cf my duty." I saw It was of no use to 
attempt to break away''; soM took^advantage^of ' his ab- 
sorption"'' in his subject/' quietly =' cut off the button from my 
coat with my pen-knife " and decamped.'" As I was passing " 
the same garden five hours afterwards on my way^home," I 
heard Coleridge's voice, looked Jn,'' and — there he stood, 
with closed eyes, the button " in his fingers, gracefully waving 
his right hand, just as when I had left'' him. He had never'* 
missed" me." 

» iiberoor non. » irgenb cin. ^ tvo^bem bn§. -♦ foftbnr. ' unbcnii^t. 
*i!anbfti-nf5C. 'Insert verb and object here. «jrf)iit3cn, 291, 5; 299. 
9burd). '° immcraviiii. " .V^crfY. '^ 33:obar()tiuii]. 'Maflcii. '*228{<ij. 

" J)iorffiiopf. '6 fi1)ltcficii, 



44. 6 (a). 


begciftirt. '« ;Wcbe. 
^°l)in nnb l)ei- bmici^cn, 131,/,'., Rem. -' lyobm. ^^ aumutifl ('gracefully'). 
""^ iua()vcnb. ^'' U)o()(tlinciib. ''^ iniaiif(;ortt'jain. ^^ gtvom. " 44, 6 {b), 
'^ iiil)Ln-cn. =9 cnt.^iirft. ^o 3ci)lacieii, inf. subst. " edniioni an -f- ace! 
^' W^^)^f /• ^^ " I saw (ovfi'iuu'ii) the uselessness (OJiitMofigfat) of an 
attempt to break^away ( "t [) lo5iTiBc:i) ." ^* ^ccl)alb. ^^ bcmil3CU {trans.). 
3* "it that he was absorbed (uoUiii ticvjiiut'cu in +acc.)," " @c(]cnftanb, 



nit)ig. 39 •^ebeniicii.v, «. •♦° 9iciHiiii5 iir[)mcii. -•' norbeifommen nii 
-fdat. '♦^ i^eiimueg. *M)tiicingiicfcu. ^■^^^,2. "^ ucrkffcn. *«• gar iiic^t. 
*" oermiffeti. 

Sir Thomas More. 

XXXII. Erasmus describes' this great man ihus': 

"More seems to be made' and born for Friendbhip' ; of this 
virtue he is a sincere* follower'' and very strict observer.' 
He is not afraid 'to be accused" of" having many friends, 
which," according^to Hesiod, is said " to be no great 
praise." Every^one may'' become More's friend ; he is not 
slow'' in choosing," he is kind'' in cherishing,'' and con- 
stant'" in keeping =" them."' Jf by^accident ^'^^ he becomes 
the friend of one =^' whose vices" he cannot correct,"' he 
slackens'" the reins'' of friendship towards'* him, divert- 
ing'" it rather =>** byjittle^and^little,^" than entirely^ dissol- 


' ! I 
t t' 



ving" it. Those" persons whom he finds" to be sincere'* 
and consonant " to his own '' virtuous^" disposition/" he is so 
charmed^' with,- tiiat he appears to place' his chief- 
worldly" pleasure in their conversation'" and company 
And although More is negligent^' in'- his own temporal '" 
concerns/" yet'* no^one is more assiduous" in assisting'' 
the suits " of his friends than he. What shall I say more .? If 
any. person is^desirous •'" to have a perfect »" model^of friend- 
ship, no one can afford"^" him a better than More, ^hi his 
conversation »•' he shows so much affability"' and sweet- 

nes.s^of^manner,"' thatno^mancanbeof^so^austere a dis- 
position,"^ but^that" More's conversation must*'' mrke" 
him cheerful «•'• ; and no matter"" so unpleasing,"' but that 
with his wit"« he can take^away"" from it alLdisgust.^"" 

'befdjrciben. =» folfleiibcrmufien. Mci)afftMi, 186; 299. '•44, i (/;) 5 ,t„f 
rlrfltig {adv.). 6 « to be a follower of = iiad)tohicn 4- dat. ^ '< and very 
stnctly observes (bcobad)tni) it." ^277; 291,1.. '" of the reproach 
(^Isornnirf) of having." '° 277, Rem, i. "96,5. "•2oo,5(.). "gf,,!,,,, 
j^. '^"can." 'Maiuifnin. ^^ m\)\nx, 270; use dct. art. 'MmmMid/ 
Pffrgcii. '9 n„crfd)uttcrlid). ^° fcft()altcn. =='"of his friends" "211- 
frillig, 239, Rem. 2. " " a man (yJMd))." ^H'tiftn, «. ^^ m-bcffrrn 
=Modmi. ^^%^m\^'^ 64. *8,nit. ^9 nblenfen ; 284, i ya). 3° ,{,(,,,' 
'' allmalig. '^ gniij. 33113^^,,. 34 fold). « erfinbcii. ^^ aiifrid)tifl 3'ent' 
fpvcd)eub-f dat. 38cige„. 39 t„gnit.l)aft. -»" eiunei^art. -*' bc^,aubrni. *-Use 
as prep, before "those persons." ^^ \\m\\ in + ace. -""greatest" 
**Jue(tad). '«MIntcr()n(timc?. *' qteidigiltig. "^gcgcii. "9 tmMtltd). ^^%\\- 
ge(cgenf)eit. " bod). -'^ ftrcbfnm. " ..j^ ^^e support (Untcrftiiljmig) of " 
^*3(ngdfncnl)ctt. « luunfd)cn. ^^DoUfomnicn. " 3beat', «.; use compound 
word ^^Xxtimx. » Umgang, .;/. ^^cutfclintnt. « ?icbeiK^miirbigfeit. 
"fo licrbe nefiiiiit. ^^ bafi iiid)t. '^^joKtc. ^5 „„jf,eitcrn. ^^ (^^cj,p„|-ij,„j, 
m. MtJibrig. *^m.\k,m, ^ entfemention. '" Me8 2Bibernjartifle 




see below. 

I. German : 

8lnnii= 3tiimeifuno, note. 

a. Z. = ailtco Icliami'iit, Old Testament. 

a. a. D. = am niigtfut)itcii Crte, in the 
place referred to. 

bfll , bcrfll.= bciiilcidjeit, the hke. 

b. — . any case of the definite article, 
b. ^.= baS()ei6t, ; , . 
b. i. = baa ift, ! "»''• "•• 
b. 3. = bicfcS C'inljvccs, of this year. 
b. TO. = bii'jt'3 ajioiinto, of this month. 
Ir. = I)ottor, Doctor. 
Gto., Giur. = Gucv, (Sure, ©iirer (in titles). 
fl.=: ©iilbiii, florin, 
^r. = 1\vaii, Mrs. 
J?vl)r.= ;^reil)en- Baron, 
^■rl. = J^rriultiii. Miss. 
flCb.= (jctoreii, born, 
geft. = (leftoilH".!, died. 
®r.= Oivofthcn (a coin). 
f).. })tH. = Iji'ilisv holy, saint. 
$r., iivn. = iM'rv iu-nii, Mr. 
i. 3. = it" 3nl}i'f in the year. 
S\a\>. = flapitcf, chapter. 
Six: = iliciijci (a coin). 
I.= lies, read. 

m.. m. M. = 93!arf (money). 
9Jfffr.= a)lnmitfript, manuscript. 
aWaj. = 9JJaitfftat, Majesty. 

II. Latin (in addition to others which are used in English also): 

A. C = Afttw Chrtsti, in the year of Onr Lord (Christ). 
a. c. = anni cjirrcniis, of the current year. 

S. T. = Salvo Ti>'u'.o, without prejud'ce to the title (used ir .addresses where the proper 
title of tlie person addressed is uncertain). 


m., 91. iJl. = 3fJame, name. 

n. C^i. = IKUO Gl)»ifto, after Christ. 

!JI. S. = 51()i!)f(()iift. i)oftscript. 

J{. X. =■. 9Jeiie« leftameiit, New Testa- 

W., *|'fb. tr: «pfuiib pound. 

ipf. = 'IMcmiiii, penny. ^ 

pp. = uiiD io uu'iter, and so forth. 

®e. cr. — Seine, geiner, his (in titles). 

3. = Scitc, p.ige. 

St., £tt.= Sonft, Saint. 

f. = fie!|i', s:e. 

f. 0. = fitl)C i,i>en, aee above. 

i. 11. = ficljc tinteii, 

f. ID. n. = ficl}c meitei- unteit, 

Z.. Jt)., 2I)l.= 3:eil, 3:l)cil, part. 

2;()li-. = II)i-,(er (money). 

u. a. jii. = iinb nubeie mefir 

II. bill, m.— iiiib bcriileicf)en me^r, 

u. f. f. = inib fo fort, 

It. f. JO. = imb io iDciter, 

25. = 5icr§, verse. 

0. Cljr. = por GOriflo, before Christ. 

Dcnil., t)fll.= ueviileiihc, compare. 

t). 0.= con otu-ii, from the top. 

». u. = Don imteii, from the bottom. 

J. S8. = jum ibeifpiel, for example. 





Explanations. — i. '■ e numerals refer to the §. 

2. All verbs nrc weak and regular, unless referred to a $; the conjugation of others will 
1)6 found under the § iiulicnted. 

3. A — indicates that the word in question is to be supplied ; under masc. and neuter 
substantives, tlie ttriniiuitioiis of the gen. sing, and nom. plur. are gi en ; thus: !^atien 
(-3 ; — ) means that the gen. sing, of nffianeii is *iUaiU'ii*, and the nom. plur. the same 
as the nom. sing. The sign " indicates Umlaut in the pi., e. g. : Oiarten, (-(3; ") means 
that the gen. Mug. of this word is OKntiMi*, and the nom. pi. Wdrfcit ; £ol)H (-ed ; "e) 
means; gen. sing. 2ol)iic#, nom. pi. 3bl)iie ', under fem. substs. the pi. only is given. 

4. With adjectives, "cr indicates Umlaut in the compar. and superl. 

5. Proper names are not given when they are the same in German as in English. 

; • 

e belt: 




<ab, off. 

ai'bcnb, til. (-e9 ; -e), even- 
ing ; Ijeiitc — , thisevoning. 

abenbcs, in the evening. 

iibcr, but; however. 

abfat)rcn (186; |ein), to set 
off, depart, go ; set sail. 

nbbaltCll (188), to hinder, 

abljelfcit (159), to help, re- 
medy; bctii ift Ieid)t abs 
juljelfcn, that is easily re- 

ab^oleii, to call for. 

ObfilI}Icn (fid)), to (get) cool. 

abrcifcn (feiu), to set ot t, 
start, depart. 

abfdjncibeu (118), to cut oti. 

nd)t, eight; — Xagc, aweck. 

ad)t, / , attention, care ; fid) 
in — ncbmen, to ba care- 
ful, take care. 

ibbicrcn, to add. 

311'aebva,/, algebra. 

alU'iii', adj., alone, only; 
coHj'., but, only. 

nll(cr, e, co), all, (the) whole : 
allc 'Za^|i, every day ; 

^UlecJ, «. sing., all, every- 

nlleibiiirtO', adv., certainly, 
of course. 

al'j, than, as ; as a ; when ; 
al5 ob, &„ if. 

nlfo, thus, so; so then, ac- 

alt (-I'v), old, ancient. 

3Utcv, ti (-0), age, old age. 

aimcvifaucr, tn. (-5, — ), 

an (dat. or ace, 65), on, 
at (227), to, towards, in, 
by, near, of; cr ftavb am 
fjicbcv, he died of fever 
(23 «, c). 

anbictcn (131), to offer. 

onber, other ; bie 2Inber>t, 
the others. 

Anbern, to alter, change ; e9 
laftt fid) nid;t — , it cannot 
be helped. 

anbert^alb, one and a half. 

SJlnfang, m. (-e3 ; "c), com- 
mencement, beginning. 

niifnniicn (188), to begin, 

onfaiigS, in the beginning, at 

angcncbm (dat.), pleasant, 

angftlid), frightened, timid, 

atibalten (188), to continue. 

9(ul)i3[)0,/. (-n), hill. 

anfaufcn (fid)), to settle, buy 
up property. 

aiiflcibcii (fid)), to dress. 

aiifommen (167; fctn), to ar- 
rive; in 9-'. (</«/.) — , to 
arrive at B. 

anvic^tcn, to cause. 

anfc^affcn, to provide, pro- 




ontrcffen (I'S;), to rn^ot 

with, find. 
Wntiuort, / (-en), answer, 

antroortcn (dat.), to answer, 

anjicOen (131), to draw on; 

put on (clothes). 
3(pfcl, „i. (-3 ; ''), api.le. 
2lpfcl('n:im, /«. (-0 ; ^c), 

api-l ;-trse. 
9(piil', ;«. (-6), April. 
ar'Licit,/ (-en), work; la- 
bour; task, 
ar&eitcn, to work. 
3(r&eitcr, m. (-§; — ), work- 
9IvcI)iteft', m. (-en ; -on). 

Sliie (irisy/n, / (-n), air, 

arm ("er), poor 
3lrm, ;«. (-cS ; -e), arm. 
ortig, well behaved; — fcin, 
to behave one's self pro- 
perly (or children), 
airjt, ;«.(-c3;^e), physician, 
doctor. [rella. 

2lfc^enputter, «. (-?,), Cinde- 
2lft, m. (-C5; ''c), bough, 

Stftrolofl', tn. (-en; -en), 

auc^, also, too, even ; roer— , 
whoever; tptr finb e§ — , 
so are we. 
OUf, {dai. or ace.) on, upon 
(65); for, in (230); at (227, 
3); to; open; — bret 2!}o» 
c^en, for three weeks (/«/., 
229, (J, 2) ; — bafi, in order 
that ; — bem fianbe, in the 
nufbleiben (120). to stay up, 

sit up, remain up. 
SKufeittfjnlt, m. (-es ; -e), so- 
journ, stay; delay.; /! ^-n). task lessor. ! 
exercise. I 

aufgebcn (181), to givo up 
aufftangen, to hang ap. 
aufl)ebcn (131), to raise up, 
lift up, pick up; abolish, 
annul, nncel. 
nufpren, to cease, step, 
cnifmadjen, to open, 
aufinei-ffam, attentive ; einen 
aiif etiuaS — mnc()en, to 
call the attention of any- 
I one to anj-thing. 
Srufmcrtfnmfcit,/. (-en), nt- 

tention ; kindness. 
niifid;teDen(i3i), to put off, 

postpone, delay, 
auffe^eii, to put up; put on 

(of a hat), 
alifftclicn (186; join), to rise, 

get up. 
aufft.ii]cu (120 ; fcin), to 

rise, ascend, mount. 
auftveten(iSi; fein), to ap- 
nufjie^en (131), to wind up 

(of a time-piece). 
2lu3e, «. (-S ; -n), eye. 
3Iniienblicf, m. (-e8 ; -e), mo- 
ment, instant, 
filiS {dat., 46), out of; from, 

of; out. 
Jhiobutcf, m. (-e3; "e), ex- 
Sfueflucj, m. (-e§ ; "e), excur- 
sion, pleasure-trip; einen 
— niacf;en, to take a plea- 
STuSijabe, / (-n), edition, 
aueficjeidinet, excellent. 
au§nlcitcn (118; fein), to 

slide, slip. 
auSIftffen (188), to omit, 

leave out. 
onSlbfc^Cii, io put out, ex- 
tinguish, [iiarfi). 
ouSfel^en (181), ;o look (like, 
2rn§r«^^t, /. (-en), view, pro- 

•• lect. 
auSfnrecfieri (167), to pro- 

3ru5fteCunn, / (-en), exhl- 

auger (46), outside of ; conj. 
except, besides. 

aufeert^alb {gen.), outside of. 

auSrocnbin, by heart. 

au'3jeid)ne)i, to distinguish. 

auSjie^en (131; fein), to re- 
move (intr.). 

9lrt, / ("e) axe. 

baclen (186), to bake, 
i^acfftein, w. (-e§ ; -e), brick. 
SUatjnOof, m. (-eg ; "e), rail- 
balb (ef;er, am eljeften), soon, 

^^anb, «. (-eS; "er), ribbon; 

m. (-eg; "e), volume, 
^anf, / (-en), bank; (-V), 

Dav, (paid in) cash, ready (of 

^'iiv, m. (-en; -en), bear. 
iUai-bier, m. (-e6; -e), bar- 
baiien, to build, 
33aucr, m. (-n or -S; -n), 

peasant, countryman. 
53aum, ?«. (-e§ ; -e), tree. 
23aupla^, m. (-eS; ^e), situ, 
bebaucrn, to pity; regret; 

(icf)) bebaure, I am sorry, 
bebcnfen (99, 2), to consider, 
bebienen, to serve, wait up- 
on; ftc:^ — , to help one's 
SSebingung, /. (-en), condi- 

becilcrt (fid^), to hasten,hurry. 
S8eere,/(-cii), berry. 
93efe^t, m. (-eS ; -e), com- 
mand, order; }u — , al 
(your) service, what is 
(your) pleasure ? 
bef?i;[en (167), to command, 
fee^eifeen (fli§, uS), to apply 
one's self 



^ffriebiflfii, to satisfy, coti- 

begegnen, (dat. ; feiii), to 

begie^en (123), to water 

(flowers, etc.). 
feeginncn (158), to begin. 
beg[eiten, to accompany, 
^egleituiig,/ (-en), accom- 
Segniigen (fic^ — mit), to 

be satisfied, be contented 

Begriff, tn. (-e§; -e), idea, 

notion ; im — fein, to be 

upon the point of, be about 

botinupten, to assert, affirm ; 

to maintain, 
bei (46), by, at, about ; with ; 

— Sifctie, at taule ; — met* 
nettt Dnfel, at my uncle's; 

— mil", with me, at my 
house, about me; — fcl)Os 
nem 9Better, in fine wea- 

beibe, both, two. 

beibeS, «. sing., both. 

SBeifaU, m. (-e§), applause. 

bcinalje, almost, nearly. 

bet6ei!(ii8), tobite. 

beiftef)cn (186; dat.), to as- 
sist, aid. 

9^efaiintfd)nft, / (-eii), ac- 

befennen (99), to aclcnow- 
ledge ; confess. 

befommen (167), to obtain, 
get, receive, have. 

bemcrtcii, to perceive, ob- 

bemUOen(ftd)), to take pains, 

bequetn', convenient, com- 
fortable, commodious. 

SBerg, m. (-eS ; -e), mout»- 
tain, hill. 

bergen(i59), tohide. 

berften(is9), to burst. 

beriJ^mt, famous, celebrated. 

befojuTttgen, to occupy, em- 
ploy ; befc^dftigt, busy, em- 

befiiinen (fid^; 158), to deli- 
berate, reflect. 

bcloitberS, particularly, es- 

be|orgen, to attend to. 

befprcc^en (167), to discuss. 

beffer {see gut), better. 

beft, {superl. of gut, ivhkh 
see), best; jum Sefteii, for 
the benefit of; am beften, 
best (of all). 

beftebcn (186), to undergo, 
pass (an examination); — 
(lUiCi), to consist (of); — 
(iiitf -j- ace), to insist 

beftcigcn (120), to ascend. 

bcftcUcn, to order. 

beftvafen, to punish. 

beftreiten (118), to defray. 

53efud), m. (-e3 ; -c), visit, 
visitors ; — i)a'ben, to have 
visitors; — e macben, make 
calls; bei ^cmniib auf — 
feiii, to be on a visit at any 

befucfien, to visit; bie Unis 
oerfitat — , to study at the 

beten, to pray, say prayers. 

betragon (1%), to amount to. 

SBetragen, >i. (-§), behaviour, 

betreffi'u (167), to concern; 
trao mid) bctrifft, as for 

betrilgen (131), to cheat, de- 

SBettlev, m. (-§ ; — ), beggar. 

beroegcn (131), to induce; 
to move. 

benjeifen (120), to prove, de- 

berounbern, to admire. 

beja^Ien, to pay (ace. 0/ 

thing ; dat. of person and 
ace. of thing when both 
are present, otherwise aec. 
of person). 

S8ejaf)Innn,/.(-en), payment. 

33totiot^er, / (-eti), library. 

biegen (131), to bend. 

aSier, «. (-eS ; -e), beer, ale. 

bieten (131), to offer. 

33i(b, «. (-e§ ; -er), picture, 

SSilbung, / (-en), education. 

Sillet' ipron. bill-yett), n 
(-te« ; -te), ticket. 

billig, cheap. 

binbcn (144), to bind, tie, 

binnen (dat.), within. 

bi^ (34), till, until, up to, as 
far as; .^roei — bvei, two 
or three ; — ju {dat.), — 
nac^ {dat.), as far as. 

>Uiicl)of, m. (-e§, -^c), bishop. 

bitten (i8i ; for, urn), to ask, 
beg; (id)) bittc, if you 
please, please {lit., I beg, 
pray) ; rocnn id) — barf, if 
you please {lit., if I may 

blafen (188), to blow. 

331att, «. (-e§ ; ^cr), leaf. 

bian, blue. 

bleiben (120; fein), to re- 

Slciftift, «. (-e§ ; -e), lead- 

blinb, blind. 

m\^, m. (-eS; -e), light- 

bitten, {impers.), to lighten. 

^fllurne,/ (-en), flower. 

SBIumenfofjt, m. (-§), cauli- 

bombarbieren, to bombard. ' 

«oot, «. (-e8; Sttte, or-i), 

bBfe, bad, evil: cross, angry: 

Soferoic^t, wi. (-e9; -er), 





Sote, m. (-n; -n), mes- 
6rotcii (i88), to roast. 
5raud)cii (g^ot. or ace), to 
require, want, need, use, 
make use of. 
braim, brown. 
bici(^ii (167), to break, 
breit, broad, wide. 
Orciiiicii (99), to burn, be 

S3ricf, m. (-e§; -c), letter, 

briiti^^cit (99, 2), to bring, 

93rot, « (-f6; -c), bread; 

93i-ucfe, /. (-11), bridge. 
aU'ubcr, ;;/. (-s ; '-), brother. 
93ticl), «. (-C5; 'oi), book. 
93iid)evfiTuiib, m. (-e5; -c), 

lover of books. 
93iid)l)iiub(cv, m. (-§; — ), 

93iict)[)niibhiit3, /(-en), book- 

SUvcfiii {proH. bii-ro'), n. 
(-?'; -^'). (business) office. 

SBiir.icvmciftev, ;«. (-9 ; — ), 

aSuttev, /, butter. 

GOofoIabc, /, chocolate. 
Gl[)vil't, in. (-C11 ; -oil), Chris- 
Confine,/ (-n), cousin. 


ba, there, in that place; 
here; conj., as, when, be- 
cause, since. 

Ib^xi), H. (-•.■'3; -er), roof. 

bafUr, fcr that, for it, for 
them (0/ things), 

ba[)Ci', thence, hence, there- 

baiuit, therewith, with it, 
with that. i 

Sompferrintc,/. (-n), steam- 
Sampfirf;iff, «. (-:§; -e), 

steam-boat, steamer, 
banfbnr, thankful, grateful. 
3)nnf[iavteit, /, thankful- 
bnnfcii {(int.), to thank; id) 
banfc C^iincM), (no) thank 
bnnn, then. 
Parnn, thereon, 
brtriliit, thereon, on it, on 

them {ofth'ngs), etc. 
bnviH, theruii, in that, in it. 
bnriil'Cr, over that, over it; 

about it, r.t it. 
bnvum, therefore. 
bn?i, n. of bcr, ivhick see. 
biifcU'i't, there, in that place, 
bnf!, that ; (anf) — , in order 

bnuon, thereof, of it. 
bciii, bcine, bcin, thy. 
bcntcii ( ) ) ; gen. or geturnl- 
/v Cin -f- ace), to think; 
fiit) ~, to imai.;ine. 
bcnn, for, cot! . 
bcr, bio, bn<3, def. art., the 
(4 ; 44); rcl. pr., who, 
which, thr.t (92, 93, 95); 
dam. pr.. the one, ho, she, 
it, that (133 ; J40-143). 
berjcnijc, bicjcniH', bnqcs 
'lia'-'('35; Mci), that, this, 
the one ; he, she, it. 
bcricIOc, bicfcUic, baofelDe 
(136; 143). ndj. and pr., 
the same ; he, she, it. etc. 
bco'ljal'i, for this or that rea- 
son, therefore, on that ac- 
befto, (all) the, so much the; 
— licfjcv, £o nuich tlie bet- 
tor; jc mctir — Ocffcr, the 
more, the bettor. 
bc«rjc jcn, on that account, 
btutliixi, char, distinct; 
clearly, distinctly. 

bci!tfd;,German; auf Seutfc^ 
ir: :i!cntfd)cn, in German. 

^ciitfd)'lanb, «. (-s), Ger- 

i^inmant', m. (-5 or -en; 
-en), diamond. 

bie, / of bcv, which see. 

t'Kb,m. (-e§; -c), thief. 

Ticncr, m. (-^; -), ser- 

Jicnetng, w. (-c5;-c),Tues. 

bii'icr, biefc, bicfcS (bico), 
(6; 134, 140, 1,(3), tills, 
that; the latt.r. 
bie'^fcito, W?'.. on this side, 
binu'ii (App. L.), to hire. 
binib' ven, to divide. 
^Oct), yet, however, but, after 

all, pray, well, just. 
Sol'tor, ;«. (-0; Sotto'icn), 

Donncv, vt. (-§ ; — ), thun- 
bonnern, to thunder. 
^onucretoii, '«• (-c3 ; -c), 

i)orf, (-co ; "cr), village, 
boi't, there, yonder, in that 

bvci, three. 
bvcifad), three-fold, triple, 

brcimal, three times, thrice. 
brci'^'ig, thirty, 
bvcfdjcn (159), to thresh, 

briiiGcn (144), to press. 
bvittctiaU), two and a half, 
briilu'ii, over there, over the 

Snicf, m. (-e§), printing, 

bu, thou, you. 
biinn, thin. 

buvd) (34), through ; by. 
biird;auo', absolutely, entire- 
ly; — nidjt, by no means, 
not at all. 


burd^fucS'cn, to search 

bllr'eil (196-202 ; permis- 
sion), to dare; be permit- 
tod, ahowed ; barf id; 'i may 

!Diirft, m. (-e§), thirst; — 
()nbcn, to l)e tliirsty. 

Su^'cnb, «. (-c§;-c), dozen. 

ebftt, adv., even, just; ex- 
pctly; fo— , just now. 

Gcfe, / (-11), corner. 

S'bclftcip,, VI. (-ro ; -e), pre- 
cious stone, jewel. 

e^C, adv. and conj., ere, be- 

ilx i\, to honour, esteem. 

el/vUd), honest ; — luofjrt nm 
laitgftcii, honesty is the 
best policy. 

H, n. (-C'3 ; -er), egg. 

frii]ciitum, (-c5 ; ^er), pro- 
perty, possession, estate. 

•Sife, /. haste, hurry; iuq5 
f;nft bu fiiv — ? what is 
your hurry ? 

ittcn, to hasten, hurry. 

^ili.], har.ty, speedy; c3 — 
(jnbcn, to be in a hurry, be 
in haste. 

<in, cine, ciii (9), a, an; 
one; bic Ciiicii, some. 

Ciiiaiibcr, one another, each 

GinOiinb, m. (-cS ; ^'c), bind- 

Ciiibiitbcit (144), to bind (a 

etnbrinneit (144 ; feiii), to 
enter by force ; rush in ; 
press in, penetrate, 
eiiier, eiiio, cii!(o)3 (150), 
Pron., one {equivalent of 
etnfditij, simple, silly. 
CinfhiiJ, ;«. (-c§, -c), influ- 



eini^e, some, several, a few. 
einIabci!(TS6), to invite, 
eiiimal, once. 

GiiimalciiiS' n. (/W^rc/.), mul- 
eiiipactcii, to pack up. 
eiiue.ritcn, to reckon in; 

comprise in account. 
eiiiid;(a.u-:i (1S6), to strike 

(of lightning). 
cinic()ici[>cii (120), to book, 

inscribe, check (lugrage). 
ciufc()Cii (iSi), to perceive, 

eiiifcitij, one-sided. 
ciiiftci^icn (120; fcin), to 
mount iiito, get into (car- 
riage, etc.). 
Gii/tiittocj;a'mpn, «.(-«;—), 
entrance-examination, ma- 
Ginit)Ol;i!Cr, m. (-S ; — ), in- 
Gi§, «. (-C>o), ice; ice-cream. 
Giicn, «. (-0), iron. 
Gifcnbal;it,/. (en), railway, 
elegant', elegant. 
G((e,/. (-ii),yard. 
GItcni {no sing.), parents. 
cinpfcf)[eu ( i6/; dat.ofpers.), 

to recommend, 
cmpfiiiben (144), to feel, ex- 
cnblid), at last, finally, at 

Ciiiiliid), rt^'., Enplish; niif 

Gnali(u), in English. 
Gntc, /. (-n), duck; Gnteii= 
bratcii, ;;/. (-5 ; — ), roast 
entne'iieniierjcn (188; fcin; 

dai.), to ro to meet. 
cnt.]c'jeii[ommeii (167; fcin ; 

dat.), to come to meet. 
cntfd)Iicf!Cii (fid); 123), to 

resolve, decide, 
c'.tfdmlbijcii, to excuse, 
cntiucbcr, cithrr; ciitun'bcv 
. . . ober, either ... or. 

fntrocrfen (159), to draw (a 

plan, etc ); design, 
entjiicft, delighted, charmed. 
cr, he. 

Gvbfe, / (-n), pea. 
Gibbebcii, «. (-s ; -), earth- 

Gi-bbccrc,/ (-•.;), strawberry. 
Grbc,/, earth, rround. 
Cifi: bcii (144), to invent. 
Gifinbiinfl, / (-en), inven- 
Gifoln, M. (-c6; -c), success, 
crfricieii (131; fcin), to 

freeze, be frozen. 
CViU-eifcii (118), to seize. 
ciOnlteii (i88), to receive, 

cviitncvn (fid); gen. of thing 
remembered), to remem- 
crfiiltcn (fid'), to catch cold. 
Gifaaiiitg,/(-eit), cold, 
crfcnitcn (99), to recognize, 
cvflaicn, to cxilain. 
ci-titiibigeii (fid)), to inquire ; 
fid) bet jemnitb nod) ctiua3 
— , to inquire of anyone 
about anything, 
cvlaut'cii {dat. of pers.), to 

permit, allow. 
Cilebcii, to experience, 
cnieiiiicit (99), to nominate, 
. appoir.t; jiim Woitucnieuv 
— , to appoint (as) governor, 
crobcni, to conquer, over- 
evfd)iccfcii (167 ; fcin), to be 


cvft, first ; fiiiS crftc, for the 

present ; bev cvftc bcftc, 

the first which comes to 

hand; ad7'., first, only, not 

before, i:ot till. 

crftcnd, first, in the firstplace. 

citviiifcn (144), to drown, be 

aroa()Icit (ui), to elect (as), 
eriuartcn, to expect, wait for. 




eriurtiif(^cit, to wish for, de- 

ti]iii)ltn, to relate, narrate, 

«^(38. 39), it; tliey; there; 
er ift — , it is he ; e<3 finb 
5IHanner, t. y are men. 

eifen(i8i),toeat; ju5DJittag 
— , to dine. 

etiua, nearly, about. 

GtiunS, sonietliing, any- 

titer, euve, euer, your. 

(Europa, «. (-3), Europe. 

G ja'men, »«. (-S ; — ), exami- 

exemplar', «. (-?> ; -e), copy 
(of a work, etc.). 

gfabrif', / (-en), factory. 

ffaben, m. (-cS ; -), thread. 

fol^ren (iS6; fein), to go, 
drive, ride (in a convey- 
ance); tr.ivel; sail. 

f>fal)vt,_/! (-eit), journey, voy- 
age ; ride, drive. 

%all, m. (-e^; -e), fall ; case, 
event; in bent '^ailt, in 
that case. 

f aUen (188; feiii), to fall. 

falls, in case. 

tVami''lie, /. (-n), family. 

fongen(i88), to catch. 

faft, almost, nearly; — itie, 
hardly ever. 

^cOinuU', V!. (-'3), February. 

fediteii (124), to fight, fence. 

jfeber, /. (-11) , feather ; pen ; 

feievn, to celebrate. 

^eicrtag, >«. (-e^; -e), holi- 

getnb, m. (-eS; -e), enemy. 

gelb, «. (-e3 ; -er), field. 

^clf(cn), ;;:.(-cno; -cn), rock. 

^enftev, «. (-S ; — ), window. 

Jfevien, //. {no sing;.), vaca- 
tion, holidays. | 

{?crne, / (-tt), distance ; in 
bev — , at a distance. 

fertifl, ready, done; — fein 
(mit), to hav© finished 


Seftli(t)teit,/ (-en), festivity. 

■J^euev, «. (-0 ; — ), fire. 

i^ielier, n. (-0 ; — ), fever. 

fiubcit (144), to find ; meet 
with ; think, be of opinion ; 
jiiaii finbt't fid) nid)t leicfit, 
people do not find each 
other easily. 

^ifcfi, m. (-e3; -e), fish. 

(■^•lafdje, /. (-11), bottle. 

flcd^ten (124), to weave. 

^Icifdl, n. (-co), meat. 

flei^iil, diligent ; industrious; 

, diligently, etc. 

^ieiicn (131 ; fein), to fly. 

flieljen (131). tlee. 

fliejjcn (123), flow. 

(Vlbte,/. (-n), flute. 

';^-liis1cI, VI. (-§ ; — ), wing. 

i^-luf!, »«. (-eS; ' e), river. 

foIncn(fein ; dat.), to follow. 

■Jvovelle, / (-11), trout. 

jvormat', «. (-e§; -c), size (of 
a book). 

fort, forth; away, gone; loir 
miiffen — , we must be off. 

fortgel)en (18S ; fein), to go 

forttuiiljx-enb, perpetual, con- 
tinual, incessant. 

fritgeii (186), to ask ques- 
tions ; ^raijeti, «. (-S), 
questioning, asking ques- 
tions (action of). 

^■raitfvcid), «. (-§), France. 

friin,\ofi)rf), French. 

^vau,_/! (-en), woman, wife, 
lady, madam, mistress, 

Aiciidein, u. {-iS; — ), young 
lady, Miss ; iiieiit — , Miss. 

freiget'ig, liberal, generous. 

freilaffcn (188), to set free, 

' freilic^, to be sure, indeed, of 
^yrejtog, m. (-e6;-e), Friday, 
fremb, strange , foreign, 
■^^•retttbe, {adj. subst.) m. or 

/., stranger, foreigner, 
^^rembling, nt. (-eS; -e), 

fieffcn (181), to eat (said of 


■Avciibe, /. (-n), joy, delight. 

freuen (fid) ; at, \\b(x-\-acc.), 

to rejoice, be glad ; eS freut 

mid), I am glad. 

(^•rcuiib, fit. (-co; -e), friend; 

id) ('in ein — uon, I like. 
Arcuiibin, f. (-nen), friend 

fveunbUd), friendly, kind. 
Sreunbfc^aft,/ (-en), friend- 
■5viebe(n), m. (-n§), peace. 
(Vriebrid), «/.(-§), Frederick; 
^•riebridiftva^e, Frederick- 
fiieieii (131), to freeze; feel 
cold; e3 fviert mid), I feel 
cold ; mid) friert, I am 
fnfd), fresh. 

iVVit}, 7H. (-en§), Fred, Fred- 
frol), joyful, glad ; froljeij 

IVhtteS, cheerfully. 
friJljlid), joyous, merry. 
J5-nid)t, /. ("e), fruit, 
fviil), early; fviihcr, earlier; 

^rul)ling, vt. (-eS ; -e), 

frill)'ftiidcn, to breakfast. 
>^iid)'j, in. (-e<S; -e), fox. 
filljren, to; go, lie. 
fiillcii, to fill, 
fiiiif, five. 

fiinftef)QU>, four and a half. 
fitufug, funfsig, fifty, 
i5untc(n), >«. (-ns; -n), 
f* ark. 



f«r (34), for. 

f^urc^t (DOi),/ fear (of). 

fiirAten, to fear; ficC) — nor 

(+ dat.'), to fear, be afraid 

8=U6, m. (-eS ; «e), foot. 

ga(l))ren (App. L.'), ferment. 

gaiij, a^'., whole, entire; 
the whole of; adv., quite, 
wholly, altogether, entirely. 

gnr, even; — nirfjt, not at 
all; — rttdf)t^, nothing at 

©arten, m. (-3 ; "■), garden, 

Wiirtiier, m. (-§; — ), garde- 

©aft, m. (-c§; ''e), guest. 

©aft^nii?!, «. (-e'S; Hx), inn, 

gebavcn (167), to bear, bring 

(lebeit (181), to give; v. im- 
pers., e§ giebt, there is, 
there are. 

®eDot', «. (-e5 ; -e), com- 

©ebiirte'tag, vi. (-e§; -e), 
birthday ; jum — , as a 

©ebanfe, ;«. (-n§; -n), 

gebei()eii (120), to thrive. 

gebenfcn (99), to intend. 

Webid}t, n. (-c§; -c), poem. 

gebrcingt, packed, com- 
pressed, crowded. 

Webulb, /., patience. 

gefal^rlic^, dangerous; dan- 

icfallen (188), to please, 
suit; joic gefillU es 3l)iicn 
ill SoftPrt? how do you 
like Boston ? 

/efdUig, pleasing, complai- 
sant, kind; ift b?!n ftpvin \ 
etroaS — ? v.'ill the gentle- 
rfian be helped to anything ? 

gcfftaiilft, if yon please. 
«efUf)[, «. (-66; -e), feeling; 

flCgeit (34), towards, against, 

about ; for. 
rtfdcit (1S8; fein), to go; 
walk; niie getjt eS^^neii? 
how do you do? how are 
you ? 
(jel)inen (a'a/'.),toi)elong(to). 
©eige, /. (-11), violin; ©oi= 
genfpiel, «. (-«), violin- 
gclb, yellow, 

©elb, «, (-eS ; -ev), money, 
©clbbeutel, »«. (-5; — ), 

gefegen, convenient; oppor- 
tune ; nicfito tbunte miv gc; 
[ogenei- fein, nothing could 
suit me better, 
geliitgeii (144; fein), to suc- 
ceed; c§ gelingt tnir, I 
gcltcn (159), to be worth, 
©emaibe, «, (-«$ ; — ), paint- 
ing, picture, j 
©einiifc, «. (-5; — ), vege- 
genan, precise, exact ; pre- 
cisely, exactly, carefully, 
minutely. : 
©eneral', >«. (-c« ; -e), gene- ; 

genefeit (iSi; fein), to get j 
well, recover (from an ill- 
ness), I 
genicfeen (125; fein), to en- 
joy ; eat or drink, ' 
gcnng, enough, 
©conictric', /, geometry, 
©cpiict, ;/. (-eo), luggage, 

gevnbc, adj., straight; adv., 

©erdufri), «. (-eS ; -c), noise. 

gent (liebcr, ant lietftcnV 
with pleasure, willingly, 
gladly ; etuinS — Ijaben, 
to like a thing ; — K'rnen, 
to like to learn, study ; ba9 
ift — mpglirf), that is very 

I probable, 

' ©evfte, / barley. 

' gcfal)\en, fali^en, salt. 

©cfang, m. (-00), singing. 

G3efd)af t, «. (- co ; -c), busi- 
ness ; mercantile establish- 
j ment ; shop, store. 
j ©cfd)aft§angcIegentH'it, /. 
(-en), business matter, bu- 
siness engagement. 

gefc^efKn (181; fein), to hap- 

0efc()enl, «. (-e^s ; -e), gift, 

Oicfd)id)te, /, (-n), history, 

©efd)macf, vt. (-e§), taste. 

geh()ult,/./.,fcf)n[en, trained, 

©efrfinjifter, //. , brothers and 

fflcfeUfd;aft, /. (-en), com- 
pany, party. 

©efidit, n. (-cS; -ci and-i), 
face, cour.tenance ; ©efid)s 
ter, faces ; ©cftd)te, vi- 

©efpiele, >«. (-n; -n), play- 

geftern, yesterday, 

©efnnb[)Cit, / health. 

geiuinncn (isS), to win, gain. 

geiuifi isiett.), certain (of); 
certainly, surely. 

geiuiffenlinft, conscientious, 

©eu'ittev, «. (-0; — ), thun- 
der-storm, storm. 

Wciuofjndeit, / (-en), cus- 
tom, habit; bte — ^abtn, 
to be accustomed to. 
gerina, fim.n!!, tridi-.ig, n-.ran; ' gfn--p(}n(ic{i, usual, eustom- 
nid^t ini — ften, not in the : ary ; generally, usually, 
least. i flte^en (123), topour 







jttlnj'n, to shine, glitter. 

flliinjcnb, brilliant. 

0IaS, «. (-co; -"cv), glass. 

(jiatt, smooth, slippery. 

flinudcil {^dni. of pers.), to 
believe ; think. 

fllcici), at once, at the snme 
time, immedintel)-, directly; 
fo — , immediately, etc. 

flleid)cii (ii8), to be like, re- 

flleitcii (iiS;, to glide, slip. 

fliimiiien (123), to glimmer. 

©liicf, n. (-CC), (rood) for- 
tune, good luck ; success ; 
— n)ihifd)cii, to congratu- 
late, wish success to. 

(jliict(irf), happy, fortunate; 

©olb, n. (-C'5), gold. 

flOtbcit, of gold, golden. 

©oiiucvneui', ;«. (-e§; -e). 

flraben (186), to dig. 

©tab, in. (-co; -c), degree. 

©vaf, >«. (-ni ; -en), count, 

©lafiit, / (-ncn), countess, 

©ramma'tif, / (-en), gram- 

©raS, «. (-c§ ; '^cv), grass. 

flrntulicicn {dat.), to con- 

(jreifeit (nS), togmsp. 

©ried^eiilaiib, «. (--0), 

flro6("ev, j«/. grbBt), great, 
large, big, tall. 

(jriln, green. 

flritnblid), thoroughly. 

Criifjcii, to greet, salute, bow 
to; %{)x ^vcunb Idftt Sic 
— , your friend wishes to 
be remembered to you. 

©uitarre, /. (-11), guitar. 

gut, rtfi^".,good; kind; adv., 
well ; fo — fein iinb, to be 
so kind as to. 

Outefl, «., good (thing). 


|iaar, «. (-c? ; -e), hair. 

f)n6cn (24), to have; i)lerf;t 
— , to be (in the) right ; lln- 
rec^t — , to be (in the) 
wrong; ron5 — Sic? what 
is the matter v.hh •; 
oor — , to intend, prop^. 

^afcn, m. (-3 ; "), port, har- 
bour, haven. 

iiafcr, m. (-«j), oats. 

|iaiicIforii, n. (-e3 ; "cr), 

f)n;U'ln, to hail. 

Oalti, half; — brct, half past 

Siilftc,/ (-n), half. 

Ijialtcu (188), to hold, think ; 
— fiiv, consider; id) (jalte 
nicl nou il)Hi, I think high- 
ly of him (esteem, value 
him highly). 

iianb,/. ("c), hand. 

^idnblev, w. (-3; — ), dealer, 

.c^anbfdmt), m. (-e§; -e), 

finncicn (188), to hang, be 
suspended; ba^ 'Bilb £)a!igt, 
the picture is hanging. 

I^aiii^cii, to hani:, su.'jpend. 

$arfc, /. (-11), harp; .f>avs 
fens53cijleitunij, accompa- 
niment on the harp. 

I^art C'ev), hard. 

.^af e, m. (-n ; -n), hare. 

{)affcn, to hate. 

fjciiicn (1S8), to hew. 

^auptftatt, /. ( "c), caphal. 

^lOit?-, n. (-co; "cr), house; 
511 .fiauic, at home; imd) 
^ciufc, home. 

l)ebcn (131), to raise, lift. 

^ecr, 7t. (-cS; -c), army. 

r^eftifl, violent, heavy; hea- 
vily (of rain). 

Jgeibc, ;«. (-n; -ti), heathen. 

^einric^, m. (-S), Henry. 

fielfer, hoarse. 

^ci6, hot. 

Ocijjcn (188), to be called, bo 
named; mean, signify ; U'ie 
\)Z\%i bn§ aiif 3)ciit|d)? 
how do vcj say that In 
"■■-.rman? mie fieijjt? what 
the name of? id; ^cifie 
Vf., my name i-- A. 

$c[b, VI. (-eit; -en), hero. 

l)e(feu (159 ; dal), to help. 

Ocll, bright; brightly. 

(jeraOftcigen (120; fein), to 

hcvnuotommen (167 ; fein), to 
come out. 

$cibft, m. (-C'j ; -e), autumn. 

.ficvbc,/; (-11), flock, herd. 

Oevcintoutmen (167 ; fein), to 
come in. 

^tcvr, tn. (-n; -en), master; 
gentleman ; Lord ; Mr. ; 
3f)r — SSater, your fa- 

§erj, n. (-enS ; -en), heart. 

i)evj(id), heartily, exceed- 

§eu, «. (-e§), hay. 

t)eiitc, to-day ; — 2(bcnb, this 
evening; — SJlornen, this 
morning; — iitcr rierje^u 
S^afjj, this day fortnight ; 
r;eut((iitanc, now-a-days. 

()ier, here; — 'u Sanbe, in 
this country. 

[)ievmit, herewith, with this. 

$iimmel, r,t. {-i ; — ), heaven, 

f)inaufoe^en (188; fein), to 
go up. 

f)inau§fe()cn (181), to look 
out (at the window, juiii 

fiineinfleljen (188 ; fein), to 
go in. 

f)ingc{)eu (188; fein), to go 
(hence) ; go anywheie. 

Ijinter (65), behind. 

^i^e, /, heat. 



Joel) ^oses c tn inflection; 

compar. t?t)^er, sup. ^od)ft), 

tjofien, to hoye. 
_ j^offcntlid), adv., (it is) to be 

hoped, I hope, 
^offumij], /. (. tn), hope, 
^b^er, compa\ . <j/" ^oc^, 

which see, 
l^olcn, (to go and) bring, 

fetch; get; -..■ laffen, to 

send for. 
$0la, n. (-eg), wood. 
^Breii, to hear; listen; fagen 

— , to hear say, hear. 
^U6frf), pretty, 
^u^ii, «. (-j.j; "er), fowl; 

^unb, m. (-e3; -e), dog. 
^Ultbert, hundred. 
^Hubert, n. (-3 ; -e), hun- 
hunger, w.(-§), huns;er; ic6 

l^abe — , I am hungry, 
tmngrig, hungry. 
$Ut, in. (-63; ^C), hat. 
^iiten, to guard, keep. 


il^r, pers.pron,, to her, her 

{dat. sing.); you {nom. 

\^X, \\)XZ, '\\)X, pass, adj., \i^x\ 

its; their. 
S^r, St)ve, 5Sf)r, /><?w. rt^-., 

i^rer, il)re, ' 

t^re (ber, 

bie, ba§), 
i^rige (ber, 

bie, bn3), 
S^rer, gijve, 

ai&re (ber, bie, 



pass, pron., 
hers ; its ; 


g^retioiffeit, for your sake. 
iiit, contr.for in bcm, 
immcr, always; at all times; 

nod) — , still, 
ill (65 ; dat. or ace), in, at; 

into, to. 
inbem', while, whilst. 
innerfjaU) {gen), on the in- 

side, witliin. 
^nftnimciit', «. (-e3; -e), 

(musical) instrument, 
interefiant', interesting, 
irgcnb einer, — iema'ib, any 

5Si-(anb, «. (-9), Ireland. 
Stalien, «. (-i), Italy. 


30, yes, indeed, certainiy,you 
know; did 1 (etc.) not; iiu 
iuot}(, yes indeed, yes to be 
sure, yes certainly. 

jcigeii, to hunt, chase, pursue. 

l^ageii, «. (-0), hunting (act 

Sagcr, m. (-3; — ), hunter, 

3iaf;r, n. (-eS; -e), year. 

3Sa'to[), ;«. (-5), James. 

iaiuo()I, see\\\. 

je, ever (at any time) ; the (be- 
fore comparative degree, 
126, 4); — giuei, two at a 

jcbcufall'j, certainly, at all i 

jeber, jebe, jebeS, every, 
each, every one, any. 

jebermaiiii, everyone, every- 
body. : 

jemnlS, ever, at any time. 

jeinaiib, somebody, some one, 
any body, any one. j 

iener, jciie, jeiic3, that, that i 
one, that person; yonder; ■ 
till? former. 

jenfcit3, on the other side, j 

jegt/ now, at present. I 

So^ann', m. (-8), Joha 
3u'gciib,/, youth. 
3u'Ii, m. (-s); July. 
iun3(^cr), young, 
^nitge, m. (-n; -n), boy, 

Siiiigliitg, m. (-cS; -e), 

young man, youth. 
Su'nt, m. (-3), June. 

■Rrtffee, m. (-3), coffee, 
.ftaifer, vt. (-3 ; — ), emperor, 
^albofotelette, / (-.1), veal- 
fait C^cr), cold. 
M\\\\\\', n. (-e«; -e), fire- 
^arbinat', m. (-6; -e), can 

fiai-r, m. (-5), Charles. 
Jlavte,/ (-11), card. 
fliu-toffcl./ (-n), potato. 
Jtafe, m. (-0; — ), cheese, 
faufeii, to buy. 
tniim, hardly, scarcely, 
feifeit (App. L.), to chide, 
teiii, feiiie, teiii, no, not a, 

not any. 
fciiicr, fcine, feiii(c)3, pron., 
nobody, not anybody, no 
one, none. 
.Reltitcr, ;«. (-5; — ), waiter, 
fcitncii (99), to know, be ac 

quainted with, 
.fteimtnio, /. (-c), know, 
ledge ; //. acquirements, 
.(tiltb, 71. (-cc>; -er), child, 
ilivdjc,/ (-11), church, 
flar, clear, 
illnffc, / (-11), class, 
.niaffifcr, in. (-0 ; — ), classic 

wtitcr, classic. 
JKcUiicv', n (S; -e), piano, 
.ffleib, ;;, (-c§; -cr), dress; 

pi. clothes, 
flein, .small, little. 
Kiebeit (App. L.), to cieav«. 




fUmmen (123), todimb. 
flinncdi, to ring (said of 
small bells); eo flitiflelt, 
there is a ring (at the door, 
fliiiflcii (144), to sound. 
Jlltubc, ;//. (-11; -ti), boy. 
Jtitall, ,11. (-06; -c), loud 
quick soinifl ; cLiji, tliun- 
flncdjt, ;;/. (-e'3; -c), (farm) 

servant, man-of-all-work. 
fltcifcii riiS), to ])inch. 
fiieipcii (App. I,.), to i>inch. 
.ftiuid)cn, w. (-'5; — ), bone., 
^od), ///. (-co; "c"), cook, 
hornet', iu. (-I'li; -cii), 

fommcii (167; fciii), to 
come; arrive; — laffcn, 
to send for ; juie fomtut 
baS ? how is that ? 
flbiiiil, m. ( (i')o; -c), king. 
.Hijniiiiii,/ (-iicn), queen. 
^Olliaftnifti', / King-street. 
f5niicn (i</)-202; ability, 
etc.), to be able, can; 
know, be versed in, know 
Jtotijevt', n. (-e§; -c), con- 
JTopf, m. (-e« ; "e), head, 
ilovb, ;;/. (-C'5; ^c), basket. 
itoftcn, //., expenses, 
fofteit {ace. of />ers. and of 

thing), to cost. 
franf ("er), ill ; sick ; .ftraitte, 
{adj. suhstX sick person, 
ilvantdcit, f. (-en), disease, 

XtrtCsi, m. (-e§ ; -e), war. 
fncd)cii (123), to creep, 
^ri'tif er, vt. (-?, ; — ), critic. 
Mrf)C,/.(-n), kitchen. 
ihmft, f ("c), art. 
^iinftlcr, til. (-'5 ; -), artist, j 
lurj ( 'er), short- I 

Wrjlict), not long ago, lately, 

,«utf rf)or, in. (-0 ; _), coach- 
man, driver. 


\(X*ti\\{sen. or iilHT 4- ,„<■.), 

to laugh (at). 
^'ad)0, m. (-C.;. ; -0), salmon 
fahcii (iSr,), to load; invite.' 
i'abcn, ;//. (-c; — ami ■■■), 
window-snutter (//. — ); 
sho]), .store (//, -"). 
Vailb, «. (.-co; «ci- and -<), 
land, country ; country (op- 
posed to town); aiif bent 
— C, in the country ; aiifo 
— flcOcf, to go into the 
, country; 511 — e, by land; 
flier ,^11 — e, in this country. 
Vanbfc()nft, / (-en), land- 
Initn ("ev), long. 
laitrtC, ad7i. long, ,. long time 
or while, for a long time ; 
fo — , so long as; er ift — 
itirf)t [)ier ni'iuefcn, he has 
not been here for a long 
time; er ift iiirfit — l;icr 
fleiuefeit, he has not been 
here long, 
raitflfant, slow; slowly, 
uiiicift, long ago, long since, 
i-'cirm, m. (-co), noise. 
laffcn (188; 200, 7), to let, 
allow; leave; have (a thing 
done); fane it — , to send 
word; fotnnten — , to send 
for; id) Inffe bno gjnrf; 
einbiiibeii, I am having 
the book bound; e^ laftt 
fid) nid)t (eiigncn, it can- 
not be denied. 
Saftev, «. (-S; — ), vice. 
Snteiit, n. (-0), Latin. 
2ailf, ;;;. (-f§; "c), course, 
laitfeii (iSS: jetii), to run. 
laiitcii, to ring (of large belJs). 

fi'ben, to live ; be alive. 
^'eben, «. (-0; -), life. 
2c&crool)(, «. (-0), farewdl, 

8eber, «.(-«; — ), k-ather. . 
Uvicn, to l.iy, put, ])lace, set. 
iJeOrer, m. (-5; — ), teacher, 

leid)t, light, e.isy ; easily, 

[fib (.only used as />red. with 
feiil and tl)im), sorry, 
grieved ; CS ift, ii tftiit mir 
— , I am sorry, 
[eibcn (118), to suffer; an 
Ctiua^ — , to suffer from 
U'ibcr, alas! unfortimately! 
(eiOeit (120), to lend, 
eeiften, m. (-0; -), (shoe- 

maker's) last, 
leifteii, to ai;com])lish. 
ycttion', / (-en), lesson 
(ernen, to Larn, study. 
tefen(i8i\ to read, 
t'efcn, n. (-§), (net of) read. 

letjt, last, final. 
J:^eilte, //. {no sint: ), p("r>i)le, 

?trf)t, ;/. (-e§ ; -er and -c), 

Heb, dear. 
i'\ihi,f. love, affection; — 

511. love of. 
liebc'i, to love, 
licber {ravi/>. of^exn); conj., 
rather ; iaj gef)C — , I prefer 
to walk. 
Sieb, V. (-e§; -er), song. 
nei-,eit (i3i ; fein, l^abcn), to 

lie ; be ; be situated, 
tint, left. 

linfe-, to (or on) the left, 
loben, to praise. 
«odft, «. (-eo; ^-'er), hole. 
Sbffel, .-.■.•. (-§; =-), spoon. 
Sp^eniuiii, HI. (-§), Pame of 
an op«ra by W*»jnar 



loo, loose, slack; juad ift — ? 

what is the m.itter ? 
ItJfcii, 1(1 free, redeem ; ciii 

-IMHn —, buy a ticket. 
Iooipriii,ii'ii (144 ; foiii; niif 

+ (i(i.), to spring uiiori, 

leap upon. 
iJouile,/ (-ii'j), I.oiiisa. 
iibiue, tn. (-11; -11), li,.n. 
XlitCiiDii), VI. (-0), Louis. 
Vlift,/ (^'e), air, .ntmosi.horo. 
liifliMl (i,<i), to li..-, utter .v 

i.'iiflltci-, /;/. (-S ; — ), liar, 
luftirt, merry; merrily; f ,1) 

iibcr eiiioii — macl)i;ii, to 

make sport of one. 


mad)i'li, to make ; arrange ;, give; be (in antiini. 
calculations) ; id) iiincfie mil 
liidito bavnu'j, J care no- 
thing for it; i'me Seercifc 
— , to take a voy.ige ; Ciiien 
ttpajievgniiii — , to take a 

DliiOdicii, ;/. (-0 ; — ), girl. 

Dianb, y^ C'e), maid, maid- 

a>!ai, 111. (-C'j or -en), May. 

Wal, M. (-eo; -e), time (oc- 
casion); jiim let^toi: — , for 
the last time. 

ntaleii, to paint. 

Hialer, ;;/. (-0; — ), painter. 

aJin(ci-ci',_,/;(art of) painting. 

man, /iron., one, we, you, 
they, people ; — fiiflt, they 
say, people say it is said. 

mand}ev, maiutc, mand)e§, 
adj. and pron. , many a. 

aUaitgcl, in. (-5), want. 

Wami, m. (-C5; '•'pr), man. 

IViaiitef, in. (-i; ^), cloak, 

SJhirflareto, / (- •|'^), M,n.ri;a- 

SJfarie.y; '-n'\. Alary. 

llliivt, / (-), mark (a coin 
^ io(j Pfennig or about 25 

I'iintt, ;//. (-fo ; "c), market. 

ni'H}d)icrcn (fcin or hat'en), 
to march. 

Wnr5, ;;/. (-c:.), March. 

yjhifcvil, //., measles. 

DJatl;;'iiinti{,/, mathematics. 

^Intvofc, I//, (-n; -n), sailor. 

ailaiic-,/. ("c), mouse. 

*0!cl)l, n. (-00), flour. 

mcl)V, more; nidit — , no 
longer, not now. 

inchrerc, several ; nu'lu'dor., 
several things, a good deal. 

meljrtnal'j, several times. 

iiieibCH (120), to avoid. 

iticilo, / (-11), mile (der- 
ma n), league. 

inoin, uu'tno, inoiit, my. 

ineiiie (hor, Pio, bno), i ne. 

incineil, to think, be of opi- 
nion, suppose, niean ; ba§ 
foUtc id) — , I should think 
so [emphatic) . 

iiicinetiiu'iicii, (lun) incim't- 
loillcii, for my sake; for all 
I care. 

meiiiiiU'(bi'i', bii\ bao), mine. 

iUicinuiiii,,/ (-C11), opinion. 

lltcift {suf>erl. of uii'l), most ; 
nm — en, most, most of all. 

'JJicifter, ;;/. (-0 ; — ), master. 

melfeii (124), to n)ilk. 

Weiubie', /. (-n), melody, 
tune ; air. 

a'ieiU]e,_/; (-n), great quantity 
or number. 

iUlenfd), ;;/. (-C11 ; -oil), a 
human being, man ; per- 
son ; //. , mankind, people. 

mcfien (181), to measure. 

aifcfftr, n. (-0 ; — ), knife. 

DJietilll', n. (-eo; -c), metal. 

luieten, to rent. 

Wild!./ milk. 

Itlillioit', A (en), million. 

SDiinutc, y: ( n), minute. 

I liiiituteiijeiflcr, ///. (-<5; — ), 

I minute-hand. 

j mil {fiat. 0/ ill)), (to) me. 

ntit (46), with ; by (in niulti- 

''.liittan, ;;/. (-eo; -e), mid- 
day, noon ; ^11 — fffen, to 

Dtittrtii'C'efieii, n. (-0 ; — ), 

• dinner. 

lltitti'ii, in the n)iddle or 
midst of; — im 'iLUiitei', in 
the middle ot winter. 

I'fittmod), .n. (-eo), Wed- 

nii3ilCll (i(/i-2o2; preference, 
liking), to be able ; may ; 
likt ; id) man ba'5 iiid)t, 
1 do not like that; ic^ 
m5d)tc, 1 .should like. 

minilid), possible ; bao ift 
iici'ii — . that is very pro- 

IKoiiavd)', in. (-en ; -en), 

5UJo'nat, /;/. (-eo; -e), month. 

I'(0nt0ii, m. (-5; -e), Mon- 

lUof(]eii, ;;/. (-0; — ), mor- 
ning; sititen — /good mor- 
ning; he's — >3 {or moi'; 
lieno), in the morning. 

niovneii, to-morrow; — friU), 
to-morrow morning. 

lltiibe, tired, weary. 

■Blithe, y. trouble; iiidtt bcr 
— lucrt, not worth while. 

aiiiit)le, /. (-It), mill. 

multipliuereit, to multiply. 

iUitfit', f. music. 

titiififalilcf), musical. 

miiffen (196-202; necessity), 
to be obliged or forced, 

iUlut, VI. (-eo), mood, cou- 
rage, spirit ; miv ift fc^Iedtt 
su — e, I fee! ill : frohejt 
— eo, cheerfully. 

a'iiittev, f. ("), mother. 




11 ■* 




nac^ (^6), after; according 
to J by (of time-piece) ; past 
(of hour of day) ; to (before 
proper names of places); 
— ^aufc, home. 
3la(i)ba\; m. (-i and -n; -i\), 

ttac^bcin', cpnj., after. 
nacf»aii)i'ii (i88; fein), to go 
after ; go or be too slow (of 
a time-piece). 
SnacOmittiisi, >«. (-eS ; -c), af- 
ternoon ; bed — S, in the af- 
?lac()iiclr,/ (-en), news, 
nflcfift (super/, o/ml)), next, 
Kadifte, w. (ad/, subst.), fel- 
low-creature, neighbour. 
nac^fteiiS, shortly, soon, very 

9lac^t, / (-^e), night, 
not), (udt)er, \\M)\\), neav 
S^ii'K, / , nearnesd ; neigh- 
bourhood ; ill mciiiev — , 
near me ; in my neighbour- 
Stame, /«. (-ii3 ; -n), name, 

notiiv'Iirf), naturally, of 

course, I suppose, 
nebcit (65), beside, besides; 

near, alongside of, by. 
Itebft (51), together with, in- 
9Jef(e, m. (-it ; -n), nephew. 
nef)mcii (167), to take; fid) in 
Sldjt — , to take care, be- 
neiii, no. 
jteiuuMi (99), to call, name. 


JiCii, new. 

neulid), lately, the other day, 
not long ago. 

tieuiUoOalb, eight and a half. 

nidjt, not; — iiicljv, no lon- 
ger: -TO(i!}r? is (it, etc.) 
not (so)? 

nlcf)t9 (indec/.), nothing. 

ntc, never. 

iJiteberlnnbc (bic), //., The 

nie'nirtiib, nobody, no one, no 

person, not anybody, etc. 
nod;, still, yet, even ; — cin, 
one more, another; — ct = 
luild, something (anything) 
more ; — einmol, over 
again ; — [)eiite, before the 
end of the day, before the 
day is over; — immcv, up 
to the present time, still; 
— uor uicvj^crjii stagcii, 
only a fortnight ago. 
iHorb'eiieii&nfjn, / (-en), 

lilitiii, necessary. 
^noDcmber, ;«. (-S), Novem- 
9Ili'niero, «. (-§), number, 
mir, only. just. 
3ilifi,/C'c), nut. 
iiil^Hc^, useful. 


oD, whether, if. 

obcii, above, up-stairs ; nacT) 

— , upward, 
obalctd)', although, 
pbcr, or. 

Dfcn, })j. (-0; ^), stove, 
offcn, open 

Dffi,iicv',w.(-C'3;-c), officer, 
bffiicn (lid)), to open. 
oft (^ci), often, free, .ntly. 
C'!;cim, ;«. (-cS ; -c), uncle. 
oOiie (34), without; but for. 
Dilfel, w. (-§; —), uncle. 

^Hilnft, m (-eg ; -"e), palace, 
^'rtiuoffcl, ;«. (-3; -u), slip- 
'I'npicr', «. (-e6;-e), paper. 
';-ini"t, w. (-c'3; ^c), [-ope. 
i'luio-', «. (.I'll _) Par 
paffeiib, fit, suitable. 

Pfeifen(ii8), to whistle. 
VknniQ, m. (-e9; -e), f,!h, 
one hundredth part of a 
mark), penny. 
~;=fnb, «. (-C8; -e), horse. 
■;!ferbc()Qf)ii, / (-en), tram, 
way, tram; street- cars, 
i«fIaume,/(-n), plum. 
Pfteaeit (7m»/C'), to attend to; 
to be accustomed, wont ; — 
(strong, A^Y>. I.), toprac- 
tise, e- ercise. 
i'fiinb, «. (-C3; -e), pound. 
%i)movW,/. (-„), philo. 

%[an, m. (-0 ; -c or "e), 

plan, design. 
-;:ianct', m. (-en; -en), 

%\<\%, nt. (-eg; ^c), place; 
— nef)mcn, to sit down, be 
<Plnt5rc,ieit, »«. (-§; _-)^ 

shower, down-pour. 
pFnnbern, to chat, talk. 
4-'ovti-ii', / (-in;, portion, 

plate (of meat, etc). 
^'Pft, /• (-en), post, post- 
^oftt'Otc, VI. (-n ; -n), post- 
pi"ad)ti(], nugnificent. 
HJrciS, (-c§; -e), price; 

preifcii (120), to praise, 
^^rocciit', «. (-00 ; -e), per 

'^Jiofeffcv, m. (-5; -en), pro- 

piomouiercn, to take a de, 

gree, graduate. 
^'MOIitnin, n. (-0), public; 

^iinft, m. (-c§; -c), point? 
— 3c[)ii lU)r, at ten o'clock 
i<unftlid;.teit. punctuality 




Cliia'bcrftein, m. (-e8 ; -e), 

cut-stone, freestone. 
queUen (124; fein), to gush. 

iRabatt, m. (-cS; -e), dis- 

CO' nt, abatement. 
[Hunb, m. (-eo; "er), edge, 

rim, brim. 
9*at, w. (-eo), counsel, ad- 
ratcn (188), to counsel, ad- 
SWaiicf), m. (-eft), smoke. 
SRaiipe,/ (-11), caterpillar. 
5Recf)iicn, «. (-0), arithmetic. 
SWecfinuitsv / (-011), account, 
bill, reckoning ; calcida- 
tion; ciit StricI) bmd) bio 
— , disappointment ; fcf)iei; 
bew Sie bn'j oiif iiieiiic — , 
charge that to rne. 
rec^t, right. 

5Hed)t, n. {hided.), right ; 
— Ijnbeii, to be right, bo in 
the right. 
reittS, to (on) the right. 
red;t'ji'itti], at the right time, 

SRebe, / (-11), speech; ora- 
rebcu, to sp'jak, talk. 
S^efovmatioii',/ (-01), refor- 

SjeiT_cn, m. (-§), rain. 
Dle'cieiiti-ovfcn, m. (-6 ; — ), 

drop of rain, 
reaievcii, to reign, rule, go- 
SRenienmn,/ (-eii), govern 
ment, reign ; iiitter ber — , 
in the reign (of). 
Slegimciit', «. (-e6 ; -cv), re- 
rciiiicii, to rain. 
veiDcii (120), tomb. 
rei(f), rich, wealthy. 
ri:icf;e)t, to reach, hand. 

reif, ripe. 

;)(cifc, / (-tt), journey, voy- 
age; eiiie — moc^cii, to 
take a journey, 
illcifcf often, //., travelUng- 

leifeii (fciit and Ijnbcii), to 

travel, journey, go. 
;Ueifeilbe {adj. subst.), tra- 
vcificii(ii8), to tear, pull. 
tcitcii(iiS; fein), to ride, 
finnen (99; fein), to run, 

.Heftiiuintion',/ (-en), eat- 

ing-lujuse, restaurant, 
lettcn, to save, r.scue; id) 
vcttctc il)m bao Celu'n, I 
saved his life, 
icncn {iiiipers.), to repent ; eo 
vent micl) {ffen.), 1 repent 
^)l[)einnnti«tnn'3, ;«. {gen. —), 

ricfltiil, right, correct ; cor- 
rectly ; — i]et)eii, to be cor- 
rect (of a time-piece); anf 
bic — e fficije, in the right 
:)ltd)tnnii, / (-en), direction. 
iiod)eii (123), to sm Jl. 
^Hiefc, ;//. (-n ; -n), ginnt. 
-HinbfKifd;, «. (-eo), beef. 
:Hiiiii, ,n. (-Cj; -e), ring. 
iin.3en (i.^), to wring, 
viitnen (158), to run, flow. 
;Hi.icf, ;«. (-e'3; ^e), coat. 
:)kiinnn', m. (-3 ; -e), ro- 
mance, novel. 
Xbiner, ;«. (-0; — ), Roman 

■ot, adj. C'ei), red. 
:)fot'fiip,d)en, «. (-5 ; — ), 
Little Red (Riding) Hood. 
;)iot'iuein, ;«. (-eo), red- 
:}(iibe._/. (-11), turniii. acIDe 

— , carrot. 
JtilOii.', m. (-e-5; -e), ruby 

nibern, to row. 

rnfen (18S), to call. 

rubifl, quiet. 

iHiil)m, in. (-ed), praise. 

rnnb, round. 

iHuffe, m. (-n ; -n), Russian. 

Saol, m. (-C8'; Saie), hall. 
3nd)e,/. (-n), thing, matter, 
affair, bu.siness ; bift bii 
beincr — aeiuif), are you 
certain of your information, 
fageii, to say, tell ; — Ijbren, 

to hear say, hear. 
famintUd), complete (of lite- 

rary works). 
5anft Soren(, w., St. Law- 
can.ieviii,/ (-nen), (female) 

Znxn,/. (-6), Sarah. 
3ntj, in. (-CC; "e), sentence, 
fiuifen (123), to drink (0^ 

faiijcn (App. L), to suck. 
Sd)abe(ii), m. (-113 ; -^n), 
damage, injury, harm, mis- 
chief ; eo ift fdjabe, it is a 
3d)rifei-, ;«. (-§ ; — ), shep- 
fdliiffen (1S6), to create. 
ld)rilkn (123), to sound, re- 
Sd)ii(tcr, ;«. (-0; — ), wick- 
et, ticket-office, 
idiiiinen (fi.() ; gen. or iiber 

-|- ace), to L^ ashamed 
ld)iUi (-ei), sharp. 
fd)eiDcn (120), to separate. 
Idjeinen (120; dal.), to shine; 

appear, seem. 
fc()e!ten (15;), to scold 
fdienfen {dit. -.if /■cn.un and 
ncc. 0/ thing), to give, 
make a prtsent of, present. 


f 1: f: 


: ,';f'l 
►;■' ; 



1*er«n(iji, B.), to shear. 

f(f)t(frtt, to s«ml. 

fcbicben ( 131), to hIuivc. push. 

fi1)ic6ett (12O, «o shiM>t. 

SAiff, H. (-09 ; -f), ship, 

Sitilb, «. (-co; -ci), sign- 

«(tilbfr5tc,/ (-11), torioise. 
fctiiiircii (App. L.), to Hay. 
3(f)liul)t, / (-fit), battle. 
fAloftn (188), to sleep; firt) 
— Iciu'lt, to retire to rest, 
Ro to l)ed. 
S(f)(ufio(f, w. (-eo; ^'e), 

Scblaf'jimiticv, «. (o; — ), 

fAlaflCii (18^,), to beat, sjrike. 
fAlcrfit, bad; badly. 
fcl)leid)cii (i 18 ; fcin), to slink, 

frfllcifcii (118), to sharpen, 

fAleificii (App. L.), to slit. 
fc^Iieficii(i23), to lock, shut, 

close ; conclude, finish, 
fc^liinm, bad. 
fc^linflcii (144), to sling. 
Sdjlitteii, tn. (-3; — ), 

©c()(itt'fd)ulj[aufcn, «. (-3), 

(act of) skating. 
©d^Iofi, «. (-e<J ; -cv), castle, 

fc^mecfeii, to taste, relish; 

roie f^iitecft ^l)nc» biefes? 

how do you like (the taste 

of) this? 
(2c^meid)eloi', /■:, flattery. 
fd)mctd)CllI (dat.), to Hatter, 
fc^mciftcii (118), to throw, 


fd)mcli|cn(i24),to melt, smelt. 
Sdimerj, tn. (-eo or -ens; 

-en), pain. 
cfinoiiDoii (App. I, ), to snort, 
"gdincf, >n. (-0), snow. 
fd)ncibcn(ii8), to cut; reap; 

ficl> In bit j^anb — , to cut 
one's hand. 
' SAneibfr, »«.(-); — ), tai- 
i lor. 

i fifineifn, to snow. 
I fdincU, quick ; quickly. 
5d)llClljUtl, w. (-i'4; "c), 

fcflon, ilre.idy, as early ,is, 
re.idily, easily, indeed; — 
IrtnjU', for a long time 
fcftbn, fine, beautiful, hand- 
cdionlH'it, / (-CM), beauiv. 
3il)ottc, III. (11 ; -11), Scotch- 
jiiliniibcii (.App.I..^, to screw. 
fd)rccfCM (1(17), to be sf.irtled. 
j fd)rci(H'ii (ijo), to write (to, 
I </(f/. (>rilll -\- ,/,(. i>//>frs.). 
I fdncicH (lio), to cry, scream, 
\ shout. 
I fcl)vcttcii(ii8; fcin), to stride, 

step, st.ilk. 
! .rdiriftftcUcr, in. (-5; - ), 
writer, author. 
Scbiitt, tit. (-C'3; -c), stride, 

sto]), iiace. 
3d)u'licit, ;//. (-0), .Schubert 

(derman musician). 
5d)ul), III. (-c<3 ; -c), shoe. 
5dmlb,/, guilt; (-on), debt; 
idmlb aw etiuivj fein, to be 
to blame for anything. 
3d)ulc, / (-n), school. 
wAiilcr, ;«. (-«; — ), puiiil, 

scholar, school-boy. 
3d)uftcr, tit. (-0; — ), shoe- 
maker, cobbler. 
)d)iittcln, to shake, 
fdnuad) (^'cr), weak, infirm. 
Sdjiuadie, / (-n), weakness, 

infi;mity. I 

2d!atrtiicr, m. (-0; -"), bn.- | 
ther-in-law. I 

3rt)miiHic, y: (-11), swallow, 
fdiminoii (App. I,.), to fester. 
fd)iv)iu-j ("ci), black. 

fdjrociflfnd.'o), to be »ilent, 

keep silenie. 
5d)tiici|UMI, M. (-0), keeping 

siliiuT, (iict of) Nilence. 
3rt)iitci< (6ic, A',//, bcv 

3d)uiciO, Switzerland. 
fd)U)cUcn(iJ4; feini, to swell, 
fdmicv, heavy, hartl, .lirtkuli. 
fAiDcrlid), !v)nllv, scarcely. 
3d)U)cftci, /; (-|^), sister. 
fd)n>jmmcn (ij.s), to swim. 
rdJiuimmcn, n. (-.>), swim- 
ming (act of). 
fdm>iiibcn(i44\ to v.inish. 
iMmiiiijIcin 1 14), toswing ; fill) 

- , to le.»i), hound. 
fd)iui)ren {\\,i), »o swear. 
fd)iuill, .ultry, close. 
2<t, til. (-.>; -en), hike. 
3ccvcifc,y; (-11), voyage. 
3eiiclid)iff, //. (-C'j; -e), sail- 

ing-ve.ssel, ship, 
felicn (181), to .see, perceive; 

look, behold, 
fclir, very, very nuich, ex- 
fcin, feinc, fein, his, its, one's, 
fein (5.>; fein), \o be; (<« 

fj/c.r.), to be, have. 
feit (4(1), since; — uiann, 
since when, ' 'v long; — 
adit IrtjU'ii, I : a week 
feitbem', amj., since, 
felbft, self; even, 
fenben (90), to send. 
3eri)iette, / (-n), table- 
fe^cit, to set, i)ut, place; fid) 
— , to seat one's self, sit 
fid), pron. refl. aa: and dat., 
one's self, himself, herself, 
itself, tliem.selves; to liiin- 
.self, themselves, etc. ; re- 
(/'/•r., one another. 
fie, she, it; h: r, it ; they 

3ie (/or bu attU il)i), you. 



flebfii, seven. 

eieli'eiucl, «. (o; — ), se- 

venih part, 
ficboii (i2\), 111 

(SillH'V, «. ('J), silviT. 

flllrteil(i44), losing. 

ftllfcil (14.) ; iiili), to sink. 

finncii (i3«), to iitlvci. 

fi(|cn(«8i), toMt. 

SdiUU', ///. (-It; -It), slave. 

Stlliuartb, «/. ( i'(i ; -c), enu-- 

Jo, so, thus, in suih a man- 
ner, iiiiietd (;/«/ iniiisiiih-ii 
in the apodosis to a condi- 
tio>i,ilil,tii.u')\ --olu'it, just, 
just now; — eiit, eiiic, ciit, 

Kllcil ,1. 

'obitlb, as soon ;is. 
^ofort, ininu'di.itcly, ilircctly. 
fOrtiU', evi-n. 

eollii, HI. (-fJ; "0), son. 
old)(er), adj. and proH., 


6olbiU', ;//. (-cit ; -on), sol- 

folli'ii (i(/)-202 ; duty or obli- 
gation), to lie in duty 
boiuid, be to; shall; be 

eoimuof, ///. (-'3 , — ), sum- 

Joiibi'Vil {after mxaiives on- 
ly), but. 

Soiiiinbciib, ///. (-e'j ; -c), 

Sonne, y: (-11), sun. 

oonntrtfl, m. (-c>5; -e), Sun- 

foiift, else, otherwise; — 
nod), any more, any other, 
any besides. 

fonftifl, other, different. 

Sophie,/. (-U0), .Sophia. 

forrt'faltii^, careful; care- | 
fully. I 

fptlt, late. I 

<po,uereii(,jAv> — ju'lten, i.S8), ' 
to take 4 walk, go for a ' 

walk, go walking; — fal)« |t*(^fn (167), to sti 

ren (i8()), to go for a drive. 
SpiVMCi'tianrt, m. (-co; "c), 

walk; otmn — Miiu1)eii, to 

take a walk. 
Spert, w. ( CO), Inicn. 
fpciiMi (120), to spit. 

cpeijefai-tf, / (-11), bill oi 

fpcifen, to eat, dine. 
j Spevlinn, ui. ( cs; -e), 

I fpielen, to play. 
I ipinnen (15S), to spin. 

fplcifieu (.App. I..), to split. 
I opfailio, / (-11), language. 

3pina)tiUent', «. (-t''5;-<), 
talent for (learning) lan- 

Spiad)'ftnbinm, «.(-<}; -ten), 
linguistic study. 

fprecben (1^)7), to speak, say, 
tell ; to sjieak or talk to or 

«piert)en, «. (-«S), speaking 
(act of), speech. 

Sprtdiiuoit, II. (-e'S; "cr), 

fptieffon (123), to sprout. 

fpriniu'it (144; fein), to 
spring, leap, jump. 

St. H^o'ieit^, ;«., St. Law- 

Stunt, m. (-C'j; -en), state. 

Stabt,/. Ct), town, city. 

Stabt'thov, fi. (-eo; -c), 
t(>wii-i;ate, city-g.ite. 

Stabt'iil)i-, /. (-en), town- 

Stillil, ;;/. (-eo), steel. 

5tanb, »i. (-ci ; "e), stand; 
condition ; \\{ — e (onintcn, 
to be completed, be done ; 
ini — c fein, to be able, be 
in a position to. 

ftUft ("cr), strong, powerful; 

ftiUt'finben (i.h), to take 
place, happen. 

167;, to sting, 
;tc(fen (App. I-.), to stick. 
ftelKn (1.S6; fein or Ijaben), 

to stand, be; be nituated. 
ftcl)len (167), to steal. 
! fteitien (uo; fein; aiif + 

'/(I.), to climb, mount, 

ascend , descend, gel down 

or off, alight. 
Stelle, /. (-11), place, s|H)t. 
, ftcUen, to put, pKice, set (up- 
I right), 
fteilien (159; fein), to die. 
ftiebeit (.App. L.), to scatter, 
ftill, still ; (piiet. 
Stintnte, / (-n), voice. 
\ ftinfen (App. L.), to stink. 
j Storf, m. (-eo; "e), stick, 
j cane. 

ftiJren, to interrupt, di.sturb, 
j trouble, 
ffofien (iMH), to, kick, 

strike, bump, knock. 
Stiafte, / (-n), street, road, 
ftveiiten (118), to stroke, 
ftreiten (ii«), to quarrel, 
ftrcnjl, severe; severely. 
Stricb, HI. (-C'J; -e), .stroke, 

dash ; etn — bnvc^ bie 

;)(ect)nnn(j, disappojntmei::. 
Strom, w, (-e<3; "e), 

stream, current. 
Strnntpf, ;«. (-69; "e), 

Stilcf, HI. (-eo ; -e), piece. 
Stiicfdjen, ;/. (-0; — ), little 

piece, ni'.irsel, bit. 
Stnbent', /«. (-ett : -en), 

Stnbinm, «. (-3; Stubion), 

ftnbievcn, to study. 
Stnbieien, //. (-0), studying 

(act of). 
Stnl)l, m. (-c<S; "e), chair. 
Stiinbc, / (-11), hour, les- 
Stnnbenjeiflev, vt. (-ij; — ), 







6turm, m. (-eS ; ''e), stonn, 

fubtra[)ieren. to subtract, 
fudien, to seek, search, look 

'^v.vVi, /. (-n;, soup, broth. 

ta'bein, to blame, find fault 

2;ofl, m, (-eS; -e), day; ncOt 
— e, a week; jcit adjt — cii, 
for a week past; ciu — urn 
ben anbeni, every other 
(alternate) day ; alle brct 
— e, every third day. 
S;o'ge§aii'bruct), m. (-es), 

Sante, /. (-n), aunt. ; 

tapfcr, brave, valiant ; brave- 
ly, valiantly. i 

Xapfeiteit, /., courage, va- 

%a.\<{)i, J. (-n), pocket. 

aafie, ./. (-11), cup. 

S;ouct)er, in. (-§; —), diver. 

taucii, to thaw. 

S^cil, m. (-C'3; -e), part, por- 

teilcii, to divide, share. 

teil§, partly, in part; teilS 
. . . teit'j, partly . . . partly. 

Seleflvapt/, m. (-cu; -en), 

S;elepl)on', n. (-3; -e), tele- 

a,eUcv, m. (-5 ; — ), plate. 

Seppid), m. (-e^; -c),- car- 

S;eftamtfiit', «. (-e§; -c), 
testament, (last) will. 

teuer, dear, cobtly. 

%W>-, n. (-c5 ; "cr), valley. 

atialev, in. (-3 ; — ) dollar. 

a;()at, /. (-C11) deed; ex- 
ploit, achievement. 

t^iuicii, to thaw. 

%\)fi, in. (-0) tea. 

l;^em|e,/., Thame*. 

ZW, n. (~eS; -e), gate, 

if)oi-, 111. (-en; -en), fool. 
2I)roM, in. (-co; -e), throne. 
t()yn (196), to do. 
i-()iir(e),/. (-n), door. 
Xier, n. (-e§; -e), beast, 

1\\i\), in. (-e3 ; -e), table. 
Jitcl, «/. (-'3; — ), title; mit 
— , with title (printed on 
the back). 
Joc()tcr, / ("), daughter. 
2bc[)tci-d)cn, n. (-0; — ), lit- 
tle daughter, 
lorontoer, adj., (of) To- 
tot, dead, 
tbtcn, to kill, 
till )e idle, lazy, indolent. 
tiajcn (186), to carry, 
tl'illirisl, sad, ■sorrowful, me- 
Iriuiiinj,/. (-en), marriage 

trcffeii (167), to hit, happen 
upon, meet with; hit upon, 
fall in with. 
tvcit'cu (120), to drive. 
3;i-ci.ip^', / (-n) stairs, stair- 
tvetcn (iSi), to tread, step, 
trcn, faithful, true, 
tiiefcn (123). to drop, drip, 
trintcr (144), to drink. 
2iinfcn, n. (-6), (act or ha- 
bit of) drinking. 
Xi'iul'i',elt), 11. (-C'j; -ei), 
driiiking-money, gratuity, 
tvo^j (223), in spite of. 
tfol^bcni' !uao, in spite of 

SiLrni/tenboIb, m. (-ec; -e), 

Ind), n. (-eS ; "cr and --:), 

Ju'flenb, /. (-en), virtue. 


Ht'er, «,(-§; — ), evil. 
iiOcf (65), over, above, a'^, 

through, by way of; I;eute 

— brci iffiod)en, this day 

three weeks. 
iibeil;anpt', in general, gene- 

rally ; as a matter of fact, 

at any rate. 
ii'benuor(3cn,the day after to. 

ii&enc'oen, to persuade, 
iiberfc^'cn, to translate ; in§ 

2>eutfd)C — , to translate in. 

to German. 
ii'tcrjicljcr, in. (-S , — ), 

iibrii], remaining, left over; 

bu'j lUu"' 'C, the remainder, 

what is loft; — Ulciden, to 

be remaining or left, 
iibiinj, / (-en), exercise; 

Ufcr, n. (-3; — ), bank, 

\\{)x, f. (-on), clock, watch ; 

UMt uiCf — , at four o'clock ; 

luie uiel — ift co? what 

o'clock is it ? 
linmog'fid), impossible ; id) 

faun — , I cannot possibly. 
Un'vcd;t, n. (-1-6), wrong; — 

(jabcn, to b2(ii. the) wrong, 
iinfcr, nnfcrc, nnfer, our. 
iintcn, below, down-stairs, 
nnta- (65), under, beneath, 

below ; among; — bcv 3iee 

aionm.i eiiuUica^S, in the 

r^ign of Elizabeth, 
untei-ncl/mcn (167), to un. 

Untciiicl/incn, n. (-S), 

enterprise, undertaking. 
Un'tci)d;icb, m. (-e3 ; -c> 

Un'iuaOflicit, / (-en), ud 

truth, f,iV 'lood. 
un'iuaOvfdjcinlic^, improb* 




im'iceft i^en.), not far from. 

Ui/jufriebcn, discontented, 

ur'teilcit, to judge. 
U. f. in., abbrev. for unb fo 

Tuejter, and so forth, etc. 


aSatcr, m. (-§; "), father. 

oeiDcvgeii (159), to conceal, 

uerDrcniteii C99), to burn, con- 
sume with fire. 

oerbevbcii (159), to spoil 
(iMtr.) ; — {iveak), to spoil 
{tr.), injure. 

oerbvicjini (123), to vex. 

SScrciiiijten Stnatcii (bie), 
pL, The United States. 

oerge()Cii§, in vain. 

oti-fleltcit (159), to requite, 

oerijcffeii (iSi), to forget. 

S8eri3nii,jcit, «. (-c), pleasure, 
dcliglit, amusement. 

S3evI)iiltnio, «.(-fe5 ; -fe), cir- 

Dei-I;ci'iatcu (fici) mit), to 

oerfaiifcn, to sell ; bicjcS 
^an^j ift ju — , this house is 
for sale. 

J)ei-Iafieii (iSS), to leave, de- 
sert, quit; fid; — auf (+ 
ace), to rely upon, depend 

oer'eibcn, to render disagree- 
able, spoil. 

oerletcu, to hurt, wound 

tKrnercii(i3i), to lose. 

SSerluft, in. (-65 ; -e), loss. 

ocnnicteii, to let, rent. 

cermittelft {gen.), by means 

«)evreifen, to go on a jour- 

oerreift, absent on a journey. 

tJerfammelit, to collect, as- 

oerfcfiretBen (120), to pre- 

oevfcOiuenben, to squander, 

ccrfcljiuinben (144; fein), to 
disappear, vanish. 

t)Ci')prcd)en (iC7),to promise. 

ui'rftet)cn (:86}, to under- 
stand ; fid; — aiii (-}- ace), 
to be a judge (of). 

ucrftoiDcii, deceased. 

ucvfud;cii, to try. 

SSenuanbte, >«. and/, [adj. 
subst), relative. 

oerjei^eii (120 ; dat.), to par- 
don, excuse. 

SBerjeiOuiu], /. (-en), pardon, 
forgiveness; uiit — Dittcii, 
to beg pardon. 

uei-jiueifclii, to despair. 

Setter, in. (-'J ; -n), cousin. 

uiel ;.iici;i, ineift), much, 
many, a great deal of; luic 
— UI;r, what o'clock. 

uiel(cid;t', perhaps, posi:bly. 

uielmal, uielmal'j, many 
times, frequently, often. 

uier, four. 

Sicrtcl, «. (-§; — ■), fourth 
part, quarter. 

SSicrtelftiiii'be, y: (-n), quar- 
ter of an hour. 

DierjcOn, fourteen; — 2:age, 
a fortnight. 

aSioIouccU', n. (-e§; -e), vio- 

aSoflel, m. (-3; ^), bird. 

OoU {gen. or con), full. 


DOit (46), of, from, by, about, 

cor (65), before, of, in front 
of, ago ; — ad;t 'Jagen, a 
week ago. 

oorbei, over, past. 

oovDeicjcljen (188), to go by, 
pass by. 

BorDereitcn (fidi), to prepare 
(for, ouf + ace). 

corfc^ren (186 ; fetn), 
d-ive up to the door, etc. 

rorgefjeu (188; fein), to go 
(or be) fast (of a time- 

Dov'gefiern, the day before 

uor[)abeu, to contemplate, in- 

3}orhang, m. (-e3 ; ^e), cur- 

uovij, preceding, last. 

oorloufi.5 {adv.), temporarily, 
for the present. 

oorlefcit (181 ; -f dat. of per' 
son), to read to. 

aSormiiiib, w. (-eS ; -"er), 

aSovrat, w. (-eS; ^e), stock, 

O0rftd)tij, cautious, prudent. 

SBorftabt,/ ('e), suburb. 

tJOiftcUcu, to present, intro- 

Dortcil^aft, advantageous. 

ooriiber, past. 

ooriibcvflicfecn (131 ; fein), to 
flow past. 

ooriiberge^eit (188; fein), to 
go past, pass by ; om ^aufe 
— , to go by, go past, the 

oorjiei^en (131), to prefer 

nja^fen (186), to grow. 

SBagen, m. (-<> ; — ) waggon, 

jodgen (131, B.), to weigh. 

rod^len, to choose, select. 

roafir, true, real; nid;t — ? 
am (I, etc.) not? is it not 

luafiren, to last, coi.tinue. 

rod^venb (^*«. ; 223), during; 

SBa^v^eit,/, (-en), truth. 

tDal)rfc^)einli(l& {adv.), pro- 

'11 ' 






SBaifcnr;au^, «. (e?; ^n), 

aajalb, »/. f-cQ; ^cr), forest, 

SJanb,/ (■■e),^vall. 
aBanb(e)rer, >«. (-0 ; —I, tra- 
wann '< when > 
il)avm( \n), warm, 
luartcn (mif + «-,-.), to wait 

luavum, why, wherefore. 
inaS, what, that which, which, 
that; — fiir ein, citie, ciii, 
what kind of a, what, 
toafctjen (186), to wash. 
Sffiaffer, «. (-.3 ; -), vsater; 

ill — , by water, 
roeben (131), to weave. 
iued}fel[)aft, changeable, 
toecfen, to wake, awake, 

SaSed'ufii-, /. (-en), alarm- 
• toebev, neither ; — . . . noc^, 
neither , . . nor. 
ffieg, »t. (-e'3; -c), way, road ; 
fic^ nuf ben — macfien, to 
set out, be off. 
iDCgen (^e». ; 223), on account 
of, because of, for the sake 
of, for. 
SBeib, «. (-C'i; -cr), woman; 

WetCl)en(iiS), to yield, 
iffieibe, / (-11), pasturage, 

SSdl)ltnd;tCii, //., Christmas, 
tucil, because. 
''Meiw, m. (-co ; -c), wine. 
tUCilteil, to weep, cry. 
aBeintartc, / (-it), wine- 
toeifc, adj., wise. 
Sa}eife,/.(-n), manner, mode, 
way ; aiif bicjc — , in this 
njetfcii (120), to point out., 

lueiji, whitp. 
lucit, .far. 

lucitcr, farther, further. 
aBei^cii, ,n. (-'3 ; -), wheat. 
U)cU(;er, luctdic, iuc(rf)c«, rel. 
pro'i., who, which, that; 
ititcrrogaih'e mij., which? 
w hat ? ; — , adj. {in exda- 
nnitions), what a ! wliat ! 
~i^>i'It, / (-C11), world; a.if 

bi'v — , in the world. 
lucm, dat. 0/ uicr, to whom ? 
iuenbcii(y9), to turn; fid}—, 

to api)ly (to, <\\\ -f ace). 
lueni.ii, little, few. 
mciut, when, whenever, as 
soon as; if; — and), even 
IDCr, who; he who, who- 
' ever; who? 
lUfibcn (159), to sue. 
merbcit (159), to become, 
grow; {as mix. of tfie pass- 
ive voice, 112-114), to be; 
— aiiS, to become of. 
luerfen (159), to throw. 
a.^CVt, «. (-e§ ; -c), work, 
lueffcii, whose ; whose ? 
luesr^alb, wherefore? why? 
better, «. (-0), weather; bet 
biefein — , in this weather, 
lutbcr {ace. ; 34), against, 

contrary to. 
luic, how; how?; — fclu' 

audj, however much, 
luicbcr, agani, once more. 
uiie'bcrfef)cii (181), to see 

again, meet again. 
^ilMc'ooifcl;cn, «.(-o), meeting 
again ; oiif — , good-b •• till 
we meet again, 
luicgcu (131), to weigh. 
ilMlIjCim, m. (-3), William. 
aBillc, ;;;. (-no), will ; wish ; 
urn. . . uiilleit {gen.), for 
the sake of. 
i«iub, m. C-C'3 ; -;'j, wi'id. 
luinben (144), to whid. 
loinbtg, windy. 

2Bi»ter, ;«. (-<5; •-), winter, 
lotr, we. 

unrflid), adv., really, truly. 
iLMrtiii, / (-nen), hostess; 

niifien (,96), to know {said 
of knowledge); \\\i)i bag 
id) luit^te, not that I know 
-JvMiienfd)aft, f (-en), sci- 
unffentlirf;, knowingly. 
U'OV where; where? 
llJod)c,y:(-n), week. 
U'Ol)!, pred. adj., well {of 
hciith); ntir ift nid)t — ju 
I'iiit, I do not feel well; — , 
adv., well, then, indeed, I 
suppose ; ja — , yes, to be 
iuol;nen, to dwell, live, reside. 
■i8oI)nnnci,/ (-en), dwelling, 

house, residence, 
uiollcn (196-202), to will, de- 
sire, wish, want, intend, 
mean, like; — Sje ein 
®Iao SKaffev? will you 
have a glass of water ? 
luornii, whereon, on which, 

on what, of what, 
iporauf, whereon, on which, 

for which, on what. 
movauS, wherefrom, from 

what, of what. 
)UDvin, wherein, in which, in 

ilUu't, n. (-cS ; '=ei- and -e), 

nioriUu'i? about what? at 

what ? over what ? 
)inmbern (fidi), to wonder, be 
astonished (at, iibcv -j- 
acc.) ; c§ uuiiibert mid) 
{i>n/>ers.), I wonder. 
Siinfd;, m. (-eo ; ^e), wish. 
unlnfd)cn, to wish, desire, 
want ; (MM — , to congra- 
tulate, wish success. 
Muxm, m. (-e§; "cr), worm, 



SBurjel, / (-n), root. 
2But,/, rage, fury. 
roUtenb, furious. 

ja^len, to pay. 

3a^n, Ml. (-co; "e), tooth. 

3al)nroe^, n. (-eji), tooth- 

ge^n, ten. 

Beicfjen, «. (-§ ; — ), sign. 

jeigen, to show. 

jeifien (120), to convict. 

Seit,/ (-?n), time ; ju nUen 
— en, in all ages. 

^ixtxmo^,/. (-en), newspaper. 

((crreigen (uS), to tear (to 

jerrinnen (158), to vanish, 
run away (of liquids). 

jie^cn (131), to draw; pull, 

3immcr, «. (-§ ; — ), room. 

JU (46), to, at ; — meitiem 
Dn!el, to my uncle's ; — 
berfelben 3tit, at the same 
time; adv., too; closed, 

jubringcit (99), to pass, spend 
(said of time). 

.^ucfer, m. (-6), sugar. 

uterft', first, first of all. 

^ilfolge {gen. or dat. ; 223), 
in consequence of, accord- 
ing to. [fied. 

jufrieben, contented, satis- 

3iig, m. (-e§ ; ''e), train. 

^umac^en, to shut, close. 

jurudbringen (99), to bring 

jurUcfbkibeu (lao; felti), to 
remain behind; remain at 

jurildf ommen (i67),to return, 
come back. 

juriidlegen, to put by, lay up. 

jufaiumen, together. 

jufammenftogen (188), to col- 

5iif c^icteii, to send to (dat.). 

jufc^Uejjen (123), to lock up, 
fasten, shut. 

3ioect, vt. (-eo ; -e), aim, ob- 

jioei, two. 

jrocitenS, secondly. 

jioingen (144), to force. 

jroifdieti (65), between. 

jrodlf, twelve. 


Note. — The government of verbs is given only where it differs from English usage. 


able, ftibig, gefc^icft ; to be 
— , fbnneii, ig6; tm Staiis 
be feiii. 

about, prep, (around), iitn, 
34, 226, (a); (the person), 
bei, 46, 226, {d) ; ixdv., 
(nearly), ungefdl)v ; etiua, 
226, (/'), {c)\ to be — to, 
im Segrtffe fcin. 

above, prep., iiber, 65. 

absent, abiuefenb ; — mind- 
edly, jerftreiit. 

abuse, v., miftljnii'bedt. 

accept, anne^meii, 167. 

accompany, begletten 

account; on — of, luegen, 
223 ', ^alb(eu), ^alber, 223 ; 

on that — , be§roegen, be5= 

accusation, 2(nflage,y; (-n). 
accuse (of), auflagen {gen. 

of thing), befc^ulbigen 

{gen. of thing). 
accustomed, geiuofjut ; to be 

— , bie0eiDo{)n[)eit l)abcn. 
acknowledge, anerfennen, 

acquaintance, ^Jefaniitfcbnft, 

f. (-en); to make the — 

of, (ennen lerncn. 
acquit (of), Ioofpred)en (1C7; 

gen. of thing). 
act; to — amiss, mi6'()anbe[n. 
add, abbiercii. 
address, subst., SMbreffc, f. 


address, v., aurebeii. 
admire, berounbern. 
advance, oorriicten {intr.). 
advantage, SSorteil, m. (-e3 ; 

advantageous, oor'tei(f)aft. 
advice, ^Itat, m. (-c§). 
advise, raten (t88; dat.). 
affair, Sac^e, /, (-n). 
afraid; to be — (of); ftcf) 

fiircf)ten (uor -f dat.). 
after, nac^, 46. 
afternoon, Ufac^niittag, m. 

(-e§ ; -e). 
afterwards, nnd^^er, ^ernac^, 

again, roieber, nod^matS. 
against, tuiber, gegen, 34. 
ago, Dor (prep, + dat), 65 j 



many years — , nor t)ie[cn 
3al)»'eii ; a week — to-day, 
[;eiiti' uov ac()t Tnu'". 
agreeable, ninjeiicf)m. 
ail, fcOtcii; what — s you? 

wivi fc()lt 3l)tuii? 
Ebs! ad) ! 

all(the), nlI,9Ulc«; aller, nlle, 
allco ; — tile same, ciiii'i'lci. 
allow, crliiiiOcii((/fA) ; Inficit, 
i88: to be — ed, hiirieii, 196. 
Almn (river), ?((mn, /. 
almost, fiift, bcimilje. 
alone, alk'iii. 
alonj?, [iiitij?, cntlniin (223, 

iS, 19). 
alphabet, 9llp[)abtt', n. (-eS; 

already, fcfjon. 
also, lUld). 
always, immer. 
America, Jlmovifa, «. (-0). 
amiss; to act — , ini|yOnit= 

belli, 209, 
amontr, ruiioiigst, iiiitcv, 65. 
a, an, I'iii, ciiic, ciii. 
ancient, alt ; the — s, bit' 

and, imb. 

anecdote, Hiiefbote, _/. (-it), 
angry, Obfi' ; be — at, boie 

feiii niif (+ ncc). 
animal, Jicv, «. (-cj ; -c). 
another (a different one), ciit 
niibi'i't'v; (one more), iiocl) 
etii, cine, eiii. 
answer, subst., Slntiuort, /. 

answer, v., aiitiuofteit(rf'rti'.); 
beaiitiuorteit {ace. of 
thing, dat. of pers.). 
answering (act of), Slittioofs 

ten, «. (-0). 
ant, 9lmctfe,_/ (-11). 
any {partitive, 2, 2); irgcnb, 
ein, cine, cin ; —thing, ir,- 
g?nb otti'aS, ction^;; — 
thing but, nid)t§ n)eiiti]cr 
aI3; pi., tt)el4)e, eintge; 

not —body, not —one, nfe» 

manci; not ~, teiit, feiite, 

apartment, GJemact), «. (-cS ; 

appear, frf;einen, crfdjeincn, 

apple, ?(ptel, m. (-5 ; -") ; 

— -tree, JlufcUmiini, in. 

(-C'3; e). 
apply to anyone, firf) an jcs 

nuiiibcit {ate ) lueiibcn, 99. 
appoint ^ns), cnteniien (99; 

approval, "ik'ifad, ;«. (-eS). 
A;n-il, ^^luviC, „/. (-,;,). 
architect, 3(rd)itoft', m. (-en; 

arm, Jinn, m. (-C'3 ; -c) ; 

~s, pL, ilBanen. 
army, 3lrmec, / (-n). 
arrival, "iXwXwmx , f (^e). 
nrrivc,(intoninten(i67; fi'in). 
ni-t, .«Mnf;./. ( e). 
article, Jlrti'fel, vi. (-S ; — ). 
artillery, Sri'ttHcvic, / ; 0c= 

fiOiilj, n. (-co). 

artist, .riiinfllcr, m. (-5 ; _), 

as(24T, 8-11), alS; mie; fo ; 

ba; — soon — , foOatb 

(mic) ; — a, al'3 ; — . . . 

— , (obeit)io . . . iDictir r.Ici. 

ascend, anfftetGcn, ftcincit, 

ashamed ; to be — of, fief) 
frf)ameit {gen. or iidcr -f 
ask, francn (186) ; — for, 

bitten (181, iim);r)cr(an(icn 

asking questions (act of), 

i^ra.icn, «. (-0). 
assert, bcF)niiptcti, 
assist, beifteOcn (186; fetn ; 

astonish ; to be — ed (at), fiit) 

iDiinbevit (iJDcr -|- ace.). 
astonishing, cvi'tannenb. 
at {of locality), in, an, auf, 

Jtt, 327 (fl) ; {oj time) unt, 
511, lu't, 227, (^); {of price) 
urn, 22', {c); not — all, 
nai- nidit ; —my brother's, 
bet met n em syinber; — 
last, —length, eitblicO. 
att:ick, ?'., anu'cifen, 118. 
sri!>st. ,^'( M u'i fi w.(-e§;-e). 
attempt, suht., Sevfiicl), in. 

(-^'C ; -c). 
attendant, »e<jletter, m. (-3 ; 

attention, Olitfrnerffamfeit; 
to pay —, ^J(if)t (leben 
(181; awi -lease.). 
attentive, iiiifiiu'iffain. 
August, "Jlii.iiifi', m. (-0). 
aunt, 3:ante, / (-n). 
author (of a particular work), 

'-i'orfaffev, m. (-0; -). 
autumn, .ioerbft, m. (-e5 ; -c). 
avoid, ineiben, ucnneiben, 

away, foit, abiuefenb ; — 
from home, con ^onfe. 


back, adv., j^wxM. 

bad, badly, idjlecTji. 

bag, Sad, m. (-c?; ^e). 

bank, 23anF, / (-en). 

bark (of trees, etc.), 93aiiins 

basket, .(Tovb, m. (-eS ; "c). 

battery, ^Batteric, / (-n). 

liattle, Sd)(adn,/ (-en). 

be, feiii (52); luorbeii (159; 
as aux. of passive, 112, 
R. 5): ftclicn (186); there 
is, there are, e5 i-)iebt, c§ 
tft, etc., 220; {of health) 
you? luic ncOt egjjjtinen? 
I am to, id; foU. 
bear, subst., SSar, m. {-en; 

bear (bring forth), v., (je« 

baven (167). 
beat, f/., f c^Iagen (i8(3). 

beautiful, fc^bn ; tho --, bo8 

beauty, 3cf)onr;eit, / (-sn). 
because, lucil; ba. 
become, uiorbcu(is9S I'teljen 

(i86; i/a^). 
bdd, a3ctt, «. (-CS; -en); to 
go to — , ju SOette flel)cn, 
ficO fif)(afen lenen; in — , 
JU 33ctte. 
bee, SUtcnc, y; (-n). 
beef, Jliubfleifd), «. (-c§). 
beer, Sicr, «. (-ce; -c). 
Sefore, prep., uor (65; rf^/. 
<7r acc.)\ conj., bcpor; 
cl)c (bnfi). 
beg (ask), Dittcii (iSi ; for, 
lim); to — pardon, iim 
aSciiciI)uiiii bitten; — (lor 
alms), ('cltclii. 
beggar (-man), 50ettlcr, m. 
(-5 ; — ); —-woman, "^ett; 
U-iiii,/ (-11C11), 
begin, niifnii;icu (18^); be* 

niiiueii (15S). 
behave, ficO OctntcicnfiSrj). 
behind, [jintor (65; fiat, or 

beli-ve, filnuDcii {dat. 0/ per- 

belong (to), (]e()in-cit (du/.). 
beloved, iiclicbt, uunt. 
below, /^^/., unti'v (dat. or 
ace. ; 65) ; mita'ljnlb (g'en.; 
223); (icfv., iinten, 
besides, ac/v , nufiCVbcm. 
between, }iuifct)en (dat. or 

ace. \ 65). 
beverage, CSetvdiif, «. (-e«; 

bid, V. (order), Ijcifieu (188). 
big, QVOfj. 

bill, S!cd)iniiU], /. (-cu). 
bird, aJoijcl, m. (-0; '^). 
bird-cage, SSo(5eIbnucr, «. 


birth -Jay, ffic&iii't'5ta(i, r«. 
(-C'j ; -c) ; as a — -present, 
jum ©ebuvtotai], 



( bishop, 53ifc5Df, m. (-e8; ''e). 
bite, v., bei6cn(ii8). 
bitter, Ditter. 
black, adj., frf)iDnrj ("er). 
black, V. {o/dooh), roidjfeit. 
blame, v., tabeln. 
blindly, 0nnblin(]3. 
blow, v., Dlafcn (188). 
blue, DIaii. 
board ; on — (^ ^ skip), am 

boat, SOoct, «. (-e3; -e or 

bodily, fiirperdd). 
bombard, DomDarbicven. 
bone, .Uiiod)on, m. (-S; — ). 
book, 'i\\\d\, n. (-co; -'er). 
bookseller, . 93iidil)iiiiblcr, m. 

(-0; -). 
born, par(., nefiorcit (167). 
Iiorne; having been — down 
by the stream, uom StVOs 
ine foitncviffcit. 
botanist, ^Jotn'nifcr, m. (-§; 

both, beibc; al(e Ocibe, beis 

bough, S>(ft, m. (e5; ^'e). 
Hoston, 'i^oftoii, «. (-S); the 
— train, bcr,!^u(] 0011 (nadi) 
boy, .rtnnOc, m. (-n; -it), 
brave, tnpfer. 
bread, ^hpt, «. (-c§ ; -e). 
break, (ucdjcu (167); — 

through, ciiiDrcdjcit. 
breakfast, v., friiEjftiicfcii ; 

sieist., '^■viil)ftiicf, tt. (-C5). , 

bridge, SlUiictc,/ (-U). | 

bring, efiiiiicn (99); f)o[eit; '' 

to — with one, — along, 

mttDriucicit; to— in, f)ev= 1 

ciitDiiucicu; to — up, fjers j 


broad, breit. 

brother, 5hiibcr, m (-§; "). 
brother-m-law, ed)ioager, m 

(-0; -■■). 
build, bauen. 

' building, (SeBaube, «. (-«; 
j — ); (act of), Sl^auen, «. 
I (-3). 

: bullet, ,niioe(,/(-n). 
burn, brciinen (99; /«/r.); 

ocrbrctiiien (99; /r. and 

business, 0efd)fift, n. (-c? ; 

business -matter, Wefd)aft§» 

aitgelegeiif;eit,/ (-eu). 
but, aber; ndetii (241, i); 

foitben; {on/y after a tie- 

gative, 236, R. i). 
buttrti, .flnopf, m. (-e§; "e). 
buy, toufcn. 
buying (action of), .(Taufen, «. 

by, 228; (near by), bet (<i^^); 

[of agent with pass, voice) 

tJOit {dat.); {of means or 

instrument) bmc() {ace), 

iitit {drtt.); — rail(way), 

mit bcr Ci)eiiba{)ii. 


call (out), rufen 188; (name), 
ncitucit, 99; be— ed, r»ci» 
. jjen, 188. 

I call, subst. (visit), SOefud^, 
I w. (-e§; -e). 

can, fiinucit, 196-202. 

cannon, ilauoite,/. (-11). 

capable, fafiig (gen., or -j- 

capital, sitbst., .gauptftabt,/ 

cardinal-point (jf* point), 
care, i?(d)t, / ; to take -, fic^ 

ill 3ld;t iteOmcii (167); do 

you — to? Ijaben Sie Suft ? 

for all I — , iiteiitetmegeii. 
carpet, 2epptd), m. (-c§; -e). 
carriage, fflagen, m. (-9; 

carry, tragen, 186; to — up, 

case, Joll, m. (-c§; "e). 
castle, (Sc^log, «. (-eg; Hx) 



cat, .vmge,/ (-11). 

cntch, faiiflC'i, iss; — cold, 

fid) eifalti'ii. 
muse; to — to, laffeii (i88; 

+ infin.). 
celebrate, feterii ; — d, hi-, 

< •ntiiry, ^saf)rl)uitbert, tt. 

(-I'o; -c). 
crtaii', — ly, iiciDifi, jo&oii 

chair, Btiihl, J.'i. (-co; ''e^. 
cliaiiccUor, Maiijlcr, »i. (-§; 

change, v. tr., (iiibeni ; 7/. 

iii/r., fid) iinbeni. 
Charles, .ttdfl, m. (--j) ; little 

— , .Uavlclicn, «. (0). 
charming, adj., vtMU''tb 
cheap, billicv 

clieese, .Hdfc, m. (-0 ; — ). 
cluny, Mirfdic, / (-ni. 
chicken, ,t>iil)ii, n. (-cS ; "or), 
cliild, Atiiib, n. (-CO' -or). 
_ Christinas, 'ilUMl)iuid)tcn, //. i 
chinch, .^Urdio, _/; (-11). 
Cinderella, ^.}(fdienputte(, «., ! 

cily, rtilbt, y: ("0). 
claim to be, lliollcti, 196. 
clear, tdir. 
clever, iicfdiicft. 
climate, ,U(inia, n. (-•5). 
climb up, biiinufflcttoni. 
cloak, lUniitel, m. {-?,; "). 
cl(.ck, Uhr,/ (on), 
close, jiiiitiuhoii ; \A) iofton, 

Aiifdiliofjoii, 12;. 
cloth, ittd), «.(-co; -f or "or). 
clothes, Jlleiber, « //. {.:cc 

cloud, liBolfo,/. (11). 
coachman, Ahitfrfior. m. (-<3 ; 

coal, Ao\)l(,/. (-1;). 
coat, ;)locI, m. (-rCi ; "c). 
coffee, Jluffoo, m. (-§). 
cold, fuU (-or); to catch — , 
(id) •ifcilten. 

I colour ofnrbo, /. ( lO. 

I combat,. ft a mpf, /«•( 00 ; "0). 

i come, fommoii (107; fotu); 

i — in, ^orciiifoiiimcii; — 

I here, l)ieii)eitomtiicn ; — 
down, bei .nitcrtommeii ; 
— out, 1)01- .U'jtoiiimon ; — 
back, uiriictfommen ; — 
again, uijooortommon; what 
isto— , bivriU'iiorftoljoiibi'. 
coming (a(t of), .Common, «. 

! command, 7>., iH'feljleii (167 ; 

j dat.). 

• commandment, (^lol'Pt, >r., 

I (-05 ; -0). 

' company, (iSoioKfdnift, /, 

complain, fhtai'ii (iilu'r 4- 
_ ace). 

complete, uoUi'tcinbii]. 
concert, .^tOllH'it', u. (-00 ; 

condition, 'i<obilli-|iiiU], /. 

confusion, ilkriuivniiiiT, / 
(-011); ^iU'itiiriuitii,/ (-on), 
congratulate, Wliirf uiiiiifdu'it, 

iU"iUiiHorcit {d,t/.). 
conscious, lu'unifu (+.c<v/.). 
co-'sequence ; in — of, jn* 

fotsie (22,0. 
consider, lH'trad)ton; [jattoit 

fiir, J 88. 
con.sist (of), boftofjcn (nuS), 

contented, ,5ufrieben. 
contradistinction, Wegcnfa|, 

111. (-00 ; "e). 
contrary; on the — , int (^)C; 

convent, ,«[oftor, n. (-<3 ; "). 
convince (of), iiborjeii'rtoii 

(i'<?//. 0/ thi>:g). 
cool, adj., fill)(. 
copy, subst., (Srciuphu', «. 
(-ecS; -c); v., nbf^rcibcit, 
corner, (S(te, /. (-ti). 

] correct, adj., ricfitiii. 

i cost, v., toftoii (-f. ace. or 

dat. 0/ person). 
\ counsellor, STJatiieber, m. (-8; 

! ~^- 

\ Count,j«/v^., Wraf, w. (-en; 

Countess, (SJvafiii, / (-ncn). 
country, i*niib, >i. (-05; ^er); 

in the — , auf botn i'anbe ; 

man, ^yniior, m. (-u 

or -0 ; -11). 
couple, *Vniir, «. (-eo; -e). 
courtier, .sSijfliiid, m. (-eS ; 

cousin, iyettev, m. (-0 ; -it), 
cover, v., bocfeii. 
create, fd)affen, i85. 
creditor, WfiiiidiiU'r, w. (-5 ; 

creep, friod)Cii, 123. 
crime, iPcrbrodien, n. (,-g ; 

crop, crops, Ciritto, / 
cry (call), niton, 1,88; (weep), 

cup, Tcifjo,/ (-11). 
curtain, SBortinng, in. (-oo ; 

cut, )d)noibcn,ii8: — off, nbs 
fd)itoiboit ; to — one's 
hand, fid) iit bte .'giaiib 


danger, Wcfa[)r, / (-en), 
dangerous, i]ofaf)Vtid}. 
dare, fii6 unterfte^en, 186; 

biiu'on, 196. 
daughter, Joc^tor, _/; (-). 
day, Joii, m. (-e§; -e); in 

broad —light, bet ^eHem 

dead, tot. 

deal ; a great — of, uiel. 
dealer, .^Miiihlor, m. (-g; 

dear, lieb, teuer. 
dearly-bought, teiier. 




decide, intr., \\ij enifd&Iiegen, 

123 ; ~(\,aiij., cntjcfiiebdi. 
defence, aU'vtcibifiunn, /. 

definition, iCeftnition, /. 

deserve, Bcibienen. 
desire, 'JSerlanflen, n. (-^ ; 

desperate, oerjroeifett. 
devote, loibmcii. 
diamond, ^iamant', m. (-S 

or -in; -cn). 
dictionary, SBBrterbud^, «. 

(-e«; "er). 
die, fterben (159; feiii). 
difference, V.nterfc^ieb, m. 

(-eS; -c). 
difficult, fc^inev. 
dig, grabeii, 186. 
diligence, ^-leife, m. (-e§). 
diligently, fletfeig. 
dinner, WtttagSefi'en, «. (-S ; 

disagreeable, unaiigeiieljm. 
disappoint, ciUtdiifd)en. 
discover, etttbecten. 
discoverer, Gntbecfev, m. (-§; 


discovery, Gntbecfuug, /. 

disgrace, od^anbe, /. (-n). 

displeased, uiisufiii'beit. 

dissatisfied, unjufrieben. 

distant, cntfenit. 

disturb, ftoreit. 

diver, ^'andier, »«. (-§ ; — ), 

divide, teilen. 

divine, gottlid). 

do, tOnn (196); (make), ttia= 
dien ; {as aux. is jwi trans- 
lated by a separate form ; 
see 31, R. 3) ; how — you 
— ? roie ge()t eS ;:3l)nen? 

doctor, Softer, m. (-8 ; 
Softo'ren) ; (physician), 
Sliji, m. (-e-jj-e); that is 
Dr. B., ba8 ift ber JJoftor 

dog, .§unb, m. (-c9; -e). 
dollar, iDaler, tn. (-«; — ). 
door, Jf)iir(e), / (-en) ; at 

the — , <xv. ber 3:t)Ur(e). 
doubt, subsi., ^xot\\t\, m. 


doubt, v., jroeifeln (an -f 

dat!)\ I liave no — of it, 

id) ijabe feinen^iueifel bas 

down, fierunter ; — -stairs, 

dozen, ^u^enb, «. (-c5; -e). 
draw, ,^ic[)en, 131; seid)nen. 
dress, .Uleib, n. (-e5 ; -cr). 
dress, v. tr., anfleiben; v. 

intr., fief) nnfleiben. 
drink, trintcii, 144; — {0/ 

beasts), fniifen, 123. 

drive, v. tr., tvciben, 120; 

I intr., (go in a conveyance), 

j far)i-cu(i86; fein) ; go for 

j a— , fpa,5icren fa[)ren. 

driving (act of), '^ai)ren, n. 

drop, Ivopfen, ;«. (-§ ; — ). 
drown, intr. \ be — ed, ers 

tiinfen, 144. 
duke, .f<cr,5cig, m. (-cS ; -e or 

during, uia()venb {gen. ; 223). 
duty, 'W^Ajt, /. (-en), 
dwelling-house, 2Bo£)n^au§, 

«. (-eo; ^er). 


each, jeber, jebe, jebe§ ; — 

other, einanber. 
eagle, 3(b[er, m. (-§; — ). 
ear, Dfjr, n. (-e§ ; -en), 
early, frill). 
earn, uerbienen. 
earth, ©rbe, / ; — -quake, 

Grbfieben, «. (-§; —,. 
east, Cft(en), tn. 
easy, — ily, [eid^t. 
eat, effen, 181; freffen, 181, 

{said of beasts). 
effort, Slnftrengung,/ (-en). 

I !8emill&ung,/(-en); 9Jcr« 
' fiic^, ;«. (-o;-e). 

either, eiUrocber; — . . . 
or, entioeber . . . ober. 

elect (as), errodl^lcn (jum). 

elm, U[ntc,y. (-n). 

else, or — , fonft. 

embarrassment, Serlegens 
f)ett,/ (-en). 

emperor, ^aifcr, m. (-s; — ). 

endure, au^Jftefjen, 186. 

enemy, ^t'\n)i, m. (-e§; 

engaged, uerfagt; I have an- 
other engagement, I am — 
elsewhere, ic^ bin anber§» 
mo oevfagt. 

English, englifi^; — (Ian- 
j guage), englifcf) (beS ©ngs 
< Itfcfien) ; into — , im ©ngs 

Englishman, engtSnbev, m. 

enjoy, gcniegen (123; gen. 
j or more generally ace). 
enough, genug ; be — , suf- 
fice, geniigen. 
err, irven. 

escape, cntfliefien (131 ; dai). 
esteem, acf)ten. 
I etc., U. f. XO. {ablfreviation 
\ for: unb fo roeitcv). 

Europe, Giiropa, «. (-0). 
I even, adv. fogar, felbft ; not 
— , nid)t einmal'; — if, 
I roenu aud^. 
evening, SIbenb, /«. (-o§;-e). 
ever, je, jemalo. 
every, jebcr, jebe, jebe^ ; 
—body, —one, jebermann, 
jeber, jebiueber, jeglirfier ; 
— week, alle ac^t 2:age. 
everywhere, iiberalf. 
evil, sitbst., 3?ii[c§, n. 
exactly, gerabe, tbtn. 
examination, esamen, «. (-5 ; 

examine, unterfud^'en, beob'« 



exceeding, — ly, f)Z(^% fe^r, 

except, Qugcr (tia(. ; 46). 
exci'je,!/., ciiticlnit&ii]cn(/r.), 

ve\-ic\l)cn (dat.) ; subst., 

exercise, subst., 2liifviQbe, /. 

expect, crroarteit. 
expens2, iloftcii, pl,\ at the 

— of, niif .(lofleit. 
eye, Mnije, «. (-§; -ti). 

fail fin business), fnnicren. 
fnll, fnUcii(i88j fciii). 
family, ^amilic, /. (-n). 
farr.ine, .£tuii'.]Cidnot, /, 
far, lucil; as — as, biS iinrf; 
(dat.)\ not — from, unfent,; 
uinocit (^e«. ; 223,23,24). 
farewell, ^cbciuoOl, ft. (-6). 
fast (quick), gcfrfjitiiiib, 

father, SJutcr, w. (-§ ; ^). 
favour, Ocfallcii, ;«. (-3 ; — ), 
fear, 7yurit)t, /. ; for — , QiiS 

feather, rt-eber.y: (-n). 
February, ^cbntar, m. (-€). 
feel, fii;;Icii ; (perceive), cmpj; 
filiboii, 144; V. inU: {of 
health), fid) [icftubcii ; jit 
2)hitc iciii; I— ill, mir ift 
fct)led)t jii SDhite. 
few, loenig, uicnige; a — , 

ei:ti;ie, tin pnnr. 
field, ^clb, «. (-C3 ; -cr). 
fi'^'ht, fecl)ten, 124; ftreiten, 

fill, fiiUcii. 

find, fiiibeii, 144;— out, ciiSs 
fii.'ri'ii; — again, toiebers 
fine, |c()i5n. 

finger, finger, >«. (-8; — ). 
finish, oollcn'ben : to have 
— ed (with), fertig Jein 
(mit); —ed, fertig. 

I fire, Jeiier, n. (-6;—). 

I firs:, arij., ber, bie, bo3 crfte; 

I ail'., jiierft, erftenS ; —of 

all, jiicvft. 
fish, ^i)i[), ;«. (-C9 ; -e). 
fishing, AifujC", n. (-3). 
fit for, — to, gut ju. 
five, fiiiif. 

flatter, fcf)meid)e[n {dat). 
flatterer, 3d&mcicf)lcr, m. (-3; 

fleet, subsf., ^lotte, /. (-n). 
floor, rtiiB-'obeii, m. (-§ ; '-). 
flour, aWefjI, n. (-es). 
flow, v., flicfjeii, 123, jein. 
flower, iJhiine, / (-11). 
fly, flicgeii 131, fciii;— away, 

follow, fo[.]Cii (iciii ; dat.). 
foot, Siifi, "I. (-C'j-; ^'c). 
for, 229, prep, {in behalf of), 
filr, acc.f 34 i (of purpose) 
JU, dat., 46; — rjadiug, 
auin Scfeii; {of past time) 
feit, (if/.,45; —three days 
(past), feit brei ingeit; {of 
fut. time) aiif, ace, 229, 
{b), 2 ; — three days (to 
come), nuf brei Sage. 
forbid, Dei-&ietcn(i3i; dat.). 
force, jioinjeii, 144 ; to be 
— d, obliged (to), miiffen, 
ford, %\v:t, f. (-en), 
forest, SBnlD, m. (-e5; "ev). 
forgery, aSerfaifdjung, /. 

forget, ocrgeffen, 181. 
forgive, oerge()cn(i8i; dat.). 
former, jencr, jene, jene^. 
fort, rt'cftc,/ (-11). 
fortieth (part), ajierjtgftel, « 

fox, ^ut^B, »»». (-e«;«e). 
Francs, jyranfreicf), «. (-8). 
Francis, Sronj, m. (-cn3). 
Fred(dy), ^^itu, m. (-en3). 
Frederick, J^itebric^, m. 

(-3) ; Frederick-Street, btc 

free, frei. 

freeze, 131, frieren. 
French, fronjofifc^; —(Ian- 

guage), i^ranaiififc^, „. 

(be3 Sranjdfifc^en). 
fresh, frifcf). 
Friday, ^reitog, m. (-eS; 

friend, (^reunb, tn. (-e8 ; 

friendless, frciinbloS. 

friendly, frcunblid'. 

friendship, ^-rennbfc^aft, / 

frighten (terrify), erfdjrecfen ; 
tobe— ed, eifd;rccleii, 167. 

frog, eyrofd), w. (-co; "c). 

from {direction), uon, ou3 
{dat. ; 46) ; {cause) m<i ; 
{time) iibci- -^ act., 63; 
a week — to-day, Ocute 
iiOer ad)t Sngc ; {disease) 
an, dat., 65; cv ift an 
bicfer JTrnnf{)cit gcftov* 
ben, he died of that dis- 

front ; in — of ; t)or {dat. 
or ace. J 65). 

fully, ganj. 

funeral, SSegrdbnlS, «. (-fe§; 

furious, -ly, iDiltenb. 
future, 3nfunft,/ 


fortnight, tterje^n Sage. 
f jrtunately, glitdtidierroeife ; 

gUicf(id;er 2Beifo. 
fortune, good — , ®[iic!, «. 

four, Dler. 


gallop, galoppieren. 
garden, CJavten, m. (-3; ^). 
gardener, ©artner, m. (-3 ; 

gathsr, fnmmeln. 
general, ©eneral', m. (-e9 ; 

generally, (5en)5[)nnc5. 
generous, fn'ijclig. 
gentleman, !qc\:\: m. (-11 ; 

George, Gcorj, m. (-c). 
German, adj., bciitfd; ; — 

(language), 'Jcutfcl;, «. 

(bc3 2!ciitfc[)ci!); in — , 

aiif Sc-tfcf;; into — , in-i 

Germany, 2)entfd)Ianb, «. 


get (become), rocvbeii, 15,;. 
girl, I'dibcIjCli, «. (-§; — ), 
give, gcDcit, iSi; — up, am'. 


glad, fiol) {gen.)\ be — , fid; 
ficiicii ; I am — , ccS ficut 
liticf); I should be — to, 
should like to, icf) iniidUc 
glass, Ojlao «. (-ci; ^'er). 
glove, i^oublcIjuO, »«. (-cS ; 

go, ocI)cn(i88;fcin);veifen; 
— away, iuC33Cl;cn, foitj 
OcOcii; — back, jiiiilcf-- 
ilcOcii; —out, (()in)aiio=: 
gcOcii; — down, Ijiii; 
iiittcrflcl)en; — up, I)tiis 
aufjcrjcii; — past the 
place, an ciiicm ^^{aijc doi'= 
ii&erocricn; —for, fetch, 

goal, 3icl, «. (-c5 ; -c). 

God, god, 03ott, tn. (-cS; 

Goethe, Goct()C, m. (-0). 

gold, subst., Wolb, «. (-cc). 

gold, rt(^'., golden, iiolbcu. 

{:ood, fliit ; be — enou-h, 
OiUicii 3ic Sic Giitc ; —, (jntcii 2J}orfjcit. 

j^codncss, Giite,,/; 

tracjfi.l, -ly, aiumitij. 

rrand-parjnts, Oi'ofeclteni, 

J. 7 

grapes, 5'rnuDen, //. 
grass, ©IMS, «. (^-c5; -ev). 


grateful, banftnr. 
great, qvou ("cv, gibfu). 
green, .jviiit; subst.,(&x\\\\, 

n. (-0). 
grind, frfjicifcn, 118. 
:. round, 53obcii, »«. (-?.); 

::row, rondjfcn, i&'j;rocvbcn, 

nucss, crrntcn, 1S8. 
guest, PJaft, m. (-eS; "e). 


habit, ©cn)0()nl)cit,/ (-en); 

to be in the — of, bic Ges 

iuo(;ii[)cit [;nDt'u jii, etc. ; 

half, adj., f)a[b ; — an hour. 

Cine IinlOc 3tinibc. 
half, sitbst., 4ni(ftc, /. (-n). 
hand, ^iniib, / ("c). 
handsome, fdion. 
handwriting, .{ianbfcf)rift, / 

hang, V. ir., Ijiinncn; v. 

intr., t)nH.;-ien, 188. 
'lappy. i''"^f'i '•'()• 

harbour, .^Mifcn, m. (-d; ^'). 

Iiard, fd)iDCr. 

hardly, fniim. 

hare, .sTiflfc, m. (-n; -n). 

harvest, subst., 6vnte,_/ ; v., 

haste, Gile, y:; to make—, 

hat, 4iiit, m. (-co; -e). 

have, Oabcu, 24; fciii, 52,53; 
Iiiffcn, 1S8, 200, 7; to — 
to, be obli^:ed to, luiifien, 
196-202 ; will you — a cup 
of tea? wollen 3ie eiuc 
Suifc J(;cc? 

hay, veil, n. (-co). 

he, cr ; bcr, — who, bcrjen 
jciti^c lucldjei, etc., lucr. 

head, fiopf, m. (-cS ; "e). 

Iioalth, Gcfimbfieit,/ 

hear, Ooien; to — say, fagen 


1 hearing, GcOSr, n. (-c5). 
j heart, ,Cicr^, n. (-ci!5 ; -en); 
I by — , nuciucnbi(j. 
heat, 4m(!C, / 
heath, ^}cib'', /. (-n). 
heaven, .''imntcl, m. (-5; — ). 
heavy, fd)n;ci-; — ily, fd;njcv; 
{0/ rain) ftiuf ; heaviest of 
all, nm nUcif.Omcrften. 
help, subst., ^lilfc. 
help, v., [iclfcn (159; dat.'); 
it cannot be — ed, cS liifjt 
fid; uidjt (iiibcvn. 
Henry, .Ciciniid), vi. (-§). 
her, pcrs. fron., fie {acc.)\ 

\\.)X {dat.). 
her, pass, adj., \\.)X, if)re, i^r. 
here, \)\ix. 

hide, v., ucvbcvgen, 159. 
high, ;;od), (jLiljcr, Ijijd'ft {loses 
C in inflcxioti); to think 
— ly of, uicl Ijaltcit con, 
him, iOn {ace), \\)\\\ {dat.). 
himself (he), er fclDft ; (to) 

— , fid; {ace. or dat.). 
his, pass, adj., feiu, fetiie, 

his, poss. pron., fcinev, fcis 
nc, fcineS; bcr, bie, ba3 
fcinc; ber, bie, ba9 fets 
hoarse, I;cifer. 
hold, (;nltcn, 188; — ti ge- 

thcr, 3iiiainmenl;ultc;:. 
holiday, ^cicrtaij, vi. (-cO ; 

-0; — s, Acncn,//. 
home, i^cilitut, /. ; adv., 
niid; .^vnife; at -, \\\ 
^iniife ; to go — , nad) ^;aufe 
(jcl;cn, 1S8. 
honest, cJ)vlid;, reblid;, auf. 

honey, .^lonifj, m. (-co), 
hope, stibst., i^offnung, f. 

(-C11); v., I;offcn. 
horse, %\zxu, n. (-CO; -i). 
hospital, ^-(O'pitat, Gpital, 
n. (-c3; --cr). 




hostess, aUirttn,/. (-neit>. 
hot, l)ei6. 

hour, Stuiibe, /. (-11) ; - 
-hand, Stiiiibenjeiger, m. 


house, .^aii9, «. (-e9 ; "ei); 

at your — , bei 5S')iH'it. 
how, luie ; — do you do ? 

iDie fle{)t e§ Sfjnen? luie 

6efiiibeit Sie fid) ? 
however, obcr; jebod). 
howl, fjculcn. 
human, meiifcl)ltc^ ; — being, 

ajlcitfcf), «/. (-cit ; -en), 
hundred, l^uiibcvt ; sttisi., 

|»uiibert, ft. (-e^; -c). 
hjnger, ^^unacv, t/t. (-^;. 
hungry, l&uu(iiig; be — , 

^imjer Ijobeit. 
huntur, OSi'iU'i', ;//. (-0; — ). 
hunting (act of), .^ageii, «; 

(-6); (chase) o«rti),/.; go 

— , nuf bie $^agb gcOcn. 
huntsman, ^'ifl^'^* ***■ (-^J 

hurry, (Jile, y! ; I am in a — , 

id) ['ill in ber(£i(e, ic^ fjabc 

e3 citicj. 
hurt, v., uevle^en. 
husband, SWonn, w. (-C'3; 

hussar, ^ufar, >«. (-en or ~§; 



ice, ©is, «. (-e3). 

idea, S^ee,/., Wcbante, »«. 

(-n«; -n). 
idle, fniit, tviige. 
idleness, idling, ^DhiBiggang, 

M. (-C'3). 

if, iwenn; (whether), ob. 
ignorant, uniuilfcnb. 
ill, tvanf ; — -health, frf)I?d)te 
©efunbljeit,/ i 

illness, .(Iranfbeit, /. (-en), 
iniagiiiii, iiili (</,// ^hi'nfi'u (.^y 

«). ' 'i 

immediately, (fo)flUic^). 
imp. ;e, aLMdjtigfeit. 
importrt..., jptdjtig, bebeu» 

impossible, unmogli^. 
in, in, dat.,(yt,\ auf, </(»/., 65, 

230, (") ; — the country, 

auf bemi'anbe. 
inch, 30U, tit- (-eS). 
induce, bciucgen, 131, B. 
industrious, — ly, ficifjtg. 
industry, Ts^i'x^, m. (-eS). 
inform, inittcilen. 
inhabitant, (JiniBOl)nei', m. 

ink, Xinte <»r 35intc, / 
innocence, Unfd)nlb, f. 
inquire, fief) crfunbigen, fiai 

gcii, 1S6. 
inside of, innerf)alb {gen. ; 

insist on, bcftcf)en (11 uf + 

instead of, ftatt, anfiatt 

{gen.% 223). 
intend, bcatifidjtigcn, uor't 

Oabcn, gcbcnfcu ''■jo, 2). 
intention, 9(bfid)t, f. (-en), 
interrupt, nnteibved)'on, 167. 
into, in {ace. ; 65). 
invent, eifi)iben, 144. 
invitation, Ginlabung,_/. 

L.vite, einfabou, 186. 
iron, (Sifon, «. (-<5); adj., 

it (3«, 39), t-'-j; ev; fii- ; bcr, 

joyous, frbtiUti^. 

July, ^u'li, m. {-> . 

jumi), fpiingcn, 144; _ 

down, f)erunterfprtnflen, 

June, %\\'\\\, m. (-0). 
just, gerabc, eben ; — now, 

foeben, — as, ebcnfo. 
justify, redt)tfertigen. 


kick, ftogen, i83. 

kind ; what — of, nja9 filr 

(ein, einc, cin); of many 

— s, Jelcrlei; adj., gnt, 

rennblid); to be so — as 

; to, )o gnt feiit unb. 

j kindue:,s, GJiite, OUtigfett, 

5rcunblic{)fcit, / 

king, Mijnig, m. (-es; -e); 
King-street, bic flBnig^ 

kingdom, ^Bntgreid;, it. (-eo; 

knife, TOeffer, «. (-s;— ). 

knock down, I)eninterfd)la= 
gen, 186. 

know {0/ acquaintance), fen; 
nen, 99; {of knmvledge 
acquired by mental effort) 
luiffcn, u)h\ — how, tLin= 
lien, 196. 

knowledge, JtenntniS, f. 
f-fe), SKiffenfdjaft,/ (-en). 

known, bctunnt. 

bio, biio|cU)e;in— , biiiin; lady, 35ame, / (-11); young 

for — , bnfiir ; of — , bn= 
uon , with — , bamit ; to 
- , bnjn. 

its, /oM. adj., fein, \X)x. 

itself, eS felbft. 


T .nius, ^^atob, m. (—j). 
January, viannav, m. (-0), 

Julu!, ^\0l!rtin'/ ;;,-, (Ci). 

journey, Sieife,/. (-11). 

— (Miss), j^rdiilcin, n. 


lake, ©ec, >«. (-§; -en), 
landscape, i.'anbfd)aft, f. 

language, Sprnc^e, / (-n). 
lantern, JiJuteine, f. (-n). 
large, gvoft (^er, iui3tit). 
last, te§t, I'orig; at — , enb» 

\\<^; v., bnueni. 
late, fpat. 

'ately, neultc^, fUrijIic^. 
Latin, subst., fiatein', «. (-3). 
lattLT, the — , jeiicr. 
laugh, lncl)cn; — (at), lac^eii 
(gen. or iiber + ace.) ; he 
—8 at (makes sport of) you, 
er moc^t fic^ iibcr ®ie 
lawyer, SMboolat', m, (-eii; 

lay, legeii. 
lazy, fnul, trtiac 
lead, SOIci, «. (-e3). 
lead, v., fU()VCli. 
lead-pencil, SBkiftift, m. 

(-c^: -e). 
leaf, SBIatt, «. (-C9; "ei). 
learn, lenicii. 
learned, uifj., sii'lcljit. 
learning (action of), I'ernen, 

«. (-^). 
least; at — , luciiigfteiio. 
leave, laffcii, i88 ; — behind, 
.desert, abandon, oerlaffcn ; 
— out, aii'3(affeit. 
left, lint; be — , iibiii] blei= 

leg, tScm, ,t. (-eo; -c). 
lemonade, Simoiiabc,/ (-n). 
lend, lei^eit, 120. 
lesson, 2[ufflalu',/.(-n); Vcf^ 

tion, _/ (-C11). 
let, lofjen, 188, 
letter {0/ alphabet), «uc^i 
ftade, >«. (-110; -ti); (epis- 
tie), SBfief, «». (-C3; -e). 
liar, I'liancv, m. (-5; — }. 
library, 53ibltotf)et',/ (-ett). 
lie (be recumbent), (iegeii 
181; — down, fief) tiinleiK tt. 
life, iiJcben, n. (-'o ; — ). 
liSiliten (flash), Dli^eii. 
hghtning, ^ri^, -.v. (-co ; -e). 
hke, mbijeii, 196-202 ; gefu 
hiUicii, 24; I should—, iff) 
mi.H()tc (ijcrn) ; to — to 
learn, gem !er!!!'it ; I — 
music, id) bill ciii rtvetmb 
UOil Dhlfif ; how do you — 


London ? tuie gcfdUt ^\\\\t\\ 
lily, fiilie, / (-n). 
Limburg, adj., iiimbmger, 
lion, SiiJipc, (-11; -11). 
listen to, anl)bi cu (/r.). 
literature, l.'itefatuv', f. 
little (of size), ilcin ; (0/ 

quautit}^ U'Cllig. 
live, lebcii; (dwell), looljneii. 
living, Ic'bciib, (ebeii'big. 
locality, QJogciib, /. (-en). 
London, i^ionboii, n. (-&); 

adj., iioiiboiiev. 
long, rtrt>'., laiii] ("ci); adv., 
laitfleC'r); have you been 
here — ? fiiib 2ie fc(}oit 
langc Ijiev 'i hj has not 
been here for a — time, ix 
tft (aiige utAt bier goiue; 
fen; three months — er, 
nod; brei llioimte ; no — er 
(///., not more), iiiibt iitebr. 
long for, v., fid) fcl)iieii luul). 
look for, fiidH'it, fiicbeii iiad); 
— like, aii':.fel;cii (uije or 
tliul)), iSi ; it — s (appears, 
seems) like rain, Cj fie()t 
nac^ ;)(egeit au'3 ; — up, 
f)inaiiffct)en, i8i. 
lose, Devlieren, i.^i. 
lost, uevloreit. 
loud, — ly, Uiut. 
Louisa, Snuifey: (-ltd), 
love, v., lieben. 
lower, iiiiter, niebev (adjs.) 



magnificent, vrdd)tig. 

majesty, lliajcftdt', / (-eii^ 

make, Mad)eii. 

man, Dinnii, m. (-es; "ei); 
— (human being), aJJettfd), 
tn. (-en; -cii); —kind, 
i)!eilfd;, HI. ; men (soldiers), 
3oIbiitcn ; little —,a«ami= 
lein, n. (-3; - -). 

manikin, \'.l(iiiinleiil, ;/. (-0; 

manner, ajeife; in that — , 

auf bie iCeife. 
many, uiele ; — a, — a one, 
titand;er, mand)c, miuic^e«. 
March, Didrj, m. (-e«). 
Margaret, TOaigmete, / 
I (-n«). 

market, iUJarft, m. (-eg; 
I '-'e). 
I marriage (-ceremony), Jruu. 

ling, /. (-rn). 
j married, ueibeiratct. 
i marry, f)Ctrateii, j)crbeiriUen 
! (fid) mit). 

marsh, 5uinpf, >». (-es; "e). 
M.<ry, Wiuie,/ (-no), 
matter, 3nd)c, / (-11) ; what 
is the — ? luU'Jgiebto^ iiia'3 
ift (oS '< what is the — with 
you? tuas feblt Olbiien'^ 
' May (month of), yjhli, m. 
j (-e§ or -en I. 
niay, 7'., biii'feii ; fbniien ; 

inijgeii, 196-202. 
mayor, iHitrgenneiftei-, m. 
I (-5; -). 

^ me, mid) {acr.), mil {dut.). 
: mean ; in the — time, u:(tei= 
beffeii ; by — s of, uermits 
tclft; iH-rmbge, j^w/,, 223. ' 
mean, 7'., meiiieii; to - to, 
intend to, luoUeii, i(,6-2.)2. 
meat, Aleifd), ,1. (,-eo). 
meet, v., begegneii {dut. ; 
fein); to go to — , eiitge= 
geiigebeii(i88; dat.). 
meeting, Syei-fammlung, / 

mental, geiftig. 
merchant, Jlaiifmaitit, ;;/. 

(-e«; -rente), 
mere, — ly, blofj. 
merry, merrily, lllftig. 
messenger, 'i^ote, 711. (n; 

metal, iiictall', «. (-ec- ; -e). 
microstope, yjhfvoffpp'', ;/. 

(-I'o; -e). 
middle, WxiXi,/.: in the -« 



•jf summer, mitten tm 

mile, Jlcilt,/.(-n), 
milk, SOi Ihi). /. 
mine, meiiier,ii!Mne,meine9; 

bcr, bie, bn« uieiiic; ber, 

bie, bn mciiiigc. 
minute, TOimite,/ (-n); — 

•hand, 5Jhiuitenjciijer, m. 

(-« ; --). 

misfortune, UiiijIUcf, «. 

Miss (young lady), Srauletn, 

'«•(-«; -). 

mistake, ^e^ler, vi. (-9; 

mock, fpottci; (^*/f. or iibn' 

■\- ace). 
moisten, beiicjjcn. 
moment, *iluaciibU(f, m. 

(-c« ; -c). 

monarch, Wouorcf/, ;;/.(-en ; 

Monday, OToMtiig, »«. (-5; 

money, cyelb, «. (-ci; -cr). 
month, 5)ioiiat, m. (-cS ; -c) ; 

a — ago, oor cineiit liJo? 

more, tne^r; nod); one — , 

nof() eincf. 
morning, Worgen, m. (-e-J; 

— ); in the — , bc« DJiovs 

gcKO ; good—, niiteii *JJfoi-= 

mostly, nteiftenS. 
mother, Wiittcr,/ ("), 
mountain, SScnj, m. (-ci; 

mourning, 3;rawer, /. 
Mr., .<:u'rr, m. (-n; -en), 
much, uiel; very — , feljr ; 

as—, cbcn fo uicl. 
music, '^\\\S\V,f. 
musician, iDin'fifer, m. (-3 ; 

must, tnijffen, 196-202. 
ta-jyposs. adj., mein, meine, 
tnein {also expressed by 

dat. of pert. pron. + dtf. 

myself (I), (id)) felbft. 


name, subst., iHame, tn. (-n«; 
-n); ncnnin, v., 99; wh,,t 
is the — of.' uiie Oeifjt V 

wivtisyour— PiDicljeiBen 

nation, Dlntion, / ("-en). 

native town, ®£i.:titoflabt, / 

natural, nntilrltc^. 
naughty, unartij]. 
near, prep., neben (,/<//. or 

ace. \ 65). 
neces.sity, 'Jlot, / 
need, t/., bnuid^en ; be in 
— of, bebiiifcii (196; ge>i. 
or ace.) \ in —of, bebilrfs 
'ill (.gen.). 
neglect, v., uernarfjlciffiijen. 
neighbour, *}iiu()bar, /«. (-0; 
-11): ~{/em.), i«iuObariu 
neither, lueber ; — . . . nor, 

lucber . . . nod), 
nest, SJcft, «. (-C3; -cr). 
never, nic; ntcmalS ; — yet, 

nod; nie. 
new, nen. 

news, -liadjridjt, / (-t n). 
newspaper, ,^citun!i,/. (- en). 
next, niidjft {see nnljc). 
Niagara Falls, bie 3Mn(joras 

niece, 9Jid;te, y: (-11). 

night, 9!iul)t,/; (-'c); at — , 
niu()tS, bed 9lad)t3. I 

no, adj., fcin, teinc, fein ; I 
adv., nein; —body, — j 
person, niemanb, tciuer, 
feinc, feinecS ; — more, - 
longer, nidjt nu'f;r ; — , 
thank you, tdj banfe {%\), 

noble, ebel. 

noise, Sorm, m. (-e3). 

noon, mittag, »,. (-e9 ; _,). 
north, 'Jlorb, m. (-?«) ; («or« 

ben, m. (-0). 
not, nid;t; - a, tcin, feine, 

fein; — yet, noili nidjt; — 

at all, nnr nid)t; arc (you, 

etc.) — ? nicOtitjnfir? 
nothing, )iid)t9. 
notwithstanding, nnnenc^t-t, 

gen , 223. 
novel, subst., DJoman', m. 

(-CS; -c). 
Novenil)er, 5Wooember, m. 

now, je(}t. 
nowhere, nir.u'nb*. 
•>"t, yiujj,/(«c). 


oak, eic^e, /, (-n). 
obey, aol;oici)eii {dat.). 
oblige, neibiuben, 144; be 

— d or compelled (to), 
occasion, subst., ©cfi'oenOeit, 

/ (~i'iO; v., iH'iinfodjcit. 
o'clock, Uljv {invariable) ; 

what — IS it? luie oicl llljr 

ift e3 . 
of (231), uon, dat., 46, 231; 

{material) ani, dat., 46; 

{cause) nil, dat.; 2-^1, {d); 

the treaty — Paris, ber 

Sertniii jit'^SaiiS; the bat- 
tle — \Vaterloo,bieod)[ad;t 

bci sajnteiloo ; — the Alma, 

nu bcr ?Hma. 
off, nb 
otfcr, bieten, 131, dat. 0/ 

Pers.; niibietcn, 131, dat. 

of per s. 
officer, Dffijter, m. (-eS ; 

often, oft (^cr), oftmaU, 

oh : C ! of; ! 
old, nit (-er). 
on, 232, nuf, nn, dat. or ace, 

65; {.0/ time) on, dat. 



«3>. (a) ; (<tf'i>»0 ttBcr, 

ace, ^15. 
once, ciiimal. 
one, ciiiC; olii, elite, ein ; 

the small — , bcr, bic, hc.i 

Sllcinc ; — and the sanr", 

eiii5; — and a half, cits 

only, nuv; (ly/ time) cut; 

not — . . . but also, iticOt 

nnr . . . foiibcvn auct). 
open, aifj'., offcit; v., nitfs 

opinion, ''.'■:iiiiiiiti,/ (-cii). 
opportunity, 0elciicnl)cit, /. 

oppressive, briideiib. 
or, obcr; three — four, bvci 

bi4 oier; either ... — , 

entiocber . . . obcv; ~ 

else, foiift. 
orator, 9iebiicr, ?//. (-9; — ). 
order, v, (command), I'C' 

fehlcit, 167, {/(if. 0/ pers. ; 

(prescribe), ucicrbncii ; De» 

othei, anbcr ; every — day, 

cinen ^ai] iitn bcii aiibcvii. 
otherwise, loiift ; niibcv§. 
our, adj., uiifer, uiifcre, 

ours, pron., iinfer, iiiifere, 

uufcreS; ber, bic, baS 

inifcrc; bev, bic, ba^ 

out of, au§ {dat. ; 46) ; 

(or at) the window, }unt 

[Veiiftcr [)iiinii'^. 
over, ilt>er {dat. or ace. ; 65); 

— there, — the way, briii 

overcoat, ll'berroct, ;«. (-e6 ; 

■'-c); il'&er}icf)ev, vi. (-5; 
own, adj., eii]cn. [ — ). 

paint, malcti ; to — (other 
than pictures), anftveic^en, ' 


paincir, iUlnfcr, tn. (-9 ; — ). 

ijaint". g (art of), *J)(n[crci',/ 

paliice, Ijalnft', m. (-c«; 
"e)i Sc()lo(!, n. (-Cj; "cr). 

pale, Citciit). 

paper, t'lipicr, «. (-c6; -c)! 
news—, p)eitiiit;i,/ (-en). 

paradise, 'i'livabico', «. (-c5). 

pardon, 5Scncif)iiit;i,yi 

parents, (iUcnt,//. only. 

P,iri% '^.Savii', «.(ooit *:}.5.-,fic). 

Paris, adj. (= Parisian^ 

part, TcK, ;//. (-C'3, -o); for 
tlie most — , mciitoit'J, 

party, Cicfiiifdjnft,/ (-en). 

pass, v., tr., {of time, to 
spend, etc.), 5iiluui;,eu 
(09, 2); — (;ni ex;imina- 
tion), (icfte!;':ii, 1S6; iiitr., 
uer,ic!)Cit (1S8, 2, fci:;); 
uevflicfjcii (123 ; fciii); — 
through, biivdifcmmeit 
(167; fciii). 

passing, mij., uoriiberaeOcii. 

past, t)cviiaii;]eM, uoviiDci, 
uorbei ; to ;'o — the house, 
am .^iiufe uoriibevjcl)cii, 

patient, jlrnnte, adj. subst., 
m. /. 

pay, [H"}a()(eii ( ■:<:£•. of thing, 
dat. offers.; ace. of pcrs. 
when pers. only is iiti^n- 
tioned) ; — attention, 2tcl)t 
(jeliCii; — a visit, eiiieit 
^•Ik'f'ub imiiteit {dat. of 
pers) ; bchuflCll {ace. of 
pcrs. ). 

paying (action of), ^yejnljlen, 
«. (-0). 

peice, TiviebcCiO, »;/. (-ii5). 

pear, 'iUviio,/ (-!i). 

pcasai.t, 93nuer, m. (-it or 
-6; -11). 

pen, (vcbci',/,' (-it). 

people ipl.), Scute, pi. {no 
sing.)\ — {indef), mnn; 

— My, man fn^t ; — , na. 
tisn, ^>nlf, (-C9; "cr). 

pepper, "J'Kner, tn. (-«). 

perfect, — ly, (janj, uolI« 
font me It. 

perhaps, DlclU'idjt'. 

jirrmisfiion, CilfliibiiiS,/; 

permit, CVlnil' Clt {dat. of 
I person, ^cri.ii',/. (-en). 

personal, pcvfbnlid). 

philosopher, *V'f)il'>topl)', »«. 
(-C11; -en). 

physician, 3U'^t, w. (-eS; "e). 

picl< up, aiifl)cbcn, 131. 
I picture, iUlb, n. (-C'j ; -er); 
j (ycntiitbe, «, (-'5 ; — ). 

inece, Stiicf, {-<:<!> ; -c). 

p.igeon, Xniibe, y; (-11). 

pinch, fiieifcii, iiS. 

pity, 7>., bcbinieni; it is a — , 
(.■j ift fdjcibe. 

place, jK^j/., ^I'lat',, ;//. (-c3; 
-e) ; Oit, VI. (-c6; -e or 
"ei); to tal . — , ftilttfili* 
bcu, 144; iu that — , ba, 
bajcUift, bciit(cii). 

place, v., ftcllcii, ic(5eit. 

plant, "lifhKtiC,/ {-w). 

plate, ^^cllcv, ;«. (-0 ; — ). 

play, I'., fviclcii. 

pleasant, an.jcneljut. 

please, iiefallcu {i?>^-, dat.)\ 
(if you) please, (idi) [littc, 
mciui '\A) bitten barr, ^e; 

pleasure, ^criiitii.icii, «. 
(-'t'); — trip, (siiort) ex- 
cursion, ?(iioflii.!, in. (-C'3; 
-c); to take a (•;iort) — 
-trip, cinen Jfuofluj mas 


plum, '^^flaiime, f. (-11). 

poem, Gcoidjt, n. (-C'3 ; -e). 

poet, i)id)tcv, in. (-5 ; — ). 

point ; cardinal — (of the 
f. (-en); to be upon tiie — 
of, tin 43e(jrtfjc ''cin. 



poison, j«^j/., @ift, „. (_es. 

-e); v., oergtf ten. 
policeman, ?!oliaetbtener, m. 
(-^; — ); Sc^ii^mnnn, m. 
(-e«; -leute). 
poor, arm ('er). 
position, Stette, / (-n); 

StcUuiig,/ (-en), 
possess, defi^cn, i8i. 
possible, mBgHd^. 
post, — -office, <t(oft, y: ~ 
-man, '^oftDoti-, m. (_„; 
-"); by return — , mit 
iimgefienbci ^JSoft. 
postage-stamp, SOrrefmarte, 

/. (-11). 
postpone, niiffdfticdeti, 131. 
pound, >i!fiinb, w. (-ee). 
power, flraft,y: (-^e). 
praise, z-., [oben; preifen, 

pray, v., h iitw; inter j., bitte! 
p-ecise, — ly, genau. 
prefer, uorjiefien, 13.; I — 

to walk, \^ ge^e Ueber. 
prei)are ; to - for, firf) i.or= 

t'Cieitcu aiif {ace). 
presence, (Bcgcnmavt,/ 
present, adj., gegenioavtig ; 

for the — , fur- J grftc. 
present, stibst., ©efcfjenf, « 

president, !J5iafibeiit', m. 

(-en ; -en), 
press, v., bringen, 144. 
pretty, Ijiibfcl), fdui,,; Wt;. 

(tolerably), jifuUii-l). 
P ^vent, uerl;inborn. 
price, *tirei«, ;«. (-en ; _e). 
prince, Jviivft, ;«. (-en ; -en) ; 

iU-inj, ;«. (-fii; _en). 
prison, ©cfangnis, «. (-fe>3 • 

probable, probably, lualn-- 
f^icinlidt); probably, luolit. 
professor, *;(rofcff or, ,„. (-§; | 
-en). I 

promise, v., nerfpvedien, 
1(7. I 

propose, oorfc^Iagen, i86. 
proud (of), ftofs (auf -f 

proverb, 5pric^iuoit, „,. 

province, giiooinj',/ (-en), 
prudent, uorficbtig. 
Prussia, ^Prcufeen, n. (->3). 
Prussian, sttbst., *;(retific, ,«. 

public, bffcMtlid). 
punish, beftrnfon, ftrafen. 
punishment, Strafe,/ (-n). 
pupil, edf)ii(cr, nt. (-0; _). 
pure, rein, 
put on (coat, etc.), anjietie'i, 

'3' ; (hat), anf» 



quality, ©ige'tfctjaft, / (-en), 
quarrel, 7/., ftveiten, 118; fid) 

ftreiteit (mit). 
quarter, %wii\, «. (-0;— ); 

— of an hour, Syicrtefs 

ftunbe,/ (-11). 
queen, ^(pniijin, _/ (-nen). 

quick, —ly, fd;„ell; quickly, 

quit, v., oerlaffen, 188. 
quite, ganj. 


railway-station, SOafin^of, v 

(-eci; ^e). 
lain, sitbst., 3iegcn, m. (-0) : 

v., regneii. 
raise, fjebeii, 131. 
rather, eljer, Hebe;. 
raven, !7labe, m. (-n ; -n). 
[ read, lefen, 181 ; to — to. 

uorlefen {d,. ■.). 
reading (act of), Vefen, ,>. 

ready, fertig, bereit; readily, 

reason. (5)vnnb, m. (-e'3 ; "e). 
revive r.-x't^, -rfxUton, 188; 

bctoniiiicn, xu-j ; — (,,« a I 

I host), oufne^men, J67 ; 1 y 
receiving, bnrc^ ^JZehmen. 

recover (from illness), ge= 
tiefen (181 ; fetn). 

red, a«y., rot(-"er); subst., 
9iot, n. 

Reformation, SHeformatton 
/ (-en), 
refuse, tntr., fic^ lueigern. 
regard, anfef)en (181; fiir -f 

acc.)\ befrad^ten (alS). 
regret ; I regret, e5 tfiut mir 

reign, .^Jegierung,/ (-en), 
relate, erjiibtcn. 
related, tierwanbt {dat. or 

rely upon, fid) uerlnffen (i8S; 

remain, Meiben (120; fein); 
— at home, - behind, jiiJ 
riicfbleiben; — over, itbrig 

bleiben; — standing, fteOcn 
(186) bleiben. 

remarkable, mertiuiirbig. 

remember, fid) eriiinern 
{gen.) ; I wish to be — ed 
to him, idj laffe \\)\x grii= 

remind of, erinncm nn (-f 
rtnt, v., uermietcii. [ace). 
repeat, loieber^o'len. 
j reply, sid,si., Stntmoi;, f. 

\ (-CM). 

reply, v., antiuortcn, eru)i= 

bern, ucrfe^en. 
report, v. , Oertd^ten. 
representation, aJorftellnnii 
/■ (-en). 

resemble, dt^nli,^ fein (./rt/.); 

gleicfien {ii?\dat.). 
reside, ipotjnen. 
resist, luiberflc'geit (186; 

resolve, v., fid) rntt'ijiicficn, 

rest; all the —, aX(f nnbern; 
retire to — . fid; fdifnfen 
(i^^s) legen. 



return, oergelten (159); — 
;;ood for evil, oergelte 935s 
fe« mit (Sutcm ; by — of 
post, mit umgeljenber ipoft, 
reward, subst., So^it, m. 

rheumatism, ^heumatiSnuiS, 

M. (be?—), 
ribbon, Saiib, «. (-e§; ^er). 
rich (in), reicf) (ail + dat.). 
rid, lo?; to get — of, ID'S 

rocrbetl {-^ gen. or ace). 
ride, reiten (118); (in a con- 
veyance), ffl()roii (i,s6). 
riding (act of ; not in a con- 
veyance), Sik'itcii, ;/. (-<3). 
right (adj.), vcd)t; (correct), j 
vicf)tin; in the — way, aiif | 
bie nc(;ti(-|e aBciii", sudst., I 
9Jcd^t,«. (-co;-0; to be (in ' 
the) — , j)(cc()t IjiUicn. ! 

righteous, aeredjt ; the — 

(man), bcr ©erod^tc. 
ring, j«/;j/., :1iiiiii, m. (-eS ; 
-e); — , v., luuteii (of a 
large bell), fliiirtctii (of a 
small bell) ; there is a — 
at the door, CO tliniielt. 
ripe, vcif. 

rise (get up), aufftohcii, (isr,; 
feiii); (ascei.d), auffteigeit 
(120; feiii). 
river, ^liig, w. (-cS ; "c). 
road, *3C(), ;«. (-eS ; -c); 

Stvafje,/ (-n). 
Roman, ;)iijmcr, ;«. (-'5; — ). 
room (apartment), Stiibe, _/. 
(-11); v^immer, «.(-o; — ). 
rose, iKofc, / (-11). 
row, v., luboiti. 
run, laiifen (1S8; feiii) ; — 
after, iiacf)(aufcii (iSS; 
fcili; dai.); — away, b;U 
Rus;ia, ;)hif;(aiib, «. (-0). 
"•u^, subst., fliiiffe, »i. 
(-••■ «). 


sad, tranrig. 

safe, fic^er. 

sailing-ship, Segelfd)iff, «. 

(-es; -e). 
sale ; for — , ju oerfaufeii. 
same, adj. and prcn., ber, 
bie, baSfelDe; ber, bie, 
bnSfeUnge; ber, bie, ba« 
ncimlirfie; at the — time, 
jii gleicfjer ,^eit; all the— , 
one and the — , etiierlei. 
j Sarah, Sara,/ (-g). 
j satisfied, ^ufrieben. 

Saturday, Somiabeiib, m. 
I (-c6; -f); Samotna m. 
j (-e§;-e). 

j save, retu'ii; I — d his life, 
id) rettete it)m baS 2cDcii. 
say, fagen; to hear — , fagen 
Ijbren; (assert, claim to 
be), iDoUeit (196-202); to 
be said, folleu (196-202). 
.scholar (i)upil), srfiiilcr, m. 

scliool, 3rt)llle,y:(-ll) ; —boy, 
«i.l)U(ei-, ;«. (-§; — ). 

scold, fdielteii, 159. 

Scotland, 5rf)0ttlailb, //. 

.scream, fdivcieii, 120. 
I search (for), fiid)Cii. 
j seat one's self, sit down, fid) 
i fclu'ii. 
second, uuiit. ««(/'., jiucitf. 
second (of time), subst, Se= 

cimbc, /. (-11). 
secret, — ly, gcljtim, Ijeiiiis 

.-^ee, idjeii, 181. 
seek, flld)Cll. 
seem, |.[)eiiteii, 120. 
.self, fi'Ibft. 
sell, uertaiifoii. 
send, fd;icteu; — to, ^u- 
fdiirfoii; — word to, bc= 


— for, boleii taffeii (188), 
f cf)icfeu nad;. 

September, September, ,//. 

servant, Dieiier, ;«. (-0 ; 
— ); Dieitftbote, >«. (-n; 
-n); gjhigb,/. ("e). 
serve, biciteii {dat.) ; — (of 

a meal), feroicren. 
set, tr. (of a time-piece), ftcU 
fen ; hitr. (of the sun), iir.'= 
tergcf)en (188; fein); — 
tree, befrcten. 
settler, 2tnftebler, in. (-S; 

seven, fiebcii. 
several, cinige; etlic^e; 

shake, fd)iUtelii. 
shall, foHen (196-202). 
she, fie. 

shield, Sd)ilb, m. (-co; -e). 
ship, Scbiff, n. (-cO; -e). 
shoe, Scf^iif), in. {-i% -e). 
slioemaker, 2d)iifter, in. (0; 
— ); Sdiutjmaci^ev, m. (-5; 
shoot, fc^ie^en, 123. 
shop, I'aben, m. (-5; -'). 
shore, lifer, n. (-0; — ). 
short, tiirr, — ly, nncbftcnfs. 
shout, fdjreieii, 120. 
show, jetgen. 

sluitter, ilabcii, in. (-S; — ). 
shy, intr. (of horses), fd)Cit 

luerbcii, 159. 
sick, trant; the —(man), bcr 

side, 2citc,/ (-11); on this 
— oi.prep., bieoieit {gen. ; 
22,0 ; on that — of, /^/•/., 
icil)ott(^^«. ; jj,;; on this 
— , adv., bieofeito;oiitliat 
— , adv., jcitfcitO. 

sign, subst., ;^cid)Cii, «. (-0; 
— ); v., uiiteru'id/itoii. 

silence, Sd)iueiaen, n. (-S), 

silent, flumtit. 

.silly, eiiifiiltig. 

silver, oilbev, «. (-g). 

since (241, 12), prep., (eit, 




dat., 46; adv., feltbem; 
conj., ba. 

sing, finncn, 144. 
singer, Sniicjcriit,/ (-ncn). 
single, etnjiij. 
sink, fiiifi'ii, 144. 
sister, Sd)iucftcr,/ (-n). 
sit, fi^eit (181; feiii); _ 
down, ftcf) fe(}<?ii; - up, 
nnininup, aufbleibcn, 120 
six, fcc^d. 
skate, v., ScftUttfc^ul^ Iqu= 

fen, 188. 
skill, Glc|cf;icf(ic^feit,/ 
slave, Sflaoe, m. (-n; -11). 
slay, totcii. 
sleep, v., fcljtafeii, 188; 

subst., 3d)[Qf, m. (-C5). 
sleighing, Sd)UttenbQt)ii, / 

slipper, *)3antoffe(, m. (-S; 

slow, — ly, (ani]fam. 
small, f(cin. 
smelt, fd)meljen, 124. 
smile, v., lodjein; subst, 

Sadjcln, «. (-0). 
sneak, fd)U'id;cn (118; fcin). 
sno^, subst., Sdmoc, m. (-0); 

»., fd)ncien. 
so, fo; — are we, toil- ftnb 

r5 and;. 
soldier, Solbnt', m. (-en; 


some, cinirte, etHd)c, tcclcl^c, 
etne, cin; — one, —body, 
jenianb, —thing, —what, 
etiund, —where, ii\icnb= 
luo; ■- of it, bnuon; for — 
time {past), fcit oiniiu'r 
son, Sobn, m. (-c«; -e) ; 
little — , «ol)nd)en, «.(-§; 
— )■ 
Bong, ateb, n. (-c§;-cr;. 
soon, balb {co}7ip. erjer, 
s-tiperl. \Xxa eEjrften); as — 
as, fobalb. I 

Sophia, eopfite,/ (-nS). 
sorry; I am — , c5 ift mir 

fcib, c5 tt;nt ntjr tcib. 
sound, — ly, fcft. 
sour, fiincr. 

South, 3iib(cn), m. (-§), 
Spnin, Spoiiicii, n. (-6). 
speak, fpred;cn, 167, rcbcn; 
I — with or to, f pi-cd;cn {ace. 

0/ pers.). 
speaking (act of), (Sprcd&cn, 

«. (-?0. 
spectacles (pair of), SnUc,/. 

speech, !)Jebe, / (-n). 
spite; in — of, trot} {gen. ; 

223, 16). 
spoil, V. tr., ucilciben. 
sport ; to make — of anyone, 
fid) iiticv jentanb(en) {ace.) 
Inftin nuidjcn. 
spread out, fid; lu'rbieiten. 
spring, o., fprin.icn (144; 
\i\\\)\ subst., 'eyrilOrinq, m. 
(-eo; -0). 
square (in a town), ipfa^j, m. 
(-C-3 ; ^c), 

St. Lawrence, Snnct Soreiij, 

stand, ftor;en, 186. 
start (for), abvcifcn (nad)). 
state (condition), 3uftanb,;«. 

(-co: ^-e). 
statesman, gtaatSniann, m. 

(-co; -iMiinncf). 
stay, I'lciticii (120; fein) ; — 
up, nnftdcibon; — away, 
steal, ftchlcn, 167. 
steam-ent;ine, l'antpfm(jfd;i = 

lie, / (-n). 
steamer, j:}ampffd;iff, «.(-c5 ; 

steel, itiilil, nt. (-eS). 
stick, j«'>j/., Stoct, m. (-e§; 

still, adv., nod;, bod^; nod; 

sting, ftec^en, 167. 

stockitig, Struntpf, «. (-e9; 

stop, V. hitr., anfl;ijren. 

storm, .= ti:rnt, ;«. (-e3; H). 

story, «cfd;id;tc, /. (-n). 

stove, Cfcn, >«. (-§; ^). 
stranger, ^yrcmbling, m. (-e3; 
-c); ;^•l•ClnDc {adj. subst.). 
stream, Stiont, m. (-e§; ^e). 
street, Strafje, / (-n). 
strong, ftart (-ei). 
student, otubent', m. (-en; 


study, subst., Stnbinnt, «, 
(-S; etnbien); (room), 
3tnbicrjimnu'r, «.(-.3;— ); 
■v., ftubiercn; — (pre. 
pare) for, fid; DorOereiten 
lUif (+ ace), 
studying (act of), subst., 3tu« 

bicicn, 11. (-0). 
submit, fid) nntcnuci'fen,is9. 
subscribe, iintorfd^rei'ljcn, 

succeed, gcliniicn, impcrs., 
144; I — , C'j !icliMi]t mir. 
such, fold), |ord;er, fo[d;e§ ; fo. 
sudden, — ly, plbljlidj. 
suffer, (cibcii, 118. 
su.''nce, ijciuincn {dnt.). 
sufficient, r;inveid;ciib. 
summer, ®om)ncr, >«. (-§• 


sun, Sonne,/, (-n); — -dial, 

2oMnc)uiI;v, f. (-en) ; — 

-set, 5onnonuntei-c)nng, m. 


Sunday, roiintug, m. (-e§; 

support, untcrftu^'en. 
sure, fid;ci-; to be — , frets 

lid); i(iuar. 
Switzerland, bie 2d)iocij(ber 



table. Sif*, m. ^cS: -c), 
tailor, Sc[)neibcr, m. (-6; — ). 
take, nefjmen, 107; — a walk, 



elnen ©pojicrgang ma* 
tf)eii; fpnjieren gefien, i88; 
— a voyaje, p ne Seercijc 
maclicii; — up, (()in)nufs 
neOmcn; — care, M) in 
Sld)t nel)mcn ; — place, 
ftattfinbcii, 144 ; — cold, 
fid) crf'^Iten. 

talk, fprc-.;eii (167; mit). 

tall, avofi (-er, stiperl. Qvogt). 

tea, Z\)Zt, m. (-§). 

teacher, Seljrev, m. (-§; — ). 

tear (to pieces), jerreilieit, 

telegram, siibst., %z^t\i\t,f. 


tell, filiicn {dat. of per s. or 
Jii) ; Ci-}d()[eii {dat. of 

te'.ler, Gr,vif)[cv, m. (-§; — ). 

tempest, Stiivm, m. (-e^ ; 

ten, }el)n. 

terrible, --ly, fiircfjlcvlicl). 

than, nl'3; a IS bnfj. 

thank, bniitcii \dai.)\ no — 
you, id) banfc (Jljucit). 

that, demoHstr. adj., bicfcr, 
biefc, bicfco; jciici-, jcitc, 
jeneS; rel. proit., bcv, 
bic, bnS; inclrfjcr, luchtic, 
nH'[i[)C6; deiHonsfr. pron., 
ber, bic, bac; conj., bafj. 

the, bci", bic, baS; adv.,\t, 
bcfto; 11 in fo. 

their, iOr, il)vc, if)v. 

them {acc>,, fie ; {dat!) if)neit. 

then, baiin; since — , feits 

there, bn ; — is, — are, eS ift, 
eS fiiib; C'j nicDt, 220. 

therefore, biinim. 

thereupon, liarauf. 

they, fic, C'J ; {hide/.), man. 

thief, Sled, m. (-eS; -c). 

thin, bitnn. 

think, bcnft'n, 99, 2; — of, 
benfen, gen. or an -f- ace. ; 
(believe), glaiiDen; I should 

' —so, t^ foKte eS tnelnen; 
— highly of, esteem, etc., 

uiel (patten (188) oon. 
third, bvittc. 
thirst, Imrft, ;«. (-eS). 
thirsty, bnvftig ; to be — , 

2;urft Oabcn. 
thirty, bvciSii]. 
j this, adj. and pron., btefer, 
I bicfe, bicjco. 
■ those, biejcniijcn; bic; jene. 

though, obilcid). 
I thousand, tauienb ; subst., 
I 2:aiifciib, «. (-cS; -e). 
\ three, brci. 

I through, bnrd), ace. ; 34. 
I throw, vocrfcn, 159 ; fdnneis 
fecn, 118; — away, roei]; 
thunder-storm, Wciuittcr, n. 

(-« ; -). 

Thursday, ^onncrStag, m. 
(-co; -c). 

tie, Oinbcn, 144. 

till, bio, 34. 

time, ^cit, /. (-en); (occa- 
sion), Hial, «. (-c3; -c); 
what — is it? lotc oicl Ui)v 
ift C'J ? for the third — , 
5nm bvittcn SJiale; at tha 
right — , vcd;t}citi!i ; at th'- 
same — , ju gleidjer 3eit. 

tired, miibc. 

title, Sitcl, VI. (-5 ; — ). 

to, 233, JU {\ 46); {with 
names cf places) nad) {dat.\ 
46); an, anr, in {ace. ; 65, 
233> 2); — tbc concert, inS 
Jtonjcrt; {before inf.) jn, 
273-274 ; {of purpose) um 
jn, 273. 

to-day, Ocute. 

to-morrow, inoigen ; — mor- 
ning, niorgcu friif). 

too, jn; (also), flud;. 

top, Gipfcl, >«. (-'3; — ). 

tortoir.e, '2cl)il*)frotc, f. 

towards, gegeit {ace. ; 34). 

town, etabt,/(*e); --hall, 
SRntfiaue, «. (-e5; ^er). 

tragedy, Jvancrfpict, n. (-e§; 
-c); Xrag(3bie,/.(-n). 

train (on r. railway), 3ug, m. 
(-cS; ^'c); Boston — , ber 
3ng Don (nadi) 3Jofton. 

translate, iiberfcj'en. 

transparent, bnrd)'fic^tig. 

travel, veifen (Onben, fein). 

traveller, iReifenbc, adj. 

treasure, 'hi.)^%, m. (-e§; ^e). 

treaty, iBevtrag, m. (-c§ ; 

tree, SSaum, tn. (-cS; ^c) ; 

little — , 53aiimd)en, «. (-S; 

triumph, JriumpI)', ni. (-e^; 

true, roa()r ; (faithful), treii 

trunk (of a tree), SBoum* 

flamni, ;«. (-cS; "e). 
trust, v., traucn {dat.). 
truth, ^Ji?al)v!)cit, / (-en). 
try, vcrfudien. 
Tucsdav, 3ien§tag, >«. (-eg; 

two, siuei; bcibo; — at a 

time, je jioci ; — and a 

half, britteljalb. 


umbrella, Sncgenfcftivm, m. 

(-co; -c). 
uncle, Cf)cim, >«■ (-c§ ; -e); 

Cnfcl, m. (-'3; — ). 
under, nntcv {dat. or aec. ; 

understand, Dcgreifen, ii^' ; 

ocvftcljen, 186; to mak • 

one's self understood, fi i 

ticrftiinblid) inad;cn. 
undertaking, UnterncI/nTcii, 

«. (-0). 

unfortunate, ungriicfrid);—ly.. 

ur.'iindered, iingcl)inbert. 



United States (The), bie i8er» 

ciitiiiti'n Staotcii. 
university, Uiitoerfitat', f. 

until, conj., big (bafe). 
untruth, Unn)af)r()eit,/(-eii). 
upon, auf {dat. or ace. ; 65); 
upper, ober. 
up -stairs, obeii, ;tac^ oben, 

use ; of no — , uit'iiii^. 
useful, nil^ltd); the — , bn§ 

utmost, tnoglidjft. 


vainly, in vain, Der^eblic^; 

valley, %\)oX, «. (-e§; "ev). 
venture, v., roageii. 
verse, aSevg, >«. (-eg; -e). 
very, fe^r; red^t; — much, 

vex, argent ; be — ed (at), ftc^ 

argent (ilbcr + ace). 
victory, eieg, tn. (-e^; -e). 
vUlage, 3)orf, «. (-e3; ^ev). 
vinegar, G)|i(i, w. (-«; -e). 
violet, 3?cilcf)eii, «. (-3; — ). 
virtue, 2ngei:b, /. (-cii). 
visit, 58cfiid^, tn. (-eS; -e); 

to be on a — at any one's, 


v., befu($cn; ciiien S13efud^ 

nbftatti'it, marf;ett (dat. 0/ 

visitor; to have — s, ^Befud^ 

voice, Stimme, y: (-ti). 
voyage, 9ieife,/ (-n), Sec= 

reife, / (-n). 


wait for, itarten auf (ace.,. 
waiter, ^eUuer, m. (-§; — ). 
Walk, subst., Spajiei-gaiig, 
w. (-c« ; "e) ; take a — , 

fpajieren geljeit, 188. 

walk, v., gci)en, tSg ; fpn» 

liereit ge{)en. 
walking (aci of), ©e{)eii, n. 

(-0); Spa^ierengeben, «. 

want, roiinfrf)cn; iuoUen(i96). 
wanting; to be — fchlen 

(dat.), mangeln(^rt^). 
war, flricg, m. (-co; -e). 
warm, — ly, iparm (-er). 
warning, SBavmiiig, / (-ea). 
waste, uerfcfiipcnbcn. 
watch, suhst., \\{)x,/. (-eit) ; 

SafdjcniiOr, /. (-en); 7,,, 

watchful, roadE)fam. 
watch-key, Ut)rfc£)IUffeI, m. 

(-S; -). 

water, aBaffer, «. (-§; — ). 

waver, fd)iuaitten. 
way, SBeg, vi. (-eg ; -e) ; 
(manner), ffieife, /. (-1,); 
in this — , auf biefe SHJeife. 
we, u>ir. 
weak (in), fdiiuac^ (an + 

wear, v. intr. (of clothes), fic^ 

ttageu, 186. 
weather, SSctter, «. (-§) ; in 

fine — , bei fd)ouem Sffict* 
Wednesday, SDHtttood;, m. 

week, SffiodK, / (-n) ; ac^t 

2^afle; for a — past, feit 

ac^t 2:ngeu. 
weigh, hitr., luiegeit, 131. 
welcome, luilltom'men. 
well, pred. adj., tooE)l, gcs 

fuub; adv., gut; as —as, 

foiuol;! aV-i; — known, be. 

West, 'IBe(l(cn), m. (-§). 
wet, I'.aft C'cr). 
what, iiiterrog. prou., n)a§? 

inierrog. adj., tuelc^er, 

uieKi;i', iiiclctjc'jj _. j-j^^i 

of,u3a§ filr(ein, eine, etii); 
rel. pron. (= that which), 

^^^\ ■- a! tnelc^! — b 

that in German ? tpte ^ei§t 

bo^auf Tcutfc^? 
when, interrog., roann? )U 

lueldjer 3eit ? conj., roenn; 

ala, 58. 
where, too, 
whether, ob. 
which, interrog. adj., xotlm 

c^cr, n)cld)e, racIc^eS; r<r/, 

rfieS; ber, bie, bo3; that 

— , tt)a§. 
while, whilst, mdfjrenb (baft), 

whistle, pfeifen, 118. 
white, rocift. 
who, interrog., toer ? r^/. 

d)eQ; ber, bie, ba§; he—, 

the one — , mer. 
whole, ganj; the — of, 

whom, roen (ace.), roetn 

whose, interrog., loeffen? 

ret., beffeu, >«. «. j/>/_^. ; 

beven, /. si^ig. ; //. 
why, roarum? rocSEjalb? 
wide, breit. 
will, luoUen, 196-202. 
William, aBilbfltn, m. (-8). 
wilHng; to be — , rooUen," 


wind, 2Binb, m. (-e9; -e). 

wind up, aufjictjen, 131. 

window, Senfter, «. (-3; _). 

windy, luiubig. 

wine, SBeiu, m. (-e3; -e), 

wing, iJIiigel, tn. (-9 ; _). 

winter, Sffiinter, tn. (-§; — ). 

wise, luetfe ; t(ug (-'er). 

wish (for), loUnfd^en. 

with, 234, mit (dat. ; 46) ; M 

I (dat.; 46). 

, without, obue (ace. : i^V 
i . . . ■ ■ "■""■ 

witty, iut(}ig. 

I wolf, iffiolf, m. (-e3 ; «e). 

woman, grau, / (-en). 

woiiHcr, Wimber, «. (-«; —); 

1 — , e4 luunbert mic^, ic^ 

luunbcie mtd^ ; — of the 

world, aBeltroiiitber, «. (-9 ; 

wood, fflatb, m. (-c^ ; "er). 
word, Sort, «. (-e^; -e or 

"er); to send — , 5eiittc^j 

work (Iabour),3libcit,/. (-en); 

(thing done), 2Beif, «. (-c?. ; 

-e); v., arbeiten. 
world, 2Bert,y: (-en); in the 

— , auf bcr SBelt. 
worth, «^'., toert; —while, 

wound, v., »ertpunben. 


wriiiR, riitr^cit, 144. 

write (to), fcf)reibcii (120; 

dat. or <x\\-\. ucc. offers.). 
writing (act of), Sd)rei(ieit, «. 

wrong ; to be (in the) — , Ult* 

redtt ^nbcii. 


yard (measure), (J«c,/ (-u). 

year, ^jaljr, «. (-e«;-e). 

yellow, gelb. 

yes, ja. 

yesterday, ge'fterii; — 's, oon 

flefteni, geftvig. 
yet, uoc^; not — , noc^ nic^t. 
yonder, bort. 


you, 38, 40, \\)x\ ®ie; bu; 

end); ©ie; bid), 
young, junn; — man, ^iings 

linji, ;«. (C'j ; -e). 
your, 40, 4 !, oner, enre, euer; 

bein, bcine, bein ; Jj^r, 

Stive, 3^r. 
yours, bcr, bie, ba§ enre, en» 

riiic; b?r, bie, ba3 ^^re, 

S^rige ; bcr, bie, ha^S beine, 

beinige ; enrcr ; betner ; 

youth (time of), ^ugenb, / ; 

(young man), SSiingling, nt 




V Tlie references are to thu s-.ctions and subsections, unless otherwise specified; 
N. = Note ; R. == Remark ; O. = Observation; p. = page. 

Abbreviations, p, 404, 

abcv, coni., 230. 

Ablaut, 105, R., 110. 

' About,' how rendered in 

GL-rm., 220. 
Absolute accusative, 256; ab- 
solute supeilative, of aci;-., 
127,2; ofadvs.,l«0,4 6. 
Abstract sulists., take article, 
44, 1 (/.); pluralof, (JO, 3; 
App. H. 
Accentuation, p. 10; in com- 
pound verbs, 117,3, 204, 
?05, 3, 20s, 20», 212; of 
compound adv. prefixes, 
200,2, N. r. 
Accusative, use (jf, S, 252- 
265; place of, 2{)0, 4; af- 
ter preps., iU, 60, 05, 
223, 1'.), R. 2; expresses 
time, 184,1 ; measure, 185, 
4 ; after reflexive verbs, 
210; after inipers. verbs, 
217, 2, (.0,219, 220; after 
adjs., replacing gen., 244, 
R. 1, 2; double ace., 253, 
after intrans. verbs, 254; 
cognate ace, 254, 1; ad- 
verbial ace, 265; absolute 
ace, 265, 2; before advs. 
of direction, 224, 1. 
Address, modes of, 40, 43, 

47. I 

Adjects, place of, 200, 1, , 

297, R. 1. i 

Adjectives, when speK witii a | 

capital, pp. II, 12; predi- j 

cative, not declined, 14, 
100; place of, 18, 20,0 
djcl. ( f, 101; stronc, 102, 
weak, 115, mixed, 110, la- 
bk", 121, general r marks, 
122; ihicj of, 290, (/'), 
N. 2, 298, 1, 299; in- 
declinable in =or, 122, 0; 
as advs., 122, 8; of colour, 
122, 3; in -.d, -,at, =er, 
122, (J ; a succession of, 
122, •") ; after pers. prons., 
122, 1(»; after iudcf. ] rons. 
and numerals, 122, 11, 12; 
after !iH'ld)C, 122,13; us.d 
as substs., 122, 2; compa- 
rison of, 126-127; wiihout 
Umlaut, Api). I, ; incapa- 
ble of coir]pari;-,on, 101, 
N. ; adjs. u'-ed as attri- 
butes onlj', 100 ; as iTcdi- 
cates only, 101 ; as i^re- 
iixes to verbs, 200,4,212. 
governing gen. and aec, 
244; dative, 251; preps, 
291 ; possessive adjs., 43, 
44,G,(rz); iuterrot;;ative,S4- 
80 ; api:o itive , 290 
concord, 288; derivation, 
by suffixes, 313; by pre- 
fix:'s, 310 ; composition, 
Adverliial clauses, 300. 
.■\ Iverl.ial conjunctions, co- 
ordinalin-, 237 ; tln-ow the 
subject after the verb, R. 1. 

Adverbial expressions, place 

of, 45, 297. 
Adverbs, 187 ; place of, 46, 
297; formation, 582, (a), 
183, ((■}, 189; compari- 
son, 128, J 90 ; mimeral 
adverbs, 182, 183; idio- 
matic uses of certain ad- 
verbs, 195 ; advs. with an 
accusative, 224, 1 ; with 
preps., 224, 3, 4. 
sdiie, substs. in, gender. 89, 

2, W. 
.Agent, with passive, 112, 

R. 3. 
=(il, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 0. 
'all ' expressed bv c\ai\\, 170, 

1; 'at all,' 157. 
aKciit, conj., 230, 241, 1. 
nller, -c, -co, 109; aller= be- 
fore superlatives, 127, 1, 
N. ; filIO'5 of a number of 
persons or things, 102,2; 
before adjs., 122, 12. 
Alphabet, German, pp. i, 5, 

nl'j, conj., 239, 3 (6); after 
a comparative, 120, 1 ; dis- 
tinguished from luciiit and 
luiiiii;, 6S, 241, C, 8 ; 
■but.'Stl, 19; a(§ clause 
replaces Engl. part, of time, 
284, 1, (a) ; introducing 
nil. apposition, 289,6: with 
conviaintive clauses, 300, 
R. 1 



fltS ba%, after adjs. with ju, 

273, N. 
al§ Ob, a[3 roenn, 289, 3, (6), 

and R, 4. 
am, before a superl., 127, 1, 

(i), 128, 190, 3. 
on, prep., 05 ; expresses 
date, 184, 2, («); of loca- 
lity, 227, (a), 2, 232, (c), 
2, 233, (f), 2 ; of can<;e, 
with diseases, 231, , ; 
with names of battles, 231, 
(d), 2 ; after verbs and 
adjs., 244,245,1, 291,0, 
8, 9, 12. 
»an, foreign substs. in, vu- 

clension, 22, C. 
anber, ordinal numeral, 1(>6, 
1, N. ; anbtnieit'S, 238 ; 
anbertljaU', 183, (/>), R.2. 
angcfid)t§, 223, 20. 
anftatt, 223, 14 ; governing 
an infin. or ba^ clause, 270. 
'any,' how n iidercd in Ger- 
man, 2, 2, 157, ISO. 
Apposition, apjaositive sub- 
stantive, 289 ; participle, 
280, (/.), 281, R. 3; ad- 
jective or participle, 290; 
clauses, 304. 
«av, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 0. 
Article, not used before words 
in partitive .sense, 2,2; de- 
finite, declen;ion, 4; agree- 
ment, 6, 1 ; repetition of, 
5,2; use, 44; contraction 
with preps., 34, R., 40, 
R. 1, p. 83, O., 05, R.; 
with proper names, 44, 2, 
3, 73, 70, 2, 5, 78; for 
poss. adj., 44, 6. 
Article, indefinite, declen- 
sion, 9; use, 44, 4, 5. 
Aryan languages, 322, 2, 3. 
'as,' how rendered in Germ., 

162, 4, 241, S-11. 
Associatives, how formed, 
816, 2, (i). 



• afl, foreign substs. iu, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 

sat, foreign substs. in.declen- 
sion, 22, 2, 0. 

'at,' of time of day, 184,3, 

(<r); how rendered in Germ , 

227; after verbs, etc., 291, 

'at all"; see 'all.' 
Attributive adj., see Adjec- 

ti e. 

aiicl), adv., after rel. prons., 

96, (>, idiomatic use of, 

196, 9; c ,,j , 2.10, 237, 

R. 2. 238. 

auf, prep., 65; ith abs. 

superl. of .idvs., 190,G; of 

local,, >, 227. (a), 3, 230, 

(a), 232, ((•), 233, (r), 2 ; 

of future time, 229, (^), 

2; after adjs. ai.d verbs, 

245, 1,291,2, 7,10; after 

r '<:,\ive verbs, 215, l,(i). 

aitf Oiifi, 239, 3, (^■), 208, 3. 

an-i, prep., 40; of cause, 

229, (c). 
aiifjcn, adv., 189, 3; com- 

liariso:;, i;JO. 
niifjcr, ; rcp., 40. 
niif!Ci-;!a!&, 223, 3. 
(iiificrji, with absolute superl, 

127, 2, 190, 4 
Auxiliary is verb in com- 
pound tenses, 20, 32. 
Auxiliary verbs of mood, see 

' Modal Auxiliaries.' 
Auxiliary verbs of tense, 26, 
53; place of, with Modal 
Auxiliaries,199, 3 ; omitted 
in dependeiit clauses, 287. 

bnib, compprison of, 190; 
fialb . . . Dalt>, 238. 

«bar, .suflix of adjs., 313, 1. 

'be,' with p. part., how ren- 
dered in Germ., 112, R. 5. 

bes, insep. prefix, 85, R. 6, 
204; meaning of, 314, 1. 

6ei, prep,, 46; = 'with/ 


• about,' 22b, (rf) ; of time, 
227, (d), 3; idioms, 228, 
W, (6), 282, (rf); of bat- 
tics, 231, (</), ,. 
('cibe, bcibi'-S, 105, 3. 

• beifjcu Model, 118. 
i bcuor, 241, 13, 14. 

Oiniicii, 51, 1. 

6i«, prep., 34, 60,4; conj., 

239, 3, (i). 
blcibcn Model, 120. 
SBIiimo Model, 50. 
'both . . . and,' 238. 
' l)ut,' rendered by nl6, 241, 

'by,' with passive, 112, R. 

3 ; ])uw rendered in Germ., 


Capitals, use of, p. n; 122, 

2, 9, N., 11, O. 
Calling, verbs of, 242, 3, 

253; with p. part., 281, 6. 
Cardinal numerals, 103,106; 

gender as substs., 80, 2, 

(c), 105, 10. 
Cases, use of, 3 ; syntax of, 

242-256 ; place of, 296. 
Cause, adverbial expressions 

of, 284, 1, (i,), 300, R. 2 ; 

their place in a sentence, 

45, Rule 5. 

• cl}cit, sulists. in, declension, 
10, 17; .render, 89, 3, («) ; suffix, 312, 2; pro- 
duces Umlaut, 326, R. 2 

Choosing, verbs of, 242, 8, 
N., 253., conditional, 59, 267, 
293, (a), 3; proportional, 
see ' Comparative clauses,' 
below; dependent, preced- 
ing principal, 298, (i), R. 
4, 294, (i), R. 2, 806; 
with benn, 241. 18, 298, 
(c), R. '; ; incomplete or 
elliptical, 299 ; order of 
clauses, 802-806; apposU 



live, 804; relative, 805; 
subjective, objective, ad- 
verbial, 806. 
Cognate accusative, 264, 1. 
Collectives, declension of 
those with prefix 01f=, 16, 
17,2; gender, 89, 3, {<i); 
concord of with verb, 285, 
R. 4; formation, 815, 2, 
Colour, adjs. of, used as 

stibsts., 122, 3. 
Coninin, before dependent 
sentences, 98, 3, X., 801, 
N. 5 ; before infin. clauses, 
273, R. 2. 
Conij^arative degree, 125, 
126; declension of, 126, 5. 
Comparative, witli 
befto, etc., 120, 4, 2»3„ 
{i), R. 4, N. 3 ; 806, R. 4 
and N. 
Comparison, of adjs., 125- 
130; of equality, 126, .'!, 
241, 8; irregular, 12»; de- 
fective, 130 ; of advs., 
128, 190 ; adjs. inc:ipahle 
of, 161, N. 
Compass, points of, ji. 104, 

top; gender, 80, 1, (tj. 
Complex sentences, 802- 

Composition of words, 818- 
821; of numerals, 165, 
5-7, 182, 188; of Verbs, 
208-213; of substs.,319; 
of adjs., 320 ; of advs., 
Compounds, accentuation of, 
p. 1 1 ; how formed, 818- 
321 ; primary and secon- 
dary, 819, 1, N. ,,2; spu- 
rious, 819, 2, N. 
Compound substantives, of 
irregular declension, 68 ; 
of irregular gender, 90, 4, 
App. I., p. 388 ; how 
formed, 819. 
Compound tenses, formation, 

25, 108 ; ron-^tnirti.Mi, £6, 

Compound sentences, 302. 
Compound verbs, 203-213, 
separable, 109, 117, 205- 
207; inseparable, 35, R. 
«, 100, 204; compounded 
with substs., 206, 3; with 
adjs., 200, 4, 212; sepa- 
rable and insei>aral)li-, 208; 
with double prefixes, 207, 
213;, with miC., 209; with 
l)cr« and ()iiu, 210 ; from 
compound substs., 211. 
Concord, of Subject and 
Verb, 285 ; other concords, 
Condilir.nal, 59, 239, 
R. 1, 1!, 4, 267, 293, {a), 
3, (/'), R. 4, N. I. 2; ellip- 
tical, 268, 2, X.,293,(,), 
R. 2 ; use of fo in, 69, N. ; 
293, [h), R. 4, N. 2. 
CnM'Jitionnl conjunctions, 59, 

239, R. 1, 2, 4. 
( 'onditionnl mood, formation 
of tenses of, 25, 2, 3; 
.shorter forms, 111, 112, 
R. 1 ; in Modal Auxilia- 
ries, 199, 4 ; use, 263, 267. 
Conjugation of verbs; siv 
"Verbs," "Modal Auxili- 

Conjunctions, 235-241 ; co- | 
oniuiating, proper, 236; | 
not counted, 293, (,M T^, I 
2; adverbial, 237, -J(13, j 
{,/'), R. 2 ; correlativ.^, 238 ; 
place of, 298, 3. 

Conjunctive Mood, .see 
" Subjunctive." 

Consiilering, verbs of, 242, 
3, 253. 

Consonants, pronunciation, 
P- 9» top; digraphs and 
tri^raphs, pp. 5, 8, ,^; 
doubling of, in verbs, 118, 
R. 1,123, R. 1, t«7, A.^ 
R. 2, 181,0.6. 

Construction of Sfntenwii, 
292-806; i)rincii ai, 20. 
26, 293, (/.), 294, {b), 
295, 2, 297, R. 1, 2; de, 
pendent, 82, 85, 298, (t), 
294, (0,295, 2, 297, R. 2, 
306; direct interrog., 28, 
!J»3, (,0,i.294,(<,),295, 
2, .'100; indirect statements, 
87, 293, (r),R.l; indirect 
qn.'stions, 88 ; relative 
sentences, 98, 306 ; im- 
perative, 293, {a), 2 ; of 
clauses with bcim, 298, 
(c), R. 4; of incomplete 
clauses, 299; general re- 
marks, 301 ; compound and 
complex, 302, 803; see 
also "Clauses," "Condi- 
tional clauses." 
< ontracted form of strong de- 
clension, 70, R. A. 
Contraction of def. art. and 
pri ps., 34, 1^, 46, K. 1, 
p. S,, O., 65, R. 
Co;)i-dinating Conjunctions, 
I n-p'-r, 236, adverbial, 
237, correlative, 238. 
Copula, 292 ; place of, 293, 

301, 1. 
tcrrelative prons., 43, R. 3, 
4; conjunctions, 238; clau- 
ses, 241. 9, 298, f/), R. 4, 

Countries, names of, gender, 
80, 3, {c) ; see "Places, 
names of." 

-b, suffix of substs., 812, 1. 

ba, adv., with prep, annexed, 
38, R. 5,142; conj., 289, 
3, {F) ; various uses of, 
241, 12, id), 20; whh 
preps., representing an in- 
fin. or bn& clause, 277; re- 
places Engl. part, of time 
and cause, 884. 

bamit, conj., expresses pur- 
pose, 289, 3, (b), 268, 3. 

»a« Wow the verb fein, J 41 
of a number of person" iv 
things, 162, 2. 
bag, conj., omitted, 81, 3, 
241,3, 13, 266,R. 2;use, 
2«9, (/;), 241, 3; express 
ing purpose, 268, 3. 
bag clauses governed b> 
preps., 224,2, (a); for in- 
fin., 272, R. 1, 235, 276, 
R. 2, 277. 
Date, how expressed, 18-(-, 

2, («). 
Dative, use of, 8, 248; placr 
of, 296, 4; ethical dat,, 
249 ;dat. after verbs, 250; 
after adjs., 251 ; after 
preps., 46, ol, 65, 2j?.> ; 
after reflexive verbs, 216, 
2 ; after impersonal vevbs, 
217, 2, (i), 219, If aficr 
fein and tucvbett, 2A7, 2, 
(c); after inti.TJections, 240, 
4, {i). 
i)am.i)ten, see beudjteii, biiiu 

»be, subst. suffix, Slil, 1. 
Declension ; see " Substan- 
tives," "A^ijectives," "Pro- 
nouns," "^lamemls." 
Definite Article; see "Arti- 
Degrees of compajison ; see 

bcm after \dn, 250, (e), 

268, G. 
Demonstrative proufiuns; see 

" Pronouns " 
benn, conj., 2«16; adv. conj., 
(c), R. 4. 
bennod;, ad* . conj , 237. 
Dependent seiiteitces ; see 
" Construction,'' " .Sen- 
Dependert iu?%5i.ons ; see 
" (:onstrn>»ijn," " Sen- 
tences," "Ir<iject ques- 


bet, bte, ba3; see "Article, 

definite"; demonst. pron , 
182, 188, 186, 2, 140, 1, 

(a), id), 142, 143, 1, 2; 

after roer, 162; relative 
proii., declension, 98 ; use, 
95, 140, 2 ; replaced by wo 
before preps., 95, 2 ; used 
for luor, 806, R. 3, N. 
bcrii(cid)cn, rel. pron., 97; 
(Ifiiionstr. pron., 182, 
139, 2. 
be ten, gen. pi. of demonstr. 
pron., when used, 188, 
2, N. 

Derivation, 807-317; of nu- 
m.'rals, 182, 188;ofadvs., 
189; see also "Adjective," 

berjcniijc, 132, 135, 140, 
1, (^). 

bero, 49. 

ber)cl('(iil)e, 132, 136; re- 
places poss. adjs. and pers. 
prons., 143, 2-4. 

bc'5n[eid}cn, rd. pron., 97; 
demonst. pron., 139, 1; 
adv., 139, 1, N. 

beffon, used for gen. of rods 
dm-, 95, 1, (a); precedes 
its case, 95, 3; of neut. 
pers. pron., 143, 1 ; for 
poss. adj., 143, 2. 

be))cnun.vad)tot, adv. conj., 
237, 241, 21. 

befto, 126, 4, 237, 241, 2, 
293, (/.i, R. 4, N. 3. 

bend) ten, 99, 2. 

biefer Model, 6. 

biefer, declension, 6; use, 
132, 134, 140, 1,(^), 141: 
replaces pers. prons. ,143, 3. 

bieoiett(o), 223, 12, R. 

Digraphs, consonantal, pp. 4, 
8, 14. 

Diminutives, gender, 89, 3, 
(a); formation, 312, 2; 
origin, 826, R. 2, (c). I 

Diphthongs, pp. 4, 6, 14. 1 


Direct abjecte, claaM or neut 
pron. as, 250, R. 2 ; infin. 
as, 272, R. 2; see also 
"Accusative," "Cases," 
" Object." 

Direct questions; see also 
" Questions," " Interroga- 
tive Sentences." 

Direction, expressed by f;in; 
and bev= before verb-, 
210; with an accusative, 

224. 1. 

Distance, measure of, 185, 4. 

bod), adv., idiomatic use,196, 
8; adv. conj., throws subj. 
after verb, 287, R. .% 298, 
(A), R. 3 ; in questions, 

300.2, N. I. 

3)orf Model, 36, 37 ; origin 
of Umlaut in, 326, R.2,(<5). 
Double Accusative, 253. 

Gender, 91 ; App. J. 
" Plurals, 64; App. G.* 
" Prefixes, 207, 210, 

" Vowels, pp. 4, 6, 14; 
do not take Um- 
laut, p. 12. 
brei, declension, 165, 2. 
biinten, 99, 2. 

burd;, prep., 34; prefix, 208. 
biivfcn, conjugation of, 196- 
199; use, 200,1. 

e, in conjugation of verbs, 
81, R. 1, 85, R. 2-4, 107, 
R. 1 ; in imperative, etc., 
167, B., R. .3, 181, O. 4; 
in subjunctive, 81, R. 2, 
107, O. 3; in dat. of. 
substs., 21, (a), O. 4, 46, 
R. 2; in adjs., 102, R, 
2, 122, 6, 125, R. 5, 6, 
126, 0; in poss. adjs., 48, . 
R. 2; in poss. prons., 119, 
M Obs., (c), N. i; re- 
presents Umlaut of a, 826, 
R. 3. 

sc, adjs. in, declension, 102, 



R. S ; oompsrliton, IIS, 
R. 6, I 

»e, substs. in, dccletihion, Bl, , 
«7, 1, 61; gender, 8», •.', ^ 
(<.); bubst. suffix, «1'2, I I 

ebtn, 105, '2. 

ebcnfo, 287,211, 8, 

tl)C, coiij., 241, 13, 14; com- 
parison, 180. 

sei, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 
(a); subst. sulfix, 812, 5. 

eiii, see "Article, Indefi- 

ein, numeral, 168, 165, I ; 
with def. art., 165, 1, (c), 

etiinnbiT, 42, 2. f'Tid \. 

eiticv, indef. pron., 145, 150; 
cardinal numeral, 163, 
166, 1, (/')• 

eMievlei, 182, (c), N. 

eiiierfeito, 288. 

ciitii]C, oiiii.ic'j, ft[id)c, ct(i= 
cf)e§, indef. pron., 145, 
152; numeral, 168, 173, 
180; buf<.rendjs.,122, 12. 

ei)uiu-,l, 182, (iz), N. 2, 3. 

cinS in counting, 165, 1, (</). 

cinft, 182, (a), N. 2; 187, 

1, w. 

»c[, substs. in, declension, 
16, 17 ; fcnis. in, 57, R. 
2; gender, 89, 1, (n), App. 
I-; adjs. in, declension, 
122, 6; comparison, 125, 
R. 6; subst. suffix, 312, 6. 

»el, verb-stems in, drop c, 35, 
R. 4. 

scKf)eii, diminutive suffix, 
312, 2, N. 2. 

Elliptical constructiors, 59, 
239, R. 2, 4, 266, N. 4, 
267, C, N., 268, 2, N., 
269, R. 6, 278, 293, (/'). 
R. 4, N. 2, 299. 

»elii, verbs in, conjugation, 
35, R.4; formation, 311,1. 

sent, substs. in, declension, 
10, 17, 69, 1 ; gender, 89, 
1, («). 


•my., hwp. prefix, U, F 
e, 204 i /ncaning, 814,2. 

»«lt, 5'ibsts. in, declension, 
16,17; gender, 89, 1, (a), 
App. I.; adjs. in, declen- 
sion, 122,0; comparison, 

125, R. ; hut used as 
predicates, 160; advs. in, 
189, 3; subst. suftix, 81g, 
7; adj.suffix, 818, 2. 

»eii for sC'3 in gen. sing, of 
aoljs., 102. R. 1. 

seiiD, sulists. in, gender, H9, 
2, (6); subst. suffix, 312, 

Endings of weak verbs in 
simple tenses, 35 ; of strong 
do., 107 ; of substs., 70; 
of adjs., 121. 

Knt;lisli, its relations to Ger- 
man, 322 

EnlarL;ed f oi m of strong de- 
cbnsion, 70, 4. 

iCtlO, tcrnnnntion of advs., 
1S3,(6-},1S9, I,(r/j,190,7. 

cut:, insep. p-efix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 314, 2. 

cnts]Ciiat, 51, 2. 

cntlanii, 223, W, R. 2. 

OMtiiH'bov. ., cbr, 238,285, 
R. 6, N. I. 

=en,5, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

cr--, insep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 314. 3. 

= cr, substs. in, declension; 
16,17; fems. in,57, R. 2, 
gender, 89, l,(rt),Aiip. I ; 
adjs. in, declensioii, 122, 
6; comparison, 125, R. 0, 

126, N. ; subst. suffix, 
312, 8. 

scv, verb-stems in, drop e, 
35, R. 4. 

scr, Plural ending, 36; ori- 
gin, 320, R. 2, ^(^). 

>crci, subst. sufiix, 312, 5, 

N. 2. 

»ern, Adjs. in, not used a.i 

prtdlcttM, 160; ad). suT- 
fix, 818, 2. 

»cni, Verbs in, conjugation, 
Sfi, R 4; formation, 811,2. 

nfl, adv., idiomatic use, 
105, 4. 

cvftciiS, adv., distill ^'uished 
from r-iftft, 196, . N. 

G;j=, subst. prefix, i. '5, 1. 

C^, neut. pron., usi -. uf, 80; 
omission of, 113, 2, N. j 
for a number of persons or 
things, 162, 2 ; as subject 
of impersonal verbs, 217, 
220, 2, R. 2, N.; afte. 
adjs. governing gen., 24*. 
R. 1; representing a fol- 
lowing infill., 272, R. 2. 

e« ijiebt, e3 ift, etc., 220. 

efici- iModel, 181. 

Ethical dative, 249. 

ctlidic ; -co, see cinii]e. 

ctum, 187, III., 226, (c). 

etnufj, indef. pron., 146, 
149; indef. minieral, 108, 
177 ; before adjs., 122, 11. 

' even,' rendered bv tiil>fl, 42, 
3, R. 

' ever,' after rel. prons. , 96, 6. 

Exclamatory clauses, 269, 
R. 6, 293, (i), R. 3, 300, 


= fact), sfaftis], form multipli- 
cative numerals, 182, (/'). 
faUcn Model, 188. 
faII3, subord. conj., 239,3, 

sftiltifl; see sfacf). 
Factitive accusative, 258. 
Factitive predicate, 25^, 

254, 3. 
Family names, 74, 76,4,6. 
fcd)ten Model, 124. 
'few,' how rendered in Ger., 

145, 152, 168, 173, 175. 
■fui',' how rei.u led iii Ger., 

229; after verbs, substs. 

and adjs., 291, 2-4. 



Foreign substs., accentua- 
tion, p. u), bottom; d;- 
clensioii, 22, fl, 37, 4, 
App. D.,. 57, 5, 08,3,;.; 
gender, 8f), 2, (.;. 

f>actioiial nin '>er.s, 188, (a), 

freilicl), 187, IV. ; docs not 
count as ,1 member . s a 
sentence, 293, (. i R. 2, 

Frequentative";, how formed, 
31.1,2, (c). 

fricrcii Modi.1, l.'JI. 

'from,' after verb';, 201, '/. 

fiir, prep., 84; uot usi;d of 
purpose, 22(>, {a) \ :.iter 
verbs of couiidcrin'j-. 25i{. 

Future T?nse, Iiow I ,rned, 
23,2, use, 201; reiilacud 
! • present, 2o7, 5. | 

Future-perfect I'cnse, how 
formed, £5, 3 ; uss, 2«-* ; . 
replaccdby perfect, 259, 4. ' 

gam, '• idef, numeral, 108. 

(jCs, prefix of p. irt., 30 ; I 
when omiited, 3."j. R. 5, ti, j 
109, 112, U. ?, ,:01; of 
verbs, 3.J, R. 0, 201 nil, 
4 ; with Sep. verbs, 1 ' 7. 2, | 
205,2; withmif;= 'ji) ; of ' 
substs., 815, 2; of adjs., 
316 : declension of substs. ! 
beginning with gcj, 16,17, 
2,80, 37. '■ gender, 89, 
3, {d). 

geiicn, prep., ,'A. 

gegcintt'cr, 51, 4. 

gef)eii vith infin., 271, {<.■). 

nemiif;, 51, 5. 

lien, 50, 2. 

Gender of substs., a ording 
to meaning, 80, and form, 
89; of compound substs., 

double gender, itl, App. 
J.; gene: ' remarks on, 

90 ; exceptional gender, 
App. I. 
Genitive, use .f, 3, 243; af- 
ter .-^djs., 24 1 ; after verbs, 
245; nch. !,!'!. f<f time 
and manner, 184, 2, {/>), 
189, 2, 246; of, lace, 240; 
after redexiv- verbs, -.'15, 
216; afti.-i Inper^, verh^, 
219, 2, (,/); interjcc- 
•ions, 240, J, (a): after 
preps., 222, 223 ; unin- 
flpcted a] [iositive geniiivc, 
289, 3, N. 2 ; iiositi. of 
i'l a Sentence, 296, 4-7. 

fieiiUii, indcf. num. and adv., 
108, 178 ; followed by 
inf., 273,3. 

uennan language, its rela- 
tions to l.nvlish, 32 'lis- 
torical sketcl), 322 .». 

Germanic lan;.Hia.e,es, 322. 
323; diagram of, p. 3;'. 

!H.'ni, comparison if, l':,0, !; 
idiiiin.itic usj of, 195, ;>. 1 

' 'lerunds, or Infin. in -ing, ' 
;. ' to be confoimded witl) 
pres. part., 277, R.3, 4,6 

Gerundive, 282. 

giaitl'Cit, infin. ,\ r, 275, 

(](ei..), prep,, 51, (">. [R ' 

=glcid;cn, 4s, «7, 139. 

Graf Model, 55. 

Grimm's Law, 325. 

grof;, comi),irison, 125, -k 

0i-unbfpvad!C, 322. ■ 

gut, comparison, 129; as 
adv., 195, ](), N.. -Mm, <i), i 
R. 2,N 

1), mute before coi 

after \owels and ai 

T, when rejected alter t, 

1'. 12. I 

l)alm\, conjugati -n, 24; use, ' 

25; with infin., 271, (/^), ! 

and R. 1, 27-:-,R.2; omis- j 
■ sion of in ■ ndent sen- I 

tencps,287,f . (.), R. 6. ' 

{ '^aft, suffix of adjs.,818, 3. 
l)(^"\ numeral, 183, (a), N. 

I)air(cii), balbiv, prep., 22l', 

223, 1. 
' naif,' !iow rendered in Gei., 

isn, („), N 2 ; (/.;., 1S4, ::, („;. 
icijjiii with infni., 271, (7). 
, 'A)t\t, substs. in, genuer, 89, 
■ 2, (,f); subst. suffix, 3x2, 0. 
! ()i'lfcii Model, 159. 

l)CV, prefix, 210. 
: Ilia-, 187, II., (rt); before 
preps., 142. 
High German, history of, 

'i:i, prct'x, 210. 
oiittcii, adv., 189, 3: com- 

pari oil, i;{0. 
OilitCf, prep., 65: sep. and 

insep. prefix, 208. 
lio.l), declension, 122, 7 ; 

comparison, 129. 
!)bcl)ft, with absolute superl., 

127,2, 190,4. 
'liDWever,' adv. coiij., how 

rendered in Germ., 241, 

Hours of the day, 184,3. 
.Oilllb Model, 21, [6). 
umbevt, 165, 8, 10, (c). 
11 i>li'n, its in com- 

potmds, 818,3, X.,a;ul4. 

i, prod'.K s Unil.i ■ 326. 
sid), substs. in, dtlcn-inn, 

22,2; gender, 89, 1, (.,,. 
id)t, subst. suffix, 812, 18; 

adj. suftl\, ;!13, 4 
= ic, foreign substs. •' : 

der, 89, 2, (e). 
iier, foreign substs. in, de- 
clension, 22, 6. 
stercii, foreign verbs in, talte 

no gCi in p. part., 35, R. 

5; VLib sun <, 311, 3. 
'if,' when rendered by od, 

241, 4. 



•ifl, 8ub«ts. in, declension, 
22,2; gnuler, 89,1,(0: 
adjs. In, not used as predi- 
cates, IflO; atlvs. in, super!, 
of, 100, 5; s'lffix of poss. 
prons., 110, (c:);8ubst. suf- 
fix, 812, 18; adj. suffix, 
813, :>; before =tcit, 812, 
10, N. ; after ,l)aft, 313, 
3, N. ; produces Umlaut, 
820, (/). 
30n->, 49. 
»if, foreign substs. in, pmi- 

dt-r, 80, .', (c). 
tmniov, adv., 187, I., (ci; 

after rel. prons., })«, a. 
Imperative Mood, true forms 
of, 31, R. 4; endings, in< verbs, 35 ; in strong, 
107 ; expressed by lafieii, 
200, 7, (</); replaced by 
subjunctive, 208, 1 ; use 
of, 2(>9. [190. 

Imperfect-Present Verbs, 
Imperfect Tense, formation, 
in weak verbs, 30 ; in 
strong, 104; endings, in 
weak verbs, 35 ; in strong, 
Imperfect lndic;itive, use, 
258; distinguiJied from 
Perfect, 259, 2, 3; replaced 
by present, 257, 3. 
Imperfect Subjunctive, fcjr 
conditional, 111, 203, 2, 
N.; in Iiypotlietical peri- 
ods, 2C7, 2; to express 
wish, 208, 2; to express 
possibility, 308, 5; origin 
of Umlaut in, 320, (^). 
Impersonal Verbs, 217 ; i on- 
jugation, 218; govern- 
ment, 219; 'there is,' 
etc., 220; impersonal use 
of passive voice, 113, 2. 
' in,' how rendered in Germ., 

230, 291. G, 7, 
in, prep., 05 ; rendered by 
•at,'227,(..f, 1, and4. 

»ln, substs. in, declension, 
67, R. 3; g.^nder, 80, 2, 
(a); subst. suffix, 812, 11; 
produces Umlaut, 826, 

Indefinite article, see "Arti- 
cle, Indcf." [ISO. 
Indefinite numerals, 108- 
Indefinite pronouns, 145- 


iittcin, iubord. conj., 23t< 

241, IG; replaces Eii^:l. 

participle, 284, 1, (,?), (/>). 

inbiflon, conj., 237, 239, 

Indicative mood, usr, 250; 
tenses of, 257-202; in in- 
direct statements, 200, R. 
3; in hypothetical periods, 
207, R. 5. 
Indirect statement, 87, 205; 
tense (if, 200; construction 
of, 293, (r), R, 1. 
Indirect or dependent cjues- 
tions, 88, 2«i3, (,); object- 
ive, with iiihn., 275, R. 4; 
use of Ob in, 277. R. 5. 
Indo-European or Iiido-Ger- 

manic languages, 322. 
Infinitive, [lice of, 20, 33, 
295, ;;, 299 ; endings, 35 ; 
for p. i;art. in Modal Auxi- 
liaries, etc., 199, 2; with 
passive sense after (affcii, 
200, 7, (<), N. ; for im- 
perative, 209, R. 5 ; as 
subst., 270; wiiliout \n, 
271; with 511, 272 ; of 
purpose, 273 ; aftersubsts., 
274; accusative with inf., 
not used in Germ., 275 ; in 
objective indirectquestions, 
275, R. 4; governed liy 
preps., 270, 277; infin. in 
-ing, or gerund, 237, R. 
3-6 ; ill elliptical construc- 
tions, 278: replaced by p. 
part., 281, R. fi, . T ; as 
part of predicate, 295. 

inc,' infinitive in, or gerund 
277, R. 3-C. 

>iiiil, substs. in, declension, 
22. 2; gender, 80, 1, («), 
subst. suflJi.v, 81J, 18. 
inmitteii, 223,21. 
tnnen, adv., 189,3; compa* 

rison, 180. 
iiiitcvOrtlt', 223, 4, and R. 
Inseparable prefixes, 86, R. 
«. 109, 203. 204, 207, 
209, 212, 213; meaning 
of, 314. 
Interjections, 240. 

Inversion, inverted sentence, 
»01,2. N. ,,2. 

IiUerrogntive and 
adjs., 81-80. 

Interrogative sentences, con- 
struction, direct, 23; 293, 
(a), I, 294, (a), 295, 2, 
300. 301, \. 2 ; ii, direct 
or dependent, 88, 275, R, 
4, 277, R. 5,293, (0. 

Intransitive verbs, used only 
iniijersonallyin the passive, 
113, 2; accusative after 

lioit, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (.■). 

=itcii, verbs in ; see siereit. 

ii-i)ciiD, 157. 

'\\d), adjs. in, not used as 
predicates, ](J0; adi. suf. 
fix, 313, <•,. 

Italics, not u.sed in (Jerm., 
p. I-'. 

'it,' when rendered by ct;, fie, 

j, produces Umlaut, 826. 
ja, idiomatic use, 196, II. 
jn, iaiUD(;l, not counted ar 

member of sent., 293, (i), 

R. 2, N. 
je, before cardinal inimerals. 

1G5, 9. 
je . . . b?fto, 120, 4, 289, 

3, {i), 298, ^d), R. 4, .i. i. 



lc(maU), adv., 187. !..(#). 
lebcr, declension, 6j Indef. 

pron., 145, 168 ; indef. 

numeral, 168,171; jebeS, 

of a number of persons or 

thi'igs, 102, 2. 
|ebert..aiui, 145, 147. 
iebod), 287. 
jebioeber; see jcber. 
iegltd)cr; we feber. 
jemanb, 145, 148. 
jencr, declension, 6 ; use, 

182, 184. 140,1, (c), 141, 

jeiifeU(o), 228, 13, and R. 
jctt, 187, 1., {b). 

Icin, declension, 8 ; indef. 

numeral, 1(18, 172. 
feiitcv, indet. pron., 145; 

used for niemanb, 151. 
• fcit, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, ((j); subst. suffi.x, 312, 

iCiim'ti, 196, R. 4, N. i 
flnabc Model, 54. 
fomint;n, with p. part., 281, 

R. Tj. 
fonneit, conjugation, 196- 

199 ; use, 200, 2, 202. 
frnft, prep., 228. 7. 

•I, forms fractions, 183, (a). 
Iciig^, 228, 18, andR. 1. 
Language, German, histori- 
cal sketch of, 322-326. 
LaiiL^uage-names from adjs. , 

122, R. 2. 
Languages, Indo-Gtrmanic, 

etc., 322, 2,3; Germanic, 

la'icu, its use, for passive 

voice, 114, (/'); as Modal 

Auxiliary, 200, 7. 
Iniit, 228, 8. j 

Sautucvidiicbunij, 825. 
sU'i, fiiriiis varialive nume- , 

rals, 182, {c). 
»lt\c, substs. in, declension, 

16, 17 ; gender, 89, 8, 
(rO; subst. suffix. 812, 3; 
produces Umlaut, 826, R. 

Letters, German, shape and 
' pronunciation of, see In- 
j troduction, pp. 1-/2. 

! leet, 130. 

.Icutc, plurals in, 68, 1. 
eticf), adjs. in, not used as 
predicates, 160; supcrl. of 
advs. in, 190, -5 ; suffix of 
advs., 189, 1,((^); of adjs., 
813, 8. 
(iebor, compar. of c^crn, 190; 
j use, 195, .'i. 
! sHiiil, substs. in, declension, 
22,2; gender, 89. \,{a); 
subst. suffix, 312, 12. 
»liiii\0, suffix of advs., 189, 
: 1. (^)- 
lotu'ii, paradigm of, 'active, 
31 ; reflexive, 41 ; passive, 

-m, substs. in, decleui-.ion, 
69; gender, 89,1, (,r). 

I'Jhlidt, irregular compounds 
of, 68, 2. 

-mn(, forms numeral advs., 
182, {a). 

■Dialer Model, 16, 17, App. 

man, indef. pron., for passive 
voir-, 114, {a); use, 145, 
IKJ ; r.i)laced by ciiicv, j 
150; "itli imperative, 269, 
R. 2. j 

maucl)cr, indef. pron., 145, '• 
154; indef. nuniernl, 168, I 
174 ; before adjs., 122, 12. \ 

'tuanit, substs. in, declen- I 
sion, 68, 1. 

Manner, advs. of, 189; 
their place in a sentence, 
45, Rule 0. 
Materials, names of, take 
art., 44, 1, (3); plural of, 
66, 'i. 

I 'may,' when expre«»ed by 
I bUrfcn, 200, .1, {!,), N. 
i 'meanwhile,' how rendered 
I in Germ., 241, l.j. 
; Measure, expressions of, 
j 185; advs. of, 187, in. 
I nuijr, when used in comi)ari- 
I son of adjs., 126, 2, 161, 
I N. ; adv. of quantity, 129, 
N. I ; indef. numeral, 168, 
I nti'hrcif, -c«(, indef. pron., 
I 145, 152: indef. numeral, 
168, 176 ; before adjs., 
niciii Model, 8. 
Middle High {}erman,824,2. 
aiiillioil, declension, 165, 10, 

Minutes of the hour, 184, Z, 

\n\\\-., verb-prefix, 204, 209, 
814, 5; subst. prefix, 
315. 3. 

mit, 40 ; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1, {a). 

mutcl, comparison, 130. 

tiiitti'Ift, see ocrmituift. 

Mixed declension, of substs., 
60-03, 70; of adjs., 116, 
121, II L 

-Modal auxiliaries, 196-202; 
peculiar forms, 190, R. 1- 
3; paradigms, 198; fur. 
ther peculiarities, 1{,() ; idi- 
omatic use, 200-202. 

Modern High German, 324,3. 

iNloditication of vowels ; see 

mbi]iii, conjugation, 190- 
199; use, 200,3,202. 

MonosylLibleb, declension, 
22, 1, 3, ;,, App. B., C, 
E., 37; gender, 89, 1, (rt). 

Month, day of, how ex- 
pressed, 106, 3. 

Months, names of, p. 104, 
top; gender, 80, 1, (3). 

Moods of the verb, then usc, 



9M-21S, see also "Con- 
ditional," '* Indicative," 

'most,' with absolute super- 
lative, 127,2. 

Motion, neuter verbs i>{, con- 
jugated wiih feiit, 53, (i). 

miificit, conjugation, 196- 
109; use, 200, 4, 202. 

^hit, fLin. compounds of, 
App. I, p. 3SS; 511 SKute 
fein, lucr.on, 250, (e). 

Mutes, progression or shift- 
ing of, 325. 

nttcf), prep., 4«, 184, ;), (/;), 
233, (,), . ; after adjs., 
244 J after verbs, etc., 291 , 
3; after reflexive verbs 
215. 1, («). 
9Jnc(;luiv Model, 62, 63. 
nacl;bem, subord. conj. clause 
with, replaces Engl. perf. 
part., 284, R. 1. 
«acl;ft, 51, 7. 
itttOe, compari.son, 129. 
Slnntc Model, 60. 61. 
Names, see "Materials," 
" Persons," " Places," 
"Proper Names." 
Jiamlidic, ber, 132, 137. 
nefcen, prep., 65. 
•ttbft, 51,8. 

neniicn, infni. with, 271, i,</). 
Neuter verbs conjugated witli 

feiii, 53. 
New High German, 324, 3. 
liiclit, place of, 12. 
Md)t iiur . . . fonbent nucD 

iiif(}t )ouiol)l . . . nici^ 238. 
r>icf)tg, indef. pron., 145, 
149 ; before adj.s., 122, 11. 
iiicf}t5boftouieniger, ciionl. 

adv. conj., 237. 
nid)ti roeniflcv al§, 241 lo 

nib, obsolete adv., compari- 
son, 180, 

iiu(miii.:,), 187, !.,(*). 

iiicfir, 130. 

iticmanb, 145, 148; re- 
placed by tcincr, 151, 1. 

iiimmer, 187, L,(c). 

=niS, substs. in, declension, 
22,4; gender, 89,2, (r/), 
•", (c); subst. suffix, 312, 
13; produce-' Umlaut, 826. 

itod), adv., idiomatic use, 193, 
7; conj., 237, 238. 

Nominative, use of, 3, 242. 

Niniiber, in .Substs., 3; cx- 
r-res.sions of, 185. 

Numerals, cardinal, Uttl, 
105; ordinal, 164, 166 ;' 
Kiiman, Ikav rendered in I 
Germ., 166.2, N. ; indefi- 
nite, 168-180 ; derivative, I 
182, 1'''8 ; nndtiplicative, 
182, (d); variative, 182, 
(t); fractional, 185, (a), 

HUM, 195, 1. 
nuv, 1JJ5, 12. 

8, 46, R. 3 ; 231 ; omitted 

before infm. clauses, 277, 

R. 1; after verbs, etc.. 

291, S-ll. 
of)i;c, prep., 34; jjoverning 

infm. or baft clause, 224, 

•^, (/'), 276. 
oljitcbcm, 50, 3. 
tl)i- Model, 62, C3. 
Old High German, 324, 1. 
=on, foreign mascs. in, dc- 

clension, 22, fi, 

■ on,' how rtiulered in Germ., 
232 ; after verl.s, etc 
291, 7. 
'"uc,' render. (1 Ly o:., 39, R. 
''^l indef. , n;:.., U^^ n^^ 
1«0; not r.x; icvsed after 
•"U^-, 122. -I. 
^i^f, for.Jj^n substs. in, de- 
clension, 22,0, 63,3. 
Ordinal innncrals, 164, 166. 
Origin, genitive of, 243,1. 
Orthography, p. u; recent 
changes in, p. ,2. 

0(1, prei)., 51,10; conj., 241, 
4; when omitted, 239, R 
4, 267, R. 0, N.; i„'i„; 
direct questions, 277 
R. 5. 
0;' lUtrf', 239, R. 3, 4. 
I'iH-it, adv., 189,3; com,)ari- 
son. 130. 
j iHicr(!iiU), 223, .5. 
olnjlcid), olifc()oit, obmobl 

239, R. .3, 4. 
Object, direct, see "Accusa- 
tive"; indirect, see "Da- 
tive " ; renujte, with reflex- 
ive verbs, 216. 
0'>jects placu (,f, 45, 296, 

297, R. ^,•2. 
Objective before the 

verb, 306. 
Objective genitive, 248, 3. 
ooer, 2S6, 238. 

'of,' how rendered in (iorni. 

Vacii- (cm), indef. numeral 
173,3, X. 

P.iiticipia! const luctions, 
English, how rendered in 
Germ., 284; English pres. 
part, after 'come,' 281, k. 
■"1; not to be confo nided 
with inf. in -ing, or ge- 
rund, -^77, R. ,"?. 

Participl. , past, how formed, 
in we.ik verbs, 30; in 
strong, 105 ; of Modal 
Auxiliaries, 199,2. 

Pa^tieipk^, i)lace of, 26,88, 
283,4,295,1,3, and N., 
2J(8, 299; endings, 80, 
S5; used as adjectives, 
122, 1; assub.'-ts., 122,2; 
compari-son of, 126,4 ;iso. 
lated strong, 194, N. ; use 

of, 279-284; present part., 
2SO; n..t used with 'to be,' 
31, K. 3; past, 281; with 



Imperative force, 269, R. 5; 
fut. pass, part., or gerund- 
ive, 282 ; general remarlcs, 
283; no perfect part, in 
Germ., 284, R. 1; apposi- 
tive particiiiles, 280, (5), 
281, R. 3, 283, :J, 290. 
Partitive genitive, 243, 6. 
Parntive sense, words used 

in, take no art., 2,2. 
Passive voicj, 112-114; pa- 
radigm. 112; agent witii, 
R. 3; li.nitatioiis of, 113; 
subsiitutL^s for, 114; pass- 
ive of transitive verbs, 113, 
1 ; of intransitive verbs, 
Past participle, see " Parti- 
'people,' indef. pron., 145, 

Periphrastic forms of conju- 
gation, EnglLsh, 31, R. 3. 
Perfect participle, none in 

Germ., 284, R. 1. 
Perfect tense, formation , 26, 
1; use, 259; replaced by 
present, 257, 4. 
Personal pronouns, declen- 
sion, 38; use, 39-42,44, 
6, {b) ; place of, 45, Rules 
3, 4, 294, (c), N., 296, 3, 
4 ; replaced by demonstra- 
tives, 143 ; jifter i)tcid)cn, 
48 ; after (jaUicn, roeiieii, 
223, 1, 2, R. 3; omitted 
with imperative, 269, R. 1. 
Persons, before things, 45, 
Rule2, 29k , 5; names of, 
how decHned, 73, 74, 76, [ 
2-7; article with names of, ^ 
73, 1, 2, 76, 2, 5, 78. 
Place, advs. of, 187, 11.; 
positioi in a sentence, 11, 
45, Rule 5, 297, 3, and 
R. i. 
Places, proper names of, 72, 
76, 1; article with, 44,3. 
pluperfect tense, formation, 

25, 1 ; plupf. ir,dicative, 
use, 260; plupf. subjunc- 
tive, used for conditional, 
263, 267, 2, and R. 4; to 
express a wish, 268, 2. 
Plural, see " Concord," 
" Number," " Substan- 
Possessive adjs., 43; agree- 
ment, 43, 5 ; replaced by 
def. art., 44, 0. 
Possessive case, rendered in 
Germ, by the genitive, 3, 
243, 4. 
Possessive dative, 44, 6, 249. 

" pronouns, 119. 

Possibility, advs. of, 187, 
VI.; expressed by impf. 
subj , 268, 5. 
Prediciie, defuiition of, 292, 
1,295; place of , 2' 5 ; fac- 
titive pred., 253, 254, 3. 
Prcdicati>'e nominative, 242. 
Predicative adj., not de- 
clined, 14, 100; place of, 
18, 20, O. 3, 2(;5, 3, 296, 
8; factitive, 254, '^. 
Prefixes, of verbs, 203-213, 
314; inseparable, 35, R. 
C, 109, 204, 207, 208, 
209, 212; meaning of, 
814;sep.nrable, 117, 205- 
208, 210, 295 ; s, -xuable 
and inseparable, 208; com- 
pound, 206, 2; double, 
207 ; accent of, 204, 205, 
3; place of, 117, 285, 3, 
and N. ; subst. prefixes, 
315 ; adj. prefixes, 816. 
Prepositions, governing accu- 
s.-itive only, 34, 50: dative 
only, 46, 61; dat. ora:c., I 
66 ; genitive, 222, 223 ; | 
contracted with def. art., j 
84^R.,46, R.l,p.83,0., 
65» R. ; general remarks j 
on, 224; joined to advs., \ 
224; governing the infin., \ 
224, 2. {d), 276, 277 : 

English preps, and their 
OLim. equivalents, 226- 
234 ; 1 lace of, 48, 51, 
223, 298, 2; after verbs, 
etc., 21; 1. 
Present \ ariiciple ; see 
" Particii i,,l Construc- 
tions, Enylish," and 
Present ten, j, endings, in 
weak verbs, 35, in -trong, 
107; pres. indicative, 257, 
267, R. 5 ; pres. subj., re- 
places imperative, 268, 1, 
269, and R. 2. 
Preterite, see " Impi^rfect." 
Primary Form of strong 

declension, 70, R. 2. 
Principal assertive sentences, 
construction, 20, 26, 69, 
N., 293, (A), 294, (/.), 
295,2,297, R. 1,2,301, 
2, 302. R, 303. 
Principal parts of a verb, 

Progression of mutes, 825. 
Pronouns, agreement of, 13; 
place of, 45, 286, 2-4; 
personal, decle;i:.ioii, 38; 
use of CO, 89; use in ad- 
dress, 40, 47, 49 ; dative 
of, replaces adj., 44, 
6, {b)\ reflexive, 41, 42; 
reciprocal, 42 ; interroga- 
tive, 81-83; relative, 92- 
97, place of, 98; posses- 
sive, 119 ; demonstrative, 
132-143 ; indefniite, 145- 
157; remarks on, 162. 
Pronunciation, Introduction, 

pp. I-I2. 

Probability, expressed by 

future, 261, 2 ; by future- 

perfect, 262. 
Proper names, declension of, 

66, 1, 72-74, 76. 
Proportional Clauses ; see 

" Comparative Clauses." 
Purpose, conjs. oi, 289, 9 



(b), expreMed by ju, M9, 
(a) ; by subj. with bag, 
etc., 268,3; by infin. with 
JU or urn . . , JU, 278, R. 
1, 276, 1. 

Quality, genitive of, 248, 5. 

Quantity of vowels, pp. 9, 10. 

Quantity, expressions of, 

Quarters of the hour, 184,3, 

Questions, dir, ct, construc- 
tion of, 23, 203, {a), i, 
294, (a), 296, 2, 300; in- 
din ct or dependent, 88, 
298, (c). 

Question-word, begins sen- 
tence, 23, O. 2, 298, (a), 
t, 294, (a). 

Reciprocal pronouns, 42. 
Reflexive pronoun ., 41, 42, 
44, 6, (6), N. ; used in re- 
ciprocal sense, 42; place 
of, 294, (c), N. ! 

Reflexive verbs, paradigm of, i 
41; for passive, 114, (d); \ 
use, 214 - 215 ; govern- 
ment, 21«. 
Relative clauses, replace Engl . 
part.,284, 2, (a);placeof, 
805, 806, R. 3, and N., 
R. 4. 
Relative pronouns, 92-97 : ! 
place of, 98, 294, (c), 306 ; ! 
introduce dependent clau- 
ses, 98 ; not omitted in 
Germ., 96, 7, O.; concord 
of, 96, 1, (i>), 288, 2, N. 
Rilr.tive superlative, of adjs., 

127; of advs.,190, 3. 
Roman numerals, how read 
in Germ., 166,2, N. 

•8, plurals in, 77, 6. 

»8, suffix of advs., 189, 1, 2, 

821, 1, N. ; suffix in subst. 

compounds, al9, 1, N. 3, 3. 

•fal, subtti. In, declension, 
22,4; gender, 89, 3, (c); 
subst. suflfix, 8k2, 14. 
• fant, adj. in, superl. of, 190, 

5; adj. suflix, 818, 9. 
famt, 51, 9. 

•fcfjaft, substs. in, gender, 
89, 2, (a); subst. suffix, 
812, 15. 
fdjtegen Model, 128. 
fc^Iaflcn Model, 186. 
fd^on, idiomatic use, 195, 6. 
Script, German, pp. 13-16. 
feOr, with absolute superl., 

127, 2, 190, 4. 
feiii, 'to be,' use as auxilia- 
ry, 25, 4 ; conjugation, 
62; verb- coi)ju;;ated with, 
63; with past part., 112, 
R- 6, (^); m jBipersoual, 
217,220; wkh dat.,250, 
(<f); with infin.,272,R. 2; 
omitted iu dependent sen- 
tences, 287. 
feit,prep.,46, 241, 12, (a) ; 

conj., 239, 241, 12. 
feitbcm, adv. conj., 237 ; 
subord. conj., 239, 241, 
12, (c). 
»f<r, substs. in, gender, 89, 
3, (c); subst. suffix, 812, 
fel6cr, fetbft, 42, 3, and R. 
felbifl, 186, N. 
Sentences, construction of, 
292-306; essential parts 
of, 282 ; construction of 
assertive principal, 20, 26, 
59, N., 293, (d), 294, (6), 
295,2, 297, R. 1, 301, 
2, 306; of dependent, 
82, 33, 98, 293, (c), 294, | 
(c), 295, 2; relative, 98, 
806, 306;, R. 3 au4 N., 
R. 4; interrogative, 28, 
88, 298, {u), I, 293, (c), 
294, (a), 295, 2, 800; ex- 
clamatory, 298, (6), R. 3 i 

expreadng command of 
wish, 298, (a), 2 ; condi. 
tional, 59, 293, (a), 3; po- 
sition of verb in, 298 ; of 
subject, 294 ; of predicate, 
295 ; of objects, etc., 296; 
of advs., etc., 297 ; of 
other members, 298; in- 
verted, 801, N. .,2; com- 
pound and complex, 802- 
Separable prefixes, when se- 
parated, 117 ; place of, 
29.->, Sand N., 808,4. 
■ shail,' how rendered in 

Germ., 201. 
Shifting of mutes, 825. 
' since,' how rendered in 

Germ., 241, 12. 
fingeM Model, 144. 
Singular, see " Cowwd,*' 

" Substantives." 
'so,' renJc.\:aby c3, 89,3. 
fo, after conditional and ad- 
verbial clauses, 69, 239, 
R. 2, 267, R. 3, 293, (i), 
R. 4, N. I, 2, 294, id), R. 
2; replaces folcf) before ein, 
188, N. 2 ; adv. conj., 
fo . . . fo, 241, 9. 
fo ein, followed by wte, 

162, 4. 

fo.jav, adv. conj., 287, R. 2. 

3o^n Model, 21 ; origin of 

Umlaut in, 326, R 2, (a). 

lo(if)(cr), demoDstr. pron., 

132, 138 ; followed by 

luie, 162,4; before adjs., 

122, 12. 

folfcii, conjugation, 196-199; 

use, 200, 5, 201, 202. 
'some,' how rendered ii- 
Genn., 2, 2, 150, 162, 
155, 168, 173, 177, 180. 
fo'ibcr, 50, 1. 
funbern, 286, R. 1. 
foioo[)I ... al% (ouc^), 288; 
285, R. 6. 




rfftnnen Model, 168. 
\pttdi)en Model, 167. 
ff/ i> P- S; i" verbs, 118, 
R. 2, 128, R. 1, 181, O. 

1, 188, R. 3. 

ftott, see anftatt. 

»ft, subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

ftel^en, withinfin., 272, R. 2. 

Stem of verbs, 27. 

Strong declension; see " Sub- 
stantives, declension of." 

Strong conjugation ; see 
" Verbs, conjugation of." 

Subject, definition of, 292 ; 
place of, 294 ; in principal 
sentences, 20, 59, N. ; 
in direct questions, 23, 
O. 1; in dependent sen- 
tences, 33, N. ; inver- 
sion of, 801, 2, X. I, 2; 
expressed l)y noni. case, 
3, 242, 1 ; agreement with 
verb, 285; repetition of, 

Subjective clause, 306; rela- 
tiv 806, R. 3. 

Subjective genitive, 243, 2 

Subjunctive Mood, use, 264- 
SSa, for conditional. 111, 
^t$^ V. ; in indirect state- 
i»pnt^ «7, 265, 266; in 
indirect questions, 88 ; in 
hypothetical periods, 239, 
R. 1, 267 ; for imperative, 
81, R. 4, 268, 1, 269; 
expressing a wish, 268, 2 ; 
of purpose, 268, 3; „fter 
a negative, etc., 208, 4; of 
possibility, 268, 5 ; origin 
of Umlaut in i;iipf. »ubj., 
826, (^). 
Substantives, their declen- 
sion, '■MaUx Model, 16, 
17; Sof)ii do., 21, (n), 22, 
App. C. ; jpuitb do., 21, 
(<^),5!2, App. E.;XLn!do., 
86, 87; ^nabc, 0raf, 
aUiime do., 54 67, App. 
*. i 'JJome, ^ac^biu, Ctji 

do., 60-68, App. G. ; with 
double plurals, 64, App. 
G.*; Summary and tables, 
70; essential parts, 71; 
anomalous, 66-69 ; substs. 
without plural, 66 ; without 
sing., 67; of measure, weight 
and number, 185 ; as verb 
prefixes, 206, 3, 212; ir- 
regular compound substs., 
68; appositive subst., 289; 
derivation, by internal 
change, 310; by suffixes, 
812 ; by prefi.ves, 315 ; 
composition, 319; see also 
under " Accentuation," 
" Compound Substan- 
tives," " Foreign Substan- 
tives," "Gender." 

Suffixes, of verbs, 311; of 
substs., 312; of adjs., 

Superlative degree, of adjs., 
relative, 127, 1; absolute, 
127, 2 ; of advs., 190, 

st, substs. in, gender, 89, 2, 
(i); subst. suffix, 312, 1. 

stat, foreign substs. in, gen- 
der, 89, 2, (e). 

taiifeitb, 165, 8, and 10, (c). 

teil§ . . . teil'3, 238. 

Tense, in indirect state- 
ments, 87 ; in indirect 
questions, 88; auxiliariesof, 
use, 25, 53; place of with 
auxiliari -f mood, 199, 3. 

Tenses, simple, how formed | 
in w^»k V. rbs, 80 J in 
strong, 104 107, 110 ; 
endings <,f, in ..^k verbs, 
85 ; in strong, |#S ; cum- 
poiiti*!, how Uirmtid, 25, 
lOH cibti-uction, 26, 
83 ; ,j«quenc€ <3>f ten<ic!i in 
indirect statewieiit.s and | 
questions not observed in 
Germ., 87, 2, 8S, 2, 266, 

1 ; of the indicative, how 
used, 257-262 (see also 
under the various tenses); 
of the conditional, 263, 
N.; the tense in indirect 
statements, 87, 266; in 
hypothetical periods, 267. 
Terminations; see "End- 
' than ' after the compara- 
tive, 126, 1, 241, 7. 
'that,' how rendered in 

Germ., 140. 
' the . . . the ' before compa- 
I ratives, 126, 4. 
■ 'there,' rendered by ii, 89, 
I 1, R. ; ' there is, there are,' 
j 220. 

\ 'they,' indefinite, 145, 146. 
I stl^um; see stmn. 
i Time, expressions of, 184 ; 
• place of, 11, 45, 297, L', 
I 306, R. 2; advs. of, 187, 
I, ; English participial con- 
structions of, how rendered 
in Germ., 284, (a); time 
! of day, 184, 3, 285, R. 6 

N. 2. 
Titles of rank, 49 ; 76, 5, 6 
' to,' how rendered in Germ., 

46, R. 4; 233. 
Towns, names of, gender, 
80, 3, (c); see also "Places, 
names of." 
Transitive verbs, Englibh, 
; with object unexpressed, 
rendered by reflexive verbs 
in Germ., 215, 2; often 
intrans. in Germ., 250, R. 
1, 252, R. 
Trigraphs, consonantal, pp. 

4, 8, 14. 
trot), 2*23, IB, and R. 2. 
=tiiin, substs. in, declension, 
87; gender, 89, 3, (^) ; 
subst. suffix, 812, 16. 

Uber, prep., 65 ; after inter- 
jections, 240, 4, (a) ; after 



verbs, etc., 231, 1; prefix, 
208 ; after reflexive verbs, 
215, 1. 
urn, prep., 84, 184, 3, (c), 
226, (a), (b\ 227, {b), I ; 
after verbs, 291, 4 ; go- 
verning an infin. of pur- 
pose, 224, 2, {b), 273, 
276; prefix, 208. 
Utrt fo, before c mparatives, 
126, 4, 241, 293, (/'), 
i<. 4, N. 3. [12. 

urn.. . iDillcii, 223,22, R. 1, 
Umlaut, pp. -, 6, 12, 14; in 
declension of substs. , 17, 
(a), 21, (a), 22,36, 70, R. 
6, App. A., C. ; in subj. 
mood, 107, O 2; in com- 
parison of ,->djs., 125, R. 1, 
in strong verbs, 186, 188, 
192, R. 1; in Modal Aux- 
iliaries, 196, R. 1 ; in deri- 
vation, 308, N., 309, 311, 

1, 2, 312, 2 4, 8, 11-13, 
813, 5 ; orisin, 826. 

mis, subst. prefix, 315, 4. 

iiitb, 236. 

iiiifeni, 223, 23. 

sliltii, substs. in, gender, 89, 

2, {a) ; subst. suffix, 312, 

UliiU'iirf'lct, prep., 223, 15; 

conj. 239, 3, {b), 241, 21. 
units, before tens, 165, 7. 
'unless,' how rendered in 

Germ., 241, 18. 
untcn, adv., 189, 3; com- 
parison, 130. 
UUtcv, prep., 66; prefix, 

untcrbt'ffen.adv. conj., 237 ; 

subord. conj., 239,3, (/-), 

241, 15. 
uittcrfialb, 223, C. 
uiiiueit, 223, 24. 
nr=, subst. prefix, 816, 5 
»ur, substs. in, gender, S>9, 

2, ie). 
Urfpvadie, 322, 

Variative numerals, 182, (c). 
tUTs, in.sep.verb prefix, 36, R. 
6, 204 ; meanin;,;, 314, 6. 
Verlj, place of, 20, 32, 33, 
87, 2, 88, 2, 266, K. 2, 
267, R. 2,292, 2J(3, 301: 
English periphrastic fori is 
of, huw rendered in Ger., 
31, R. 3; tenses of, 256- 
262, 263, 266 (see also 
under the various tenses}; 
moods of, 266-278 (see 
also under the various 
moods); concord of, 285; 
when omitted, 269, R. 6, 
Verbs, stem of, 27; principal 
parts of, 28; weak conjuga- 
tion of, 30, 31 ; cniiingsof 
simple tenses, 35 ; verbs 
conjugated with fciii, 53 ; 
neut., of motion, etc., 53 ; 
irrecrularweak, 99 ; strong, 
103-108, App. L. ; bcificii 
Model, 118 ; tUeiDcit do., 
120; lM)ic{icn do., 123 ; ' 
fccljicn do., 124; fi'icmt 
do., 131; fiii(]i'u do., 144 ; 
fpiiiiu'ii do., 158 ; Ijclfcn | 
do., 159; fprt'u)cudo.,167; ; 
offcii do., 181 ; fuiliv^cii ' 
do., 186; fallen do., 188; 
table of strong verbs, 192; 
passive voice, 112-114 ; j 
rellexive verbs, paradigm 
of, 41 ; use, 214-216; im- 
personal verbs, 217-220 ; 
compound verbs, inse])., 
35, R. C. 109, 204, 207- 
209, tlll-iU; -separable, 
117. 205-208, 210; 
auxiliaries of tense, 25, 
53 ; irregular strong, 194, 
li'6; auxiliaries of mood, 
196-202 ; verbs with two 
nominatives, 242,2,3: with 
genitive, 245; with dative, 
250; with accusative, 252, 
263; verbs of choosing, 

242, N.; of calling, coiv 
sidering, 253; verbs fol- 
lowed by the sujjjnnctive, 
266; by the infin. without 
3U, 271; with ,511, 272; 
prepositions after, 291 ; 
derivation of, withouf 
change, 308; «iih in- 
ternal clianre, 309 ; by 
suffixes, 811 ; by prefixes, 
Dcvmittelft, 223, 9. 
ucnnlige, 223, 10. 
uiel, comparison of. 129 ; 
indef. pron., 145 ; indef. 
numeral, 168, 176;beforo 
adjs.,122, 11, 12. 
Vocative, 242, 1. 
UoU, prefix, sep. and insep., 

208; adj., 244. 
uon, prep., 46, 228, {a\ 
231, (/;,, 234; used for 
genitive, 46, R 3; with 
passive voice, 112, R. 3; 
with names of places, 72, 
3, 4; with names of per- 
sons, 76, 6; replaces geni- 
tive of quality, 243, 5, N. ; 
after partitives, 243, 6, N.; 
after uoll,244 ; after verbs, 
BOf, prep., 65, 184, 3, (b), 
234 ; after vfcibs, etc., 291, 
5, 11; after reilexivT verbs, 
216, 1, (/.), 
Bont, adv., 189, .;;compari. 

son, 13(1. 
Vowels, niodiiied, pp. 3, 6, 
12, 14, double, pp. 4, 6, 
12, 14; importance of, p. 
8, bottom ; long and short, 
pp. 9, 10; see also " Um- 
touOrcnb, prep., 75,2, 228, 
17; conj., £89,3, (/.), 241, 
13; replaces Kiejl.jjarticipl* 
of time, 284, 1, ia). 
'.'Janii, 58, 187, \.,{d). 
ronriun, 83, R. 3, N. 










tPaS, Sntarrog. pron., dedan- 
sion and use, 83; f.omc- 
times =- ' why,' 83, 6, 102, 
3; used for etiuao, 149, 
1; relative pron., 92, 96; 
followed by hai, 162, 1 ; 
of a number of persons 
or things, 162, "2 ; not gov- 
crrcd by prups., 83, 3, 
96, 7 ; couitructio* of sen- 
tences with, 98, 3. 

iuQ§ far (ciii), 80. 

'we,'indef., 146. 

Weak conjugation, see 
" Verbs " ; declensir-.i, see 
" Substantives," " Adjec- 

roebcr . . . nodi, 238. 

lUCQCn, 75,1, 223,2, and R. 

Weight, expiessionsof, 185. 

meil, 239. 3, (6), 241, 17. 

njcldjer intcrrog. pron, and 
adj., 6, 81, 82, 84, i^o; 
in exclamations, 85, 1,2; 
relative pron., 92, 94, 95; 
indefinite pron. and num- 
eral, used for ' some," 
145, 135, 180; before 
adjs., 122, 13. 

wciii], comparison of, 129; 
iudef. pron., 145; indcf. 
numeral, 168, 176 ; before 
ddjs., 122, 12. 

rocnii, 58, 239, 3, (6), R. 1- 
4, 267 ; omission of, 239, 
R. 2-1, 207, R. 2, 3, 6, 
N., 293, (a), 3, R. 4, N. 
2, (c), R. 2, •!94, (i), R. 


Won, 289, 5, (6), and R. 
8, N. 
itjenn . . . nitht, 289, 3, (i), 
241, 18. 

lucv, interrog. pron., 81, 83; 
relative pron., 92, 96,135, 
(3), N.; followed by bcv, 
162, 1 ; replaced by ber, 
306, R. 3, N'.; construc- 
tion of sentences with, 98, 
toerbcit, jires. and impf, of, 
19 ; conjugated with feiii, 
53, (a); use as auxiliary 
of, 25,2; as auxili- 
ary of jiassive voice, 112, 
118; con]u;.;ati()ii, 112; 
as impersonal verb, 217, 
2,(c); wilhdat., 250, (,e). 
, 'when,' how rendered in 
\ Germ., 68. 
' whether,' expressed by mbs 
i iien, 200, li, (c). 
' while, whilst,' liosv rendered 
: in Germ., 241, 15. 
' whole,' how rendered in 
Germ., 108, 170. 
' itiibev, prep., 34 ; prefix, 
i ^04. 

luie, in comparisons, 126, •'!, 

! 241, II, S: after joUl) ciii, 

; fo oiii, 162, 4; subord. 

I conj., 239, 3, (l>) ; in com- 

I parative clauses, 806, R. 

4, N. 

luicbev, prefix, 208, N. .-. 

loicuielfte, bcv, 164, 166, .h, 

N. 2. 

* will,' hc)\v rendeied in 

Germ., 201. 
Wish, exprebsed by the Sub- 

* 453 

junctiv«, 2«S, 2; construc- 
tion of sentence.'* express- 
ing, 293, (a), 2. 

tuiffen, 196, and N. i. 

IDO, 187, II., (t); before 
preps., replacing interrog. 
prons., 83, 3, and relative 
prons., 95, 2, 96, 7. 

n)o()I, comparison of, 190; 
idiomatic use, 195, 10. 

luoilen. its conjugation, 196- 
199. its use, 200, 1, 201 

tuorbcn, for ijeioovben, in 
passive voice, 112, R. 2; 
when omitted, 112, R. 4. 

' you,' how rendered in Ger., 
40; indef. pron., 140. 

=Se^tl/ in compound num- 
erals, 165, 5. 

5CVj, msep. prefix, 35, R. 6, 
204; meaning, 314, 7. 

-\\Cj,, in numerals, 165, C. 

SU, prep., 46,227,00, 4, (^), 
2, (.), 228, 0), 229, {a), 
230,(.-),232,(/;), 233,(/;). 
(c), 2, (ii) ; with Infinitive, 
272-277; place of, 109, 
117, R. 2; wUh inscp. 
verbs, 205, 2 ; followed by 
rtl§ bajj or iiin ,^u, with 
verbs of choosing, 242, 3, 
N., 253; after adjs., 244. 

.Vicrft, 195, 5. 

"ifoliic, 223, 11, R. 

Vmiulift, 51, 7. 

iuuiiber, 51, 3. 

Ui'ci, declension of, 165, 2. 

jiDijrfien, prep., 65.